Foreign Relations of Slovenia
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Foreign Relations of Slovenia

Since Slovenia declared independence in 1991, its Governments have underscored their commitment in improving cooperation with neighbouring countries and to actively contribute to international efforts aimed at bringing stability to Southeast Europe. Resource limitations have nevertheless been a problem hindering the efficiency of the Slovenian diplomacy. In the 1990s, foreign relations, especially with Italy, Austria and Croatia, triggered internal political controversies. In the last eight years, however, a wide consensus has been reached among the vast majority of Slovenian political parties to jointly work in the improvement of the country's diplomatic infrastructure and to avoid politicizing the foreign relations by turning them into an issue of internal political debates.

Multilateral

  • Slovenia is engaged with 29 countries in bilateral military exchange - most actively with the United States - and in regional cooperative arrangements in Central and Southeast Europe. Slovenia participates in five major multinational regional peacekeeping bodies;
  • Together with Hungary and Italy, Slovenia formed a Multinational Land Force (the so-called Trilateral Brigade) in April 1998 with regional peacekeeping ability. Further non-military cooperation within the Trilateral includes the fields of transportation infrastructure, fighting money laundering and organized crime, WMD non-proliferation, border controls, and environmental protection;
  • Slovenia is a member of Central European Nations Cooperation on Peacekeeping (CENCOOP), together with Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Switzerland. Within this organization, a combined infantry peacekeeping unit was formed March 1998;
  • Slovenia has observer status, like the United States, in (the Turkish proposed) Multinational Peacekeeping Force Southeast European (MPFSEE), with other participants being Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, North Macedonia, Romania, and Turkey;
  • Slovenia joined 13 other nations in forming the brigade-sized Standby High-Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG), headquartered in Copenhagen;
  • From May to July 1997, Slovenia contributed to Operation ALBA in Albania with a 25-person medical unit, which was well received and commended by the Italian commander. Thereafter, it continued to support efforts to restore stability in Albania by participating in the WEU's Multinational Advisory Police Element (MAPE) helping to reconstitute and train Albanian police. The government has pledged to the Albanian Government its continuing support;
  • Since November 1997, Slovenia has participated in its first United Nations peacekeeping operation, contributing 27 troops to an Austrian UNFICYP contingent on Cyprus. Slovenia also has peacekeepers with the UN at Naharya Ogl, Israel, on the Lebanese border.
Slovenian embassy in the Hague.

Meeting NATO/Partnership for Peace/EAPC goals

  • Slovenia's 10th battalion for international cooperation, established in 1996 as its primary "out-of-country" operation unit, will soon be upgraded to a NATO-interoperable rapid reaction peacekeeping force;
  • In November 1998, Slovenia hosted its first major multinational exercise, "Cooperative Adventure Exchange," involving almost 6,000 troops from 19 NATO and PfP countries; otherwise it participates actively in PfP and EAPC;
  • Slovenia is an active participant in Southeast European Defense Ministerial (SEDM) activities. It agreed to be lead country for several initiatives in 1999, including hosting an environmental security seminar.

Contributions to Bosnian stability

  • Slovenia contributed to IFOR (logistical support) and is very engaged in the SFOR effort, providing VIP support helicopter and light transport aircraft missions and use of an airbase in southern Slovenia;
  • Slovenia has provided a platoon of military police (about 22) for the Italian-led Multinational Specialized Unit (MSU) in Sarajevo since January 1999;
  • Slovenia's latest initiative is its International Trust Fund for Demining and Humanitarian Assistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which will finance up to $56 million in mine removal and victim rehabilitation services in the region. (The U.S. has contributed over $35 million in matching funds.)

Relations with neighbors

Slovenia's bilateral relations with its neighbors are generally good and cooperative. However, a few unresolved disputes with Croatia remain. They are related mostly to the succession of the former Yugoslavia, including demarcation of their common border. In addition, unlike the other successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia did not normalize relations with the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (Serbia and Montenegro) until after the passing from power of Slobodan Milo?evi?; although the Slovenes did open a representative office in Podgorica to work with Montenegrin President Milo ?ukanovi?'s government.

Succession issues, particularly concerning liabilities and assets of the former Yugoslavia, remain a key factor in Slovenia's relations in the region. On the whole, no conflicts mar relations with neighbors, which are on a sound footing. Numerous cooperative projects are either underway or envisioned, and bilateral and multilateral partnerships are deepening. Differences, many of which stem from Yugoslavia's time, have been handled responsibly and are being resolved.

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria-Slovenia relations
 Egypt See Egypt-Slovenia relations

Since September 2007, Egypt has an embassy in Ljubljana. Slovenia has an embassy in Cairo (opened in 1993). Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.

 Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is represented in Slovenia by an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.[1][2]

 South Africa 9 November 1992
  • South Africa recognized the independence and sovereignty of Slovenia on April 2, 1992.
  • Slovenia has no official representation in South Africa.
  • South Africa is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria, and through an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.
 Tunisia See Slovenia-Tunisia relations

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 14 April 1992
  • Argentina is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Buenos Aires, which is also accredited to Chile, Peru, Paraguay and Uruguay.[3]
 Brazil 21 December 1992
  • Brazil has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Brazilia, which is also accredited to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.[4]
 Canada See Canada-Slovenia relations
 Colombia July 2004
  • Colombia is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).[5]
  • Slovenia is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
 Dominica

Dominica is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in London.[6]

 Guatemala 25 November 1993
  • Guatemala is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria.[7]
  • Slovenia is represented in Paraguay through its permanent mission in New York, USA.
 Mexico 22 May 1992 See Mexico-Slovenia relations
 Paraguay
  • Paraguay is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria and has an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.[10]
  • Slovenia is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 United States 7 April 1992 See Slovenia-United States relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Washington, DC and a consulate-general in Cleveland.[9]
  • United States has an embassy in Ljubljana.[11]
  • The former first Lady of the United States, Melania Trump (Melanija Knavs) comes from Slovenia.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 27 June 1994
  • Diplomatic relations between Slovenia and Armenia began on 27 June 1994.
  • Armenia has an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an honorary consulate Yerevan.
 Azerbaijan 20 February 1996[12]
  • Diplomatic relations between Slovenia and Azerbaijan began on 20th February 1996.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has a consulate in Baku.
 China 1992[13]
  • China has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate in Shanghai.[14]
 Georgia 13 January 1993 See Georgia-Slovenia relations
 India 11 May 1992[15]
 Iran
  • Iran has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tehran.
 Israel 28 April 1992 See Israel-Slovenia relations
 Japan See Japan-Slovenia relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tokyo.
 North Korea 1992[19]
 South Korea 1992-04-15 Slovenia-South Korea relations[20]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Republika Slovenija and the Republic of Korea began on 15 April 1992.

  • Upon the invitation of H.E. Yun Byung-se Foreign Minister of South Korea, H.E. Karl Viktor Erjavec Foreign Minister of the Slovenia paid an official visit to Seoul on 11-13 March 2015, for a meeting at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 13 March 2015.[21]
  • Bilateral Trade in 2014
    • Exports 1665 million US dollars
    • Imports 126 million US dollars
  • The number of South Korean citizens living in the Republic of Slovenia in 2013 was about 25.[22]
 Turkey
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Vietnam 7 June 1994

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania See Albania-Slovenia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Austria

Relations between Austria and Slovenia are close. Austria was, next to Germany and the Holy See, the most firm supporter of Slovenia's independence. It firmly endorsed Slovenia's path into the European Union. Economic cooperation between the two countries is very important and has been expanding since the early 1990s. Regional cooperation, especially with the states of Carinthia and Styria, is well developed: as a concrete manifestation of the excellent state of regional relations, Slovenia, Austria, and Italy entered a joint bid to organize the 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympic Games.

 Belgium See Belgium-Slovenia relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina See Bosnia and Herzegovina-Slovenia relations
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Bulgaria See Bulgaria-Slovenia relations
 Croatia See Croatia-Slovenia relations

Before 1991, both countries were part of Yugoslavia. On June 26, 1991, a mutual recognitial agreement was signed by both countries. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on February 6, 1992. Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and two honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper. Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split. Both countries shares 670 km of common border.

 Cyprus See Cyprus-Slovenia relations
 Czech Republic See Czech Republic-Slovenia relations
 Denmark See Denmark-Slovenia relations
 Finland See Finland-Slovenia relations
 France See France-Slovenia relations
  • France has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Germany See Germany-Slovenia relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Greece See Greece-Slovenia relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Hungary

Relations with Hungary are excellent. Unlike with some of Hungary's other neighbors, minority issues have not been a problem in Hungarian-Slovene relations. The Hungarian minority in Slovenia is granted a policy of positive discrimination under the Slovene constitution, and the legal status of Hungarian Slovenes is good.

Within the Multilateral Cooperation Initiative between Slovenia, Italy, Hungary, and Croatia, cooperation exists in numerous fields, including military (Multinational Land Force peacekeeping brigade), transportation, combating money laundering and organized crime, non-proliferation, border crossings, and environmental issues.

 Ireland 1991
 Italy

The bilateral relations between Italy and Slovenia have improved dramatically since 1994 and are now at a very good level. In the early 1990s, the issue regarding property restitution to the Istrian exiles was hindering the development of a good relationship between the two countries. By 1996, however, the issue had been set aside, with Italy renouncing any revision of the Treaty of Osimo, allowing a significant improvement in relations. Italy was a firm supporter of Slovene EU and NATO membership, helping Slovenia technically and legislatively master its bid for membership in European and transatlantic institutions.

In 2001, the Italian Parliament finally approved the legislation resolving the last open issues regarding the Slovenian minority in Italy. The legislation, welcomed by both the representatives of the Slovenian minority in Friuli Venezia Giulia and the Slovenian government, started to be implemented in 2007, removing the last pending issue between the two countries. Since then, Italo-Slovene relations can be characterized as excellent. Although there do not appear to be any scheduled flights between the two countries and the train service, which used to be frequent, has been limited to one train a day in each direction (a night service from Budapest to Venice and back) until December 2011, when it was discontinued, thus leaving no railway connection between the two countries.[27][28]

 Kosovo See Kosovo-Slovenia relations

Slovenia has a record of supporting the U.S. position on Kosovo, both in regular public statements by top officials and on the Security Council. Prior and during the Kosovo War of 1999, Slovenian top government officials called repeatedly for Slobodan Milo?evi?'s compliance with NATO demands. Slovenia granted NATO use of its airspace and offered further logistical support. It also has pledged personnel to support NATO humanitarian operations in the region. Slovenia helped Macedonia deal with the refugee crisis by providing 880 million sit (US$4.9 million) of humanitarian aid, in addition to granting a concession for imported agricultural products. The Slovene Government allocated 45 million SIT (US$250,000) to help Albania, Montenegro, and the Republic of Macedonia, one-third of which went to the latter. Slovenia took in over 4,100 Kosovar refugees during the crisis.

Slovenia recognized Kosovo on 5 March 2008.[29] Slovenia has an embassy in Pristina since 15 May 2008.[30] Kosovo has an embassy in Ljubljana.

 Latvia See Latvia-Slovenia relations
 Moldova See Moldova-Slovenia relations

Moldova recognized the Republic of Slovenia at an unknown date. Diplomatic relations were established on October 27, 1993. Both countries are represented in each other through their embassies in Budapest (Hungary).

 Montenegro 21 June 2006 See Montenegro-Slovenia relations
  • Slovenia recognized Montenegro's independence on June 20, 2006.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • On June 23, 2006, Slovenia opened its embassy in Podgorica.[31]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Netherlands 25 June 1991 See Netherlands-Slovenia relations
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Ljubljana.[32]
  • Slovenia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[33]
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Slovenia (in Dutch only)[34]
 North Macedonia See North Macedonia-Slovenia relations

The two countries have very close political and economic relations. Once part of SFR Yugoslavia, the two republics declared independence in 1991 (Slovenia in June, Macedonia in September) and recognised each other's independence on 12 February 1992.[35] Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 17 March 1992.[36] Slovenia supports North Macedonia's sovereignty, territorial integrity, its Euro-integration and visa liberalisation.[35][37] A significant number of Slovenian investments ended up in North Macedonia. In 2007, about 70 million euros were invested.[38] In January 2009, the Macedonian prime minister Nikola Gruevski announced, that he expects more Slovenian investments in infrastructure and energy projects.[38] Over 70 Slovenian companies are present on the Macedonian market.[35]

  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland 10 April 1992
  • Poland has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal See Portugal-Slovenia relations
 Romania 28 August 1992 See Romania-Slovenia relations
 Russia 25 May 1992 See Russia-Slovenia relations
 Serbia 9 December 2000 See Serbia-Slovenia relations
  • Serbia has an embassy in Ljubljana.[43]
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an EU candidate
  • Slovenia has an EU member.[44]
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Slovenia.[45]
 Slovakia See Slovakia-Slovenia relations
 Spain See Slovenia-Spain relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Sweden See Slovenia-Sweden relations
  Switzerland 1992
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Berne.[46]
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Ljubljana[47]
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Slovenia[48]
 Ukraine 10 March 1992
 United Kingdom
  • The Slovenian embassy in London opened on April 29, 1992. An honorary consulate was also opened in Edinburgh on March 23, 2005.[52]
  • The UK opened its embassy in Ljubljana on August 25, 1992.[53]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • British Commonwealth and Foreign Office about relations with Slovenia[54]

See also

References

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External link


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