Financial management may be defined as the area or function in an organization which is concerned with profitability, expenses, cash and credit, so that the "organization may have the means to carry out its objective as satisfactorily as possible;"  the latter often defined as maximizing the value of the firm for stockholders. Financial managers (FM) are specialized professionals directly reporting to senior management, often the financial director (FD); the function is seen as 'Staff', and not 'Line'.
Financial management is generally concerned with short term working capital management, focusing on current assets and current liabilities, and managing fluctuations in foreign currency and product cycles, often through hedging (see Corporate finance § Financial risk management). The function also entails the efficient and effective day-to-day management of funds, and thus overlaps treasury management. It is also involved with long term strategic financial management, focused on i.a. capital structure management, including capital raising, capital budgeting (capital allocation between business units or products), and dividend policy; these latter, in large corporates, being more the domain of "corporate finance."
Two areas of finance directly overlap financial management: (i) Managerial finance is the (academic) branch of finance concerned with the managerial significance of financial techniques; (ii) Corporate finance is mainly concerned with the longer term capital budgeting, and typically is more relevant to large corporations.
Investment management, also related, is the professional asset management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities/assets). In the context of financial management, the function sits with treasury; usually the management of the various short term instruments appropriate to the company's cash- and liquidity management requirements. See Treasury management § Functions.
The term "financial management" refers to a company's financial strategy, while personal finance or financial life management refers to an individual's management strategy. A financial planner, or personal financial planner, is a professional who prepares financial plans here.