|Regions with significant populations|
|Christianity, Shamanism and Animism|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Finno-Ugric peoples or Finno-Ugrian peoples, are the peoples of Northeast Europe, North Asia and the Carpathian Basin who speak Finno-Ugric languages - that is, speakers of languages of the Uralic family apart from the Samoyeds. Many Finno-Ugric peoples are surrounded by speakers of languages belonging to other language families. The concept of Finno-Ugric was originally a linguistic rather than ethnic one, but a sense of ethnic fraternity between Finno-Ugric-speaking peoples, especially Baltic Finns, developed during the 20th century.
The four most numerous Finno-Ugric peoples are the Hungarians (13-14 million), Finns (6-7 million), Estonians (1.1 million) and Mordvins (744,000). The first three of these inhabit independent states - Hungary, Finland, and Estonia - whereas Mordovia is a republic within Russia.
Other Finno-Ugric peoples have autonomous republics within Russia: Karelians (Republic of Karelia), Komi (Komi Republic), Udmurts (Udmurt Republic), Mari (Mari El Republic), and Mordvins (Moksha and Erzya; Republic of Mordovia). The Khanty and Mansi peoples live in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug of Russia. The Komi subgroup Komi-Permyaks used to live in Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, but today this area is a territory with special status within Perm Krai.
|People||Group||Traditional language||Language group||Culture area||Numbers||Most important territory||Other traditional territories||Subgroups|
|Khanty||Ob peoples||Khanty language||possibly Ugric||Arctic culture area||31,000||Khanty-Mansi||Yamalo-Nenets|
|Mansi||Ob peoples||Mansi language||possibly Ugric||Arctic culture area||12,000||Khanty-Mansi|
|Hungarians||(Magyar)||Hungarian language||possibly Ugric||Danube culture area||13,000,000-14,000,000||Hungary||Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine||Székely, Csángó, Jász|
|Komis||Permians||Komi language||Permic languages||Arctic culture area||323,000||Komi Republic||Perm Krai||Komi-Permyaks|
|Udmurts||Permians||Udmurt language||Permic languages||Volga culture area||552,000||Udmurt Republic||Besermyan|
|Maris||Volga Finns||Mari language||Volga culture area||548,000||Mari Republic||Bashkortostan||Meadow Mari, Hill Mari, Eastern Mari|
|Mordvins||Volga Finns||Erzya and Moksha languages||Mordvinic languages||Volga culture area||744,000||Mordva Republic||Samara Oblast, Penza Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Orenburg Oblast||Erzyas, Mokshas|
|Finns||Baltic Finns||Finnish language||Finnic languages||Baltic Sea culture area||6,200,000-7,000,000||Finland||Leningrad Oblast, Karelia Republic, Sweden, Norway||Tornedalians, Forest Finns, Kvens, Ingrian Finns, Tavastians, Ostrobothnians, Savonians, Finns (proper)|
|Karelians||Baltic Finns||Karelian language||Finnic languages||Baltic Sea culture area||61,000||Karelia Republic||Tver Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Leningrad Oblast||Karelians (proper), Olonets Karelians, Ludic Karelians|
|Vepsians||Baltic Finns||Veps language||Finnic languages||Baltic Sea culture area||5,900||Karelia Republic||Leningrad Oblast, Vologda Oblast|
|Izhorians||Baltic Finns||Ingrian language||Finnic languages||Baltic Sea culture area||300||Leningrad Oblast|
|Votes||Baltic Finns||Vote language||Finnic languages||Baltic Sea culture area||60||Leningrad Oblast|
|Estonians||Baltic Finns||Estonian language||Finnic languages||Baltic Sea culture area||1,100,000||Estonia||Latvia, Leningrad Oblast, Pskov Oblast||Setos, Võros|
|Livonians||Baltic Finns||Livonian language||Finnic languages||Baltic Sea culture area||180||Latvia|
|Sámi||Sami||Sami languages||Arctic culture area||80,000||Norway||Sweden, Finland, Murmansk Oblast||Inari Sami, Skolt Sami|
In the Finno-Ugric countries of Finland, Estonia and Hungary that find themselves surrounded by speakers of unrelated tongues, language origins and language history have long been relevant to national identity. In 1992, the 1st World Congress of Finno-Ugric Peoples was organized in Syktyvkar in the Komi Republic in Russia, the 2nd World Congress in 1996 in Budapest in Hungary, the 3rd Congress in 2000 in Helsinki in Finland, the 4th Congress in 2004 in Tallinn in Estonia, the 5th Congress in 2008 in Khanty-Mansyisk in Russia, and the 6th Congress in 2012 in Siófok in Hungary. The members of the Finno-Ugric Peoples' Consultative Committee include: the Erzyas, Estonians, Finns, Hungarians, Ingrian Finns, Ingrians, Karelians, Khants, Komis, Mansis, Maris, Mokshas, Nenetses, Permian Komis, Saamis, Tver Karelians, Udmurts, Vepsians; Observers: Livonians, Setos.
In 2007, the 1st Festival of the Finno-Ugric Peoples was hosted by President Vladimir Putin of Russia, and visited by Finnish President, Tarja Halonen, and Hungarian Prime Minister, Ferenc Gyurcsány.
Shamanism has had a historically important influence on the mythologies of northern and central Eurasian peoples, including those speaking languages of the Uralic, Yeniseian, Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic language families. Among the Finno-Ugric peoples, though also in Indo-European and North American mythology, are found myths about a world tree or axis mundi, capped by the North Star, at the center of the world, which is encircled by a stream, the idea that asterisms were animal spirits, the idea that the land of the dead beneath the earth was also the home of spirits, and the earth-diver: a bird floating on the primary ocean that dives to bring up the land.
A study of Population Genetics of Finno-Ugric speaking humans in North Eurasia carried out between 2002-2008 in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the University of Helsinki showed that most of the Finno-Ugric speaking populations possess an amalgamation of West and East Eurasian gene pools, genetic drift, and recurrent founder effects. North Eurasian Finno-Ugric-speaking populations were found to be genetically a heterogeneous group showing lower haplotype diversities compared to more southern populations. North Eurasian Finno-Ugric-speaking populations possess unique genetic features due to complex genetic changes shaped by molecular and population genetics and adaptation to the areas of Boreal and Arctic North Eurasia.
The proposal of a Finno-Ugric language family has led to the postulation not just of an ancient Proto-Finno-Ugric people, but that the modern Finno-Ugric-speaking peoples are genetically related and descended from East Asian-related hunter gatherers of eastern Siberia. Such hypotheses are based on the assumption that heredity can be traced though linguistic relatedness. However, Finno-Ugric has not been reconstructed linguistically; attempts to do so have been indistinguishable from Proto-Uralic.
A recent study has found that haplogroup NO of the Finno-Ugric peoples and their descendants probably spread north, then west and east from Northern China about 12,000-14,000 years ago from its father lineage and today is found in Eastern Europe. The Department of Forensic Medicine at the University of Helsinki showed that most of the Finno-Ugric speaking populations possess an amalgamation of West and East Eurasian gene pools, supporting the idea of mixed origins in these modern populations.
The characteristic genetic marker of peoples speaking Uralic languages is haplogroup N1c-Tat (Y-DNA). Samoyedic peoples mainly have more N1b-P43 than N1c. Haplogroup N originated in the northern part of China in 20,000-25,000 years BP and spread to north Eurasia, through Siberia to Northern Europe. Subgroup N1c1 is frequently seen in non-Samoyedic peoples, N1c2 in Samoyedic peoples. In addition, haplogroup Z (mtDNA), found with low frequency in Saami, Finns, and Siberians, is related to the migration of people speaking Uralic languages.
In 2019, a study based on genetics, archaeology and linguistics found that Uralic speakers arrived in the Baltic region from the East, specifically from Siberia, at the beginning of the Iron Age some 2,500 years ago.
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