Foreign Relations of Poland
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Foreign Relations of Poland

The Republic of Poland is a Central European country and member of the European Union and NATO, among others. Poland wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs. The foreign policy of Poland is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law.

The Polish economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Since the collapse of communism and its re-establishment as a democratic nation, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and Western affairs, supporting and establishing friendly foreign relations with both the West and with numerous European countries.

History

Foreign policy topics are covered in the history articles:

Integration with the West and Europe

After regaining independence in 1989, Poland has forged ahead on its economic reintegration with the Western world.[1] Poland also has been an active nation in advocating European integration.

In 1994, Poland became an associate member of the European Union (EU) and its defensive arm, the Western European Union (WEU). In 1996, Poland achieved full OECD membership and submitted preliminary documentation for full EU membership. In 1997, Poland was invited in the first wave of NATO policy enlargement at the July 1997 NATO Summit in Madrid, Spain. In March 1999, Poland became a full member of NATO. Poland promoted its NATO candidacy through energetic participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and through intensified individual dialogue with NATO. Poland formally joined the European Union in May 2004, along with the other members of the Visegrád group.

Poland was a part of the multinational force in Iraq.

Establishing relationships with European countries

The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the establishment of seven new sovereign states in Poland's immediate neighborhood (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia), of which Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia (through the Kaliningrad Oblast) border Poland. Poland has actively pursued good relations with all its neighboring countries, signing friendship treaties replacing links severed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. The Poles have forged special relationships with Lithuania and particularly Ukraine in an effort to firmly anchor these states to the West.[clarification needed]

Due to its tragic historical experience with aggression of powerful neighbors (e.g., Partitions of Poland, Second World War), Polish foreign policy pursues close cooperation with a strong partner, one apt enough to give strong military support in times of critical situations. This creates the background of Poland's tight relations with the USA and their sensitivity in relations towards its partner within the European Union, Germany. At the same time, the equally burdened attitude towards Russia results in very tense diplomatic relations, which have been constantly worsening since Vladimir Putin's rise to power. This is an important factor for the special attention Poland pays to the political emancipation[clarification needed] of all its Eastern neighbors: Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine.[]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria-Poland relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola
  • Angola has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Luanda.
 Chad
  • Chad is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Poland is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Tunis, Tunisia.
 Egypt See Egypt-Poland relations
  • Egypt has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia
 Kenya 13 December 1963 See Kenya-Poland relations
  • Kenya is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Poland has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Libya
  • Libya has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Libya from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
 Madagascar
  • Madagascar is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Poland is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.
 Morocco
  • Morocco has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Rabat.
 Mozambique 25 June 1975
  • Mozambique is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Mozambique from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa and maintains an honorary consulate in Maputo.
 Namibia 21 March 1990
  • Namibia is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Namibia from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Nigeria See Nigeria-Poland relations
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Abuja.
 Senegal
  • Poland has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Warsaw.
 South Africa 1988 See Poland-South Africa relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Tanzania 1961 See Poland-Tanzania relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Tunisia
  • Poland has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Uganda
  • Poland is accredited to Uganda from its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya and maintains an honorary consulate in Kampala.
  • Uganda is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1920 See Argentina-Poland relations
 Belize 2 May 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 2, 1995.[3]

 Bolivia
  • Bolivia is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 Brazil 27 May 1920 See Brazil-Poland relations
 Canada 1935 See Canada-Poland relations
 Chile 1920 See Chile-Poland relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Colombia 1931 See Colombia-Poland relations
  • Colombia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Bogotá.[8]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Cuba 1933 See Cuba-Poland relations
  • Cuba has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Havana.
 Ecuador
  • Ecuador is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Panama City, Panama.
 Guyana 1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1972.[9]

  • Guyana is accredited to Poland from its high commission in London, United Kingdom.
  • Poland is accredited to Guyana from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.
 Haiti
  • Haiti is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Bogotá, Colombia.
 Mexico 26 February 1928 See Mexico-Poland relations
 Panama
  • Panama has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Panama City.
 Paraguay
  • Paraguay is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 Peru 1923 See Peru-Poland relations
  • Peru has an embassy in Warsaw.[12]
  • Poland has an embassy in Lima.[13]
 United States See Poland-United States relations

A tighter security alliance with the United States was announced in the middle of the Georgian crisis as an agreement between the two countries was reached to allow the US to install and operate an interceptor missile defense shield, a move which Russia sees explicitly targeting it and which it stated made Poland "a legit military target".[14] A high-ranking Russian military official said: "Poland in deploying [the US system] opens itself to a nuclear strike".[15]

 Uruguay 22 July 1920 See Poland-Uruguay relations
  • Poland is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Venezuela 1933 See Poland-Venezuela relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Warsaw.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan-Poland relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Afghanistan from its embassy in New Delhi, India.
 Armenia 1992-2-26[18] See Armenia-Poland relations
 Azerbaijan 1992-02-21[21] See Azerbaijan-Poland relations
 Bangladesh See Bangladesh-Poland relations
  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Bangladesh from its embassy in New Delhi, India.
 China 1919 See China-Poland relations
Poland's President Andrzej Duda and Chinese President Xi Jinping exchanging signed declarations on strategic partnership, 2016.
  • Relations between Poland and the People's Republic of China began on 5 October 1949.
  • China has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Shanghai.
 Georgia 1992-04-28 See Georgia-Poland relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 India See India-Poland relations

Historically, relations have generally been close and friendly, characterized by understanding and cooperation on international front.[22]

 Indonesia See Indonesia-Poland relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran See Iran-Poland relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tehran.
 Iraq See Iraq-Poland relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Israel 27 February 1990 See Israel-Poland relations

Poland broke off relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967, following most other countries of the Soviet Union controlled Eastern Bloc. Poland was the first Eastern bloc country to recognize Israel again in 1986. Full diplomatic relations have been reestablished in 1990, after the communist People's Republic of Poland was transformed into modern, democratic Poland. Government relations between Poland and Israel are steadily improving, resulting in the mutual visits of presidents and the ministers of foreign affairs.[25][26]

 Japan See Japan-Poland relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Warsaw, and an honorary consulate in Kraków.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tokyo, and 2 honorary consulates (in Kobe and Hiroshima).[27]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Kazakhstan 6 April 1992 See Kazakhstan-Poland relations

Poland opened its embassy in Nur-Sultan in March 1994. Kazakhstan's embassy to Poland was opened in October 2000.[28]

  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
 Kuwait
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Kuwait City.
 Lebanon
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Beirut.
 Malaysia See Malaysia-Poland relations

Malaysia has an embassy in Warsaw,[29] and Poland has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur and a consulate in Kuching.[30][31]

 Mongolia
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.
 North Korea 1948 October[32] See Poland-North Korea relations
  • North Korea has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Pyongyang.
 Pakistan 17 December 1962 See Pakistan-Poland relations
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Islamabad.
 Palestine 1988 See Palestine-Poland relations
  • Palestine has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has a representative office in Ramallah.
 Philippines See Philippines-Poland relations
 Qatar
  • Poland has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Saudi Arabia See Poland-Saudi Arabia relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Singapore 1969[34]
  • Poland has an embassy in Singapore.[34]
  • Singapore has a non-resident ambassador based in Singapore accredited to Poland and has an honorary consulate-general in Warsaw.[34]
 South Korea 1 November 1989[35] See Poland-South Korea relations
 Taiwan See Poland-Taiwan relations
 Thailand
  • Poland has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Turkey See Poland-Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates See Poland-United Arab Emirates relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Uzbekistan
  • Poland has an embassy in Tashkent.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Vietnam See Poland-Vietnam relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Warsaw.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania See Albania-Poland relations
 Andorra 1996-5-15
  • Andorra is accredited to Poland from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Andorra la Vella, Andorra.
  • Poland is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Austria 1921 See Austria-Poland relations

Austria was one of the three partitioners of Poland, along with Prussia/Germany and Russia.

 Belarus 1992-03-02[40] See Belarus-Poland relations
  • Both countries share a common border of 416 kilometres (258 miles).[41]
  • Poland was one of the first countries to recognise Belarusian independence.[40]
  • Belarus has an embassy in Warsaw and a consulate-general in Gda?sk and Bia?ystok, and a consulate in Bia?a Podlaska.[42]
  • Poland has an embassy in Minsk and consulates-general in Brest and Hrodna.[43]
  • The authoritarian and anti-Western political course taken by the country of neighboring Belarus presents a huge problem for Polish foreign policy.[]
 Belgium 1919-3[44]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Bulgaria 1920s See Bulgaria-Poland relations
 Croatia 1992-04-11 See Croatia-Poland relations
 Cyprus 1960s See Cyprus-Poland relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Warsaw and 2 honorary consulates (in Gdynia and Szczecin).
  • Poland has an embassy in Nicosia and an honorary consulate general in Limassol.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.

[49]

 Czech Republic 1991-10-6[50] See Czech Republic-Poland relations
  • Both countries share a common border of 790 kilometres (490 miles).[41]
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Warsaw and a consulate-general in Katowice.
  • Poland has an embassy in Prague and a consulate-general in Ostrava.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, NATO and the Visegrád Group.
 Denmark See Denmark-Poland relations
 Estonia 1991-09 See Estonia-Poland relations
 Finland 1919-03-08 See Finland-Poland relations
 France 1919-2-24[54] See France-Poland relations

Polish-French relations date several centuries, although they became really relevant only with times of French Revolution and reign of Napoleon I. Poles have been allies of Napoleon; large Polish community settled in France in the 19th century, and Poles and French were also allies during the interwar period. The official relations, having cooled down during the Cold War, have improved since the fall of communism. Currently both countries are part of the European Union and NATO.

  • France has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Paris and a consulate-general in Lyon.
 Germany See Germany-Poland relations

After the creation of modern Germany in 1871, Germany was one of the three partitioners of Poland, along with Austria and Russia.

The joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland of 1939 started World War II, and then until 1945, Poland was occupied by Germany and subjected to extensive genocidal policies.

During the Cold War, communist Poland had good relations with East Germany, but had strained relations with West Germany. After the fall of communism, Poland and the reunited Germany have had a mostly positive but occasionally strained relationship due to some political issues. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been a proponent of Poland's participation in NATO and the European Union.

  • Both countries share a common border of 467 kilometres (290 miles).[41]
  • Germany has an embassy in Warsaw and consulates-general in Gda?sk, Kraków, Opole and Wroc?aw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Cologne, Hamburg and Munich.
 Greece See Greece-Poland relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Holy See 1919 See Holy See-Poland relations
  • Holy see has an apostolic nunciature in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.
 Hungary See Hungary-Poland relations

Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. For a long time, they enjoy traditional close friendship.

 Iceland January 1946 See Iceland-Poland relations
 Ireland 1976-9-30[59] See Ireland-Poland relations
 Italy 1919-2-27[64] See Italy-Poland relations
 Latvia 1991-08-30 See Latvia-Poland relations
 Lithuania 1991-9-5[69] See Lithuania-Poland relations

Poland and Lithuania formed a close alliance and political union since 1385, which was eventually transformed into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the greatest historic powers of Central and Eastern Europe.

The fall of communism in the years of 1989-1991 led to a formal reestablishment of relations by the Polish and Lithuanian states. Poland was highly supportive of the Lithuanian independence, and became one of the first countries to recognize independent Lithuania.[70] Despite that, there was a relative crisis in the early 1990s,[71] due to Lithuanian mistreatment of Polish minority, and Lithuanian suspicious that Poland would want to put Lithuania under its sphere of influence.[70] After a few years, as the situation normalized, Polish-Lithuanian relations have been steadily improving over the past two decades, with both countries joining the NATO and European Union.

 Luxembourg 1945-7-14[72]
 Moldova 1991-8-27[73] See Moldova-Poland relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Chi?in?u.
 Monaco 1990[74]
  • Monaco is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany and maintains an honorary consulate in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Montenegro
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Montenegro is an EU candidate and Poland is an EU member.
 Netherlands See Netherlands-Poland relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 North Macedonia
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Skopje.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Norway See Norway-Poland relations
 Portugal 11 July 1974 See Poland-Portugal relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Romania 1919-02-09 See Poland-Romania relations
 Russia See Poland-Russia relations

Russia was one of the three partitioners of Poland, along with Austria and Prussia/Germany.

The joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland of 1939 started World War II.

In recent years, relations with Russia have worsened considerably. Poland responded with strong disapproval towards the 2008 Georgian Crisis, in which a military invasion of Georgia was led by Russia. Georgia is a former USSR republic, Poland was a member of the Eastern Bloc, and Poland stated its support for Georgia and condemned Russia's actions. The Polish believed the invasion was carried out by the Russians in an attempt to reestablish and reassert its dominance over its former republics. Since 2009, however, relations with Russia somewhat improved - despite the plane accident where the former Polish president died on what is still considered a controversial event. After the 2014 Crimean crisis the relations deteriorated again, as Poland strongly condemned Russian actions against Ukraine.

 Serbia 1919 See Poland-Serbia relations
 Slovakia 1993 See Poland-Slovakia relations
 Slovenia 1992-4-10[79]
 Spain 1919-5-19[80] See Poland-Spain relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sweden 1919-6-3[80] See Poland-Sweden relations

Poland and Sweden formed the Polish-Swedish union in the late 16th century.

  Switzerland
 Ukraine 1992-1-4[81] See Poland-Ukraine relations

Both countries share a border of about 529 kilometres (329 miles).[41] Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure.[82] The Orange Revolution in Ukraine evoked a wide and authentic support within the Polish society.[]

 United Kingdom 1919-2-25[83] See Poland-United Kingdom relations

During the Cold War Poland retained a largely negative view of Britain as a sluggish ally of Poland during World War II, later acceptance of neglecting Poland in the international arena and placing it in communist influences. In communist times the UK was a part of the NATO block, so consequently it was considered by the communists as natural enemy of the communist bloc. British efforts meanwhile were focussed at trying to break Poland off from the Warsaw Pact and encouraging reforms in the country. In the 1990s and 2000s democratic Poland has maintained close relations with Britain; both in defence matters and within the EU; Britain being one of only a few countries allowing equal rights to Polish workers upon their accession in 2004.[84]

  • Poland has an embassy in London and consulates-general in Belfast, Edinburgh and Manchester.[85]
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • According to official estimates there were around 900,000 Poles living in the UK in December 2019.[86]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia February 1972 See Australia-Poland relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Warsaw.[87]
  • Poland has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.[88]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Micronesia 12 February 2019

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 2019.[89]

  • Poland is accredited to Micronesia from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Micronesia currently does not have an accredited ambassador to Poland.
 New Zealand 1 March 1973 See New Zealand-Poland relations
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Warsaw.[90]
  • Poland has an embassy in Wellington.[91]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Solomon Islands 6 March 2012

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 March 2012.[92]

  • Poland is accredited to the Solomon Islands from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Solomon Islands are accredited to Poland from its embassy Brussels, Belgium.

See also

References

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Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.

Further reading

  • Biskupski, M. B. The History of Poland. Greenwood, 2000. 264 pp. online edition
  • The Cambridge History of Poland, 2 vols., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941 (1697-1935), 1950 (to 1696). New York: Octagon Books, 1971 online edition vol 1 to 1696, old fashioned but highly detailed
  • Davies, Norman. God's Playground. A History of Poland. Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982 / ISBN 0-19-925340-4.
  • Davies, Norman. Heart of Europe: A Short History of Poland. Oxford University Press, 1984. 511 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Fedorowicz, Krzysztof (July 2007). "National Identity and National Interest in Polish Eastern Policy, 1989-2004". Nationalities Papers. 35 (3): 537-553. doi:10.1080/00905990701368761. S2CID 154831664.
  • Frucht, Richard. Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism Garland Pub., 2000 online edition
  • Gerson Louis L. Woodrow Wilson and the Rebirth of Poland 1914-1920 (1972)
  • Hetherington, Peter. Unvanquished: Joseph Pilsudski, Resurrected Poland, and the Struggle for Eastern Europe (2012) 752pp excerpt and text search
  • Kenney, Padraic. "After the Blank Spots Are Filled: Recent Perspectives on Modern Poland," Journal of Modern History (2007) 79#1 pp 134-61, in JSTOR historiography
  • Klatt, Malgorzata. "Poland and its Eastern neighbours: Foreign policy principles." Journal of Contemporary European Research 7.1 (2011): 61-76. online
  • Ku?niar, R. ed. Poland's Security Policy 1989-2000 (Warsaw: Scholar Publishing House, 2001).
  • Lerski, George J. Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood, 1996. 750 pp. online edition
  • Leslie, R. F. et al. The History of Poland since 1863. Cambridge U. Press, 1980. 494 pp. excerpt
  • Lukowski, Jerzy and Zawadzki, Hubert. A Concise History of Poland. (2nd ed. Cambridge U. Press, 2006). 408pp. excerpts and search
  • Magocsi, Paul Robert t al. A History of East Central Europe (1974).
  • Pogonowski, Iwo Cyprian. Poland: A Historical Atlas. Hippocrene, 1987. 321 pp.
  • Prazmowska, Anita J.. A History of Poland (2004\)
  • Sanford, George. Historical Dictionary of Poland. Scarecrow Press, 2003. 291 pp.
  • Snyder, Timothy. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 (2003).
  • Wróbel, Piotr. Historical Dictionary of Poland, 1945-1996. Greenwood, 1998. 397 pp.
  • Zi?ba, Ryszard. Poland's Foreign and Security Policy Springer, 2020) online

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