European Union Customs Union
Non-EU states which participate in the customs union, or are in bilateral customs unions with the EU
27 EU member states
|4,950,000 km2 (1,910,000 sq mi)|
o 2021 estimate
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Some detached territories of EU members do not participate in the customs union, usually as a result of their geographic separation.[a] In addition to the EUCU, the EU is in customs unions with Andorra, San Marino and Turkey (with the exceptions of certain goods),[b] through separate bilateral agreements.
There are no tariffs or non-tariff barriers to trade between members of the customs union and – unlike a free-trade area – members of the customs union impose a common external tariff on all goods entering the union.
The European Commission negotiates for and on behalf of the Union as a whole in international trade deals (such as that with Canada and many others), rather than each member state negotiating individually. It also represents the Union in the World Trade Organization and any trade disputes mediated through it.
Following the UK's withdrawal from the European Union in 2020, the United Kingdom withdrew from the EU customs union on 1 January 2021.
|State / territory||Agreement||Entry into force|
|Monaco||Franco-Monegasque Customs Convention||1968|
|Akrotiri and Dhekelia (United Kingdom)||Treaty of Accession 2003
Brexit withdrawal agreement
|1 May 2004|
Andorra, San Marino and Turkey are each in a customs union with the EU.
|State||Agreement||Entry into force||Notes|
|Agreement in the form of an Exchange of Letters between the European Economic Community and the Principality of Andorra - Joint Declarations||1 January 1991||Excludes agricultural produce|
|Agreement on Cooperation and Customs Union between the European Economic Community and the Republic of San Marino||1 April 2002|
|Turkey||Decision No 1/95 of the EC-Turkey Association Council of 22 December 1995 on implementing the final phase of the Customs Union||31 December 1995||Excludes agricultural produce|
The United Kingdom left the European Union on 31 January 2020 and the withdrawal period ended on 31 December 2020. Northern Ireland is no longer a member of the European Union Customs Union. Trade is now regulated by the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement and the European Union (Future Relationship) Act 2020. This includes special provisions for trade in goods between Northern Ireland and the EU which for many purposes are similar to those within the Customs Union.
Gibraltar had not been part of the Customs Union while part of the EU. An agreement in principle has been reached between the EU, the United Kingdom, and Gibraltar to negotiate a treaty which would include provisions for trade on goods between the EU and Gibraltar. These would be "substantially similar" to those within the Customs Union. The agreement has not been concluded yet.
While all EU member states are part of the customs union, not all of their respective territories participate. Territories of member states which have remained outside of the EU (overseas territories of the European Union) generally do not participate in the customs union.
However, some territories within the EU do not participate in the customs union for tax and/or geographical reasons:
The following territories were excluded until the end of 2019:
The Union Customs Code (UCC), intended to modernise customs procedures, entered into force on 1 May 2016. Implementation will take place over a period of time and full implementation is anticipated by 31 December 2020 at the latest. The European Commission has stated that the aims of the UCC are simplicity, service and speed.
The EU Customs Union sets the tariff rates for imports to the EU from other countries. These rates are detailed and depend on the specific type of product imported, and can also vary by the time of year. The full WTO Most Favoured Nation tariff rates apply only to those countries that do not have a Free Trade Agreement with the EU, or are not on a WTO recognised exemption scheme such as Everything but Arms (an EU support arrangement for Least Developed Countries).
Union transit, formerly called "Community transit", is a system generally applicable to the movement of non-Union goods for which customs duties and other charges due on import have not been paid, and of Union goods, which, between their point of departure and point of destination in the EU, have to pass through the territory of a third country.
The 'common' transit procedure is used for the movement of goods between the EU Member States, the EFTA countries (Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland), Turkey (since 1 December 2012), the Republic of North Macedonia (since 1 July 2015) and Serbia (since 1 February 2016). The operation of the common transit procedure with the UK is ensured as the UK has deposited its instrument of accession on 30 January 2019 with the Secretariat of the Council of the EU. The procedure is based on the Convention of 20 May 1987 on a common transit procedure. The rules are effectively identical to those of the Union transit.
Edward Kellett-Bowman MEP, as rapporteur for a European Parliament Committee of Inquiry, presented a report to the Parliament in February 1997  which identified the removal of border controls and a lack of co-operation by member states as being responsible for a rise in organised crime and smuggling. Kellett-Bowman's report led to the European Union setting up a customs investigation body and computerising transit-monitoring systems.