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In mathematics, a special subset of a partially ordered set
The powerset lattice of the set with the upper set colored dark green. It is a filter, and even a principal filter. It is not an ultrafilter, as it can be extended to the larger nontrivial filter by including also the light green elements. Since cannot be extended any further, it is an ultrafilter.
1. Intuitively, a filter in a partially ordered set (poset), is a subset of that includes as members those elements that are large enough to satisfy some given criterion. For example, if is an element of the poset, then the set of elements that are above is a filter, called the principal filter at (If and are incomparable elements of the poset, then neither of the principal filters at and is contained in the other one, and conversely.)
Similarly, a filter on a set contains those subsets that are sufficiently large to contain some given thing. For example, if the set is the real line and is one of its points, then the family of sets that include in their interior is a filter, called the filter of neighbourhoods of The thing in this case is slightly larger than but it still does not contain any other specific point of the line.
The above interpretations explain conditions 1 and 3 in the section General definition: Clearly the empty set is not "large enough", and clearly the collection of "large enough" things should be "upward-closed". However, they do not really, without elaboration, explain condition 2 of the general definition. For, why should two "large enough" things contain a common "large enough" thing?
2. Alternatively, a filter can be viewed as a "locating scheme": When trying to locate something (a point or a subset) in the space call a filter the collection of subsets of that might contain "what is looked for". Then this "filter" should possess the following natural structure:
A locating scheme must be non-empty in order to be of any use at all.
If two subsets, and both might contain "what is looked for", then so might their intersection. Thus the filter should be closed with respect to finite intersection.
If a set might contain "what is looked for", so does every superset of it. Thus the filter is upward-closed.
An ultrafilter can be viewed as a "perfect locating scheme" where each subset of the space can be used in deciding whether "what is looked for" might lie in
From this interpretation, compactness (see the mathematical characterization below) can be viewed as the property that "no location scheme can end up with nothing", or, to put it another way, "always something will be found".
The mathematical notion of filter provides a precise language to treat these situations in a rigorous and general way, which is useful in analysis, general topology and logic.
3. A common use for a filter is to define properties that are satisfied by "almost all" elements of some topological space . The entire space definitely contains almost-all elements in it; If some contains almost all elements of , then any superset of it definitely does; and if two subsets, and contain almost-all elements of , then so does their intersection. In a measure-theoretic terms, the meaning of " contains almost-all elements of " is that the measure of is 0.
General definition: Filter on a partially ordered set
A subset of a partially ordered set is an order filter if the following conditions hold:
is downward directed: For every there is some such that and
is an upper set or upward-closed: For every and implies that
where it is said to be proper if in addition is not equal to the whole set
Depending on the author, the term filter is either a synonym of order filter or else it refers to a proper order filter.
This article defines filter to mean order filter.
While the above definition is the most general way to define a filter for arbitrary posets, it was originally defined for lattices only. In this case, the above definition can be characterized by the following equivalent statement:
A subset of a lattice is a filter, if and only if it is a non-empty upper set that is closed under finite infima (or meets), that is, for all it is also the case that 
A subset of is a filter basis if the upper set generated by is all of Note that every filter is its own basis.
The smallest filter that contains a given element is a principal filter and is a principal element in this situation.
The principal filter for is just given by the set and is denoted by prefixing with an upward arrow:
The dual notion of a filter, that is, the concept obtained by reversing all and exchanging with is ideal.
Because of this duality, the discussion of filters usually boils down to the discussion of ideals.
Hence, most additional information on this topic (including the definition of maximal filters and prime filters) is to be found in the article on ideals.
There is a separate article on ultrafilters.
Filter on a set
Definition of a filter
There are two competing definitions of a "filter on a set," both of which require that a filter be a dual ideal.
One definition defines "filter" as a synonym of "dual ideal" while the other defines "filter" to mean a dual ideal that is also proper.
Warning: It is recommended that readers always check how "filter" is defined when reading mathematical literature.
Given a set a canonical partial ordering can be defined on the powerset by subset inclusion, turning into a lattice.
A "dual ideal" is just a filter with respect to this partial ordering.
Note that if then there is exactly one dual ideal on which is
Filter definition 1: Dual ideal
The article uses the following definition of "filter on a set."
Filter definition 2: Proper dual ideal
The other definition of "filter on a set" is the original definition of a "filter" given by Henri Cartan, which required that a filter on a set be a dual ideal that does not contain the empty set:
Note: This article does not require that a filter be proper.
The only non-proper filter on is
Much mathematical literature, especially that related to Topology, defines "filter" to mean a non-degenerate dual ideal.
Filter bases, subbases, and comparison
Filter bases and subbases
A subset of is called a prefilter, filter base, or filter basis if is non-empty and the intersection of any two members of is a superset of some member(s) of
If the empty set is not a member of we say is a proper filter base.
Given a filter base the filter generated or spanned by is defined as the minimum filter containing
It is the family of all those subsets of which are supersets of some member(s) of
Every filter is also a filter base, so the process of passing from filter base to filter may be viewed as a sort of completion.
For every subset of there is a smallest (possibly nonproper) filter containing called the filter generated or spanned by
Similarly as for a filter spanned by a filter base, a filter spanned by a subset is the minimum filter containing
It is constructed by taking all finite intersections of which then form a filter base for
This filter is proper if and only if every finite intersection of elements of is non-empty, and in that case we say that is a filter subbase.
Finer/equivalent filter bases
If and are two filter bases on one says is finer than (or that is a refinement of ) if for each there is a such that
If also is finer than one says that they are equivalent filter bases.
If and are filter bases, then is finer than if and only if the filter spanned by contains the filter spanned by Therefore, and are equivalent filter bases if and only if they generate the same filter.
For filter bases and if is finer than and is finer than then is finer than Thus the refinement relation is a preorder on the set of filter bases, and the passage from filter base to filter is an instance of passing from a preordering to the associated partial ordering.
Let be a set and be a non-empty subset of Then is a filter base. The filter it generates (that is,, the collection of all subsets containing ) is called the principal filter generated by
A filter is said to be a free filter if the intersection of all of its members is empty. A proper principal filter is not free. Since the intersection of any finite number of members of a filter is also a member, no proper filter on a finite set is free, and indeed is the principal filter generated by the common intersection of all of its members. A nonprincipal filter on an infinite set is not necessarily free.
The Fréchet filter on an infinite set is the set of all subsets of that have finite complement. A filter on is free if and only if it includes the Fréchet filter.
More generally, if is a measure space for which the collection of all such that forms a filter. The Fréchet filter is the case where and is the counting measure.
The set is called a filter base of tails of the sequence of natural numbers A filter base of tails can be made of any net using the construction where the filter that this filter base generates is called the net's eventuality filter. Therefore, all nets generate a filter base (and therefore a filter). Since all sequences are nets, this holds for sequences as well.
Filters in model theory
For every filter on a set the set function defined by
is finitely additive -- a "measure" if that term is construed rather loosely. Therefore, the statement
can be considered somewhat analogous to the statement that holds "almost everywhere".
That interpretation of membership in a filter is used (for motivation, although it is not needed for actual proofs) in the theory of ultraproducts in model theory, a branch of mathematical logic.
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a filter is a generalization of a net. Both nets and filters provide very general contexts to unify the various notions of limit to arbitrary topological spaces.
A sequence is usually indexed by the natural numbers which are a totally ordered set. Thus, limits in first-countable spaces can be described by sequences.
However, if the space is not first-countable, nets or filters must be used. Nets generalize the notion of a sequence by requiring the index set simply be a directed set.
Filters can be thought of as sets built from multiple nets.
Therefore, both the limit of a filter and the limit of a net are conceptually the same as the limit of a sequence.
Throughout, will be a topological space and
Take to be the neighbourhood filter at point for This means that is the set of all topological neighbourhoods of the point It can be verified that is a filter. A neighbourhood system is another name for a neighbourhood filter.
To say that is a neighbourhood base at for means that each subset of is a neighbourhood of if and only if there exists Every neighbourhood base at is a filter base that generates the neighbourhood filter at
Convergent filter bases
To say that a filter base converges to denoted means that for every neighbourhood of there is a such that In this case, is called a limit of and is called a convergent filter base.
Every neighbourhood base of converges to
If is a neighbourhood base at and is a filter base on then if is finer than If is the upward closed neighborhood filter, then the converse holds as well: any basis of a convergent filter refines the neighborhood filter.
If a point is called a limit point of in if and only if each neighborhood of in intersects This happens if and only if there is a filter base of subsets of that converges to in
For the following are equivalent:
(i) There exists a filter base whose elements are all contained in such that
(ii) There exists a filter such that is an element of and
(iii) The point lies in the closure of
(i) implies (ii): if is a filter base satisfying the properties of (i), then the filter associated to satisfies the properties of (ii).
(ii) implies (iii): if is any open neighborhood of then by the definition of convergence, contains an element of ; since also and have non-empty intersection.
(iii) implies (i): Define Then is a filter base satisfying the properties of (i).
A filter base on is said to cluster at (or have as a cluster point) if and only if each element of has non-empty intersection with each neighbourhood of
If a filter base clusters at and is finer than a filter base then also clusters at
Every limit of a filter base is also a cluster point of the base.
A filter base that has as a cluster point may not converge to But there is a finer filter base that does. For example, the filter base of finite intersections of sets of the subbase
For a filter base the set is the set of all cluster points of (the closure of is Assume that is a complete lattice.
More generally, given a uniform space a filter on is called a Cauchy filter if for every entourage there is an with In a metric space this agrees with the previous definition. is said to be complete if every Cauchy filter converges. Conversely, on a uniform space every convergent filter is a Cauchy filter. Moreover, every cluster point of a Cauchy filter is a limit point.
A compact uniform space is complete: on a compact space each filter has a cluster point, and if the filter is Cauchy, such a cluster point is a limit point. Further, a uniformity is compact if and only if it is complete and totally bounded.
Most generally, a Cauchy space is a set equipped with a class of filters declared to be Cauchy. These are required to have the following properties:
Nicolas Bourbaki, General Topology (Topologie Générale), ISBN0-387-19374-X (Ch. 1-4): Provides a good reference for filters in general topology (Chapter I) and for Cauchy filters in uniform spaces (Chapter II)