Franc Serafin Metelko, also known as Fran Metelko (14 July 1789 - 27 December 1860) was a Slovene Roman Catholic priest, author, and philologist, best known for his proposal of a new script for the Slovene called the Metelko alphabet, which was meant to replace the traditional Bohori? alphabet, used since the late sixteenth century.
Metelko was born in the village of ?kocjan in Lower Carniola, then part of the Habsburg Monarchy. He studied theology and philosophy in Ljubljana. In 1814 he was ordained a priest and in 1817 he started teaching Slovene at the Lyceum in Ljubljana.
In 1825, he published a book in German titled Lehrgebäude der slowenischen Sprache im Königreiche Illyrien und in den benachbarten Provinzen (Slovenian Textbook for the Kingdom of Illyria and Neighboring Provinces). Following the advice of the linguist Jernej Kopitar, his newly created alphabet (which soon became known as the metel?ica 'Metelko alphabet') was phonetic, with each character corresponding a sound in the spoken language. It was also quite complicated, containing unneeded or redundant characters for glottal h and the clusters lj, nj, and as well as unfamiliar characters taken from Cyrillic. In addition, Metelko based his phonology on his local Lower Carniolan dialect, which was not acceptable for most contemporary Slovenian authors.
Metelko's proposal further aggravated the "Slovene alphabet War", which was started by Peter Dajnko's quest for a new, more phonetic alphabet, replacing the traditional Bohori? alphabet (bohori?ica). Metelko's main opponent, the philologist Matija ?op, convinced the Czech scholar Franti?ek ?elakovský to publish a devastating critique of Metelko's alphabet, which undermined the chances of its success. ?op also persuaded the local Austrian educational authorities to ban Metelko's alphabet from schools, which they did with an official decree in 1833. The Alphabet War nevertheless continued until the 1840s, when a slightly modified version of Gaj's Latin alphabet was finally adopted, which is still used to this day.
Metelko's alphabet remained in public memory because of a satirical poem by France Pre?eren titled "Al' prav se pi?e kaa ali kasha" (How to Write the Word Porridge), which criticized the Alphabet War as nonsense.
He died in Ljubljana.