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? (Staroshvedske)
Gammalsvenskby is located in Kherson Oblast
Location of the village
Gammalsvenskby is located in Ukraine
Gammalsvenskby (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 46°52?28.83?N 33°35?15.59?E / 46.8746750°N 33.5876639°E / 46.8746750; 33.5876639Coordinates: 46°52?28.83?N 33°35?15.59?E / 46.8746750°N 33.5876639°E / 46.8746750; 33.5876639
55 m (180 ft)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Post Code
The former Swedish church in Gammalsvenskby. St John's Lutheran parish church has been rebuilt and serves as an Orthodox church today.

Gammalsvenskby (local Swedish dialect: Gammölsvänskbi; literally: "Old Swedish Village"; Ukrainian: ?, romanizedStaroshvedske; German: Alt-Schwedendorf) is a former village that is now a neighbourhood of Zmiivka (Ukrainian: ?) in Beryslav Raion of Kherson Oblast, Ukraine. It was briefly known as Verbivka (Ukrainian: ) prior to being integrated with Zmiivka. Gammalsvenskby is known for its Swedish cultural heritage.

Zmiyivka also includes three former villages settled by ethnic Germans: The Lutheran villages of Schlangendorf and Mühlhausendorf and the Roman Catholic village of Klosterdorf. In the nineteenth century, the whole region, and large parts of southern Russia, contained villages settled by Germans belonging to various Protestant faiths, particularly Lutherans and Mennonites, as well as Roman Catholics.

The Askania-Nova biosphere reserve is located near the village.

Resettlement of Estonian Swedes and founding of Gammalsvenskby

Dagö, Estonia

The population of Gammalsvenskby traces its origins to Hiiumaa (Dagö) in present-day Estonia, once a part of the Duchy of Estonia. Under the Treaty of Nystad, the island was among the territory ceded to the Russian Empire in 1721 at the end of the Great Northern War.

A few decades later, a portion of the peasant population in conflict with the local aristocracy, answered Catherine the Great's 1762 ukase calling for settlers in Novorossiya on territory newly conquered from the Ottoman Empire; today this land is in Southern Ukraine).[1][2][3] Enticed by promises of new fertile land along the Dnieper, about 1,200 people departed Dagö on 20 August 1780 and trekked overland to Novorossiya, arriving on 1 May 1781.[4][5] Only about 400 Swedes remained behind in Dagö.[6] While some sources call the Estonian Swedes' migration an outright expulsion from their Estonian homeland, other accounts stress the fact that these poor and oppressed serfs were given what may have seemed like a generous offer.

Regardless of the impetus, the outcome of this mass migration was disastrous. Of the 1,200 villagers who left Estonia, only 900 made it to Novorossiya.[1][4] On arrival, there was no trace of the houses they had expected to find. Moreover, during their first year in Ukraine, an even larger portion of the settlers died, mainly due to dysentery. That first year, 318 died along with another 116 the following year. By 1794, only 224 people remained in Gammalsvenskby. In 1802, the Russian government ordered all male Swedes to marry by the age of 30 in an effort to boost the population.[4]

Maintaining the Swedish heritage

From 1787 to 1805, German colonists were invited to Gammalsvenskby to bolster the region's population. The Germans referred to the area as the "Schwedengebiet" (Swede's District) and the village as "Alt-Schwedendorf". They soon founded three neighbouring villages: Schlangendorf, Mühlhausendorf, and Klosterdorf. With the arrival of these Germans, the Swedes were quickly outnumbered and eventually many of the area's pastors and teachers were German-speakers who did not know Swedish.[4]

Although the Swedes did not make full use of the arable land they had been allocated — they focused their industry more on fishing than farming[4] — the reallocation of farm land to the German newcomers strained relations between Gammalsvenskby's Swedes and their German neighbors, although intermarriage between the communities did occur, as is evidenced by parish register entries for weddings in both communities' churches.[7] While the Swedes and Germans were sometimes rivals, they were never enemies and the two communities cooperated when times were bad.[8]

Despite this, the people of Gammalsvenskby maintained their traditions, Church of Sweden Lutheran faith, and old Swedish dialect. At the end of the 19th century, some ties with Sweden were re-established with the Ukrainian Swedes viewed as a "lost tribe" that preserved older Swedish traditions, such as writing in runes and maintaining an older form of the Church of Sweden's liturgy.[9] Prince Carl raised more than 6,000 rubles in Sweden and Finland to support construction of a new Swedish church in the village to replace the previous wooden church given by Prince Potemkin that burned in the mid-19th century.[10] The new parish church of St. John opened in 1885. For a time, before the revolutions that followed World War I, visits from Sweden became frequent, and some villagers subscribed to Swedish newspapers.

Despite this, there were efforts by Russia to better integrate the Ukrainian Swedes with the Russian Empire. The original settlement plans exempted Ukrainian Swedes from conscription into the tsar's army, but this changed by the end of the 1800s and 130 men from Gammalsvenskby were inducted into the Russian army during World War I.[11]

Relocation attempt to Sweden

Caricature of the Gammalsvenskby returnees published in the Swedish Communist newspaper Folkets Dagblad Politiken, August 1929. The picture portrays the settlers as entertainers, being put to display at a community fair in Ljungby.

During the Russian Civil War, Gammalsvenskby was largely held by the Red Army, although the village did come under artillery fire from the White Army under General Anton Denikin. After fighting moved away from the villages in 1921, villagers sought aid from Sweden, including writing to Archbishop of Uppsala Nathan Söderblom.[12] In 1922, the Swedish Red Cross led an expedition to Gammalsvenskby to provide aid and guidance in developing the region and its farmland. Under this plan, two new Swedish villages, Nysvenskby ("New Swedish Village") and Svenskåker ("Swedish Field"), were established in part to preserve their right to the land. The neighboring German villages similarly established additonal outposts, Friedenheim and Neuklsoterdorf.[12]

Conflicts with Soviet authorities over taxation, collectivization policies, and the right to maintain their Lutheran faith increased the efforts by some villagers to seek return to Sweden. On 1 September 1927, 136 farmers from the village petitioned "the people of Sweden, Finland, and America" for aid to reunite them with their fellow Swedes. These efforts were not immediately embraced by Sweden's representative to Moscow, Carl Gerhard von Heidenstam [sv], who urged caution.[12] On 28 June 1928, 429 villagers voted to emigrate back to Sweden under the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia's support for ethnic self-determination. At this time pressure in Sweden to allow the return of the people from Gammalsvenskby increased and on 22 February 1929 the Riksdag approved their right to come to Sweden. By June 1929, the Soviet government reached an agreement with the Swedes regarding disposition of their property in Ukraine and passport fees, and most of the people of Gammalsvenskby began preparing to leave.[12] The villagers could only take with them what could be packed on a passenger train.[4]

On July 22nd, 1929, the Swedes of Gammalsvenskby who'd received a exit permit were brought downriver to Kherson on two steamers. From there, the Swedish Red Cross brought them on the cargo ship Firuzan to Constan?a, Romania where the overland journey began. They travelled by train through Hungary and Austria to Germany, passing through Sinaia, Bra?ov, L?kösháza, Budapest, Vienna, Passau, and Stralsund on the way to Sassnitz. From there, they took the ferry across the Baltic Sea to Sweden.[7] On 1 August 1929, 885 Ukrainian Swedes arrived in Trelleborg, Sweden, where they were received by Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland.[1] Of those who opted to remain in Gammalsvenskby, 19 families (94 people) soon moved on to Manitoba, Canada, where earlier emigrants from Gammalsvenskby had settled. Six of these families later returned to Sweden.[7]

The majority of the villagers stayed in Sweden, many of them settling in Gotland, as well as in Västergötland and Småland.[7] In an effort to integrate these "ancient Swedes" with modern Sweden, officials did not allow them to stay in a single, common settlement.[13] Instead, the government took a very paternalistic approach towards the Gammalsvenskby emigrants, requiring them to apprentice with established farmers to learn Swedish agricultural practices.[7]

About four months after arriving in Sweden, some emigrants requested to return to Ukraine. Peter Knutas and Waldemar Utas wrote to the Ukrainian SSR that the move to Sweden was a thoughtless step and sought permission for three families to return to Ukraine.[9] Some emigrants also joined the Communist Party of Sweden in hope of reflecting their loyalty to Soviet authorities.[1] The movement of Ukrainian Swedes -- both to Sweden and then back to the Ukrainian SSR -- was used for propaganda purposes by both anti-Soviet and pro-Soviet media.[14]

Soviet repression, Holodomor, and World War II

Memorial to the 16 men and one woman from Gammalsvenskby who were killed or disappeared in the Stalinist purge of 1937-1938.[15]

In total, around 250 villagers chose to return to Gammalsvenskby. With the support of the Communist Party of Sweden, they established a minor collective farm called Röd Svenskby (Red Swedish Village).[13]

Life in the Soviet Union turned out to be hard. In 1929, the church in Gammalsvenskby was closed by the Soviet government. The famine of 1932-1933 renewed interest in the idea of returning to Sweden, and some villagers signed a list stating that they wanted to leave the country. This led to the arrest of 20 people by the secret police, the GPU. Five of them were sent to prison. Several villagers were killed in the Stalinist purge of the following years. In the 1930s, the majority of the 3,500 Scandinavian descendants living in the Southern Ukraine were accused of spying and sent with their families to katorga in Siberia and Karelia.[1]

With the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the German army arrived in Gammalsvenskby on 25 August 1941 where the soldiers were welcomed as liberators.[11] During the Nazis's three-year occupation, they granted the Swedish Ukrainians German citizenship and many of men from Gammalsvenskby joined the German forces -- both voluntarily and through conscription. As Soviet troops advanced in October 1943, Swedes and Germans were removed from the Reichskommissariat Ukraine under Germany's evacuation plans.[11] Many evacuees from Gammalsvenskby ended up in Krotoschyn, in the German Warthegau that had been annexed from Poland. Nearly 150 residents of Gammalsvenskby were caught by Soviet authorities at the end of the war and sent to labor camps, but were allowed to return to Ukraine as early as 1947. Others managed to go to Sweden or directly back to Gammalsvenskby.[13]

In 1947, under a Soviet policy to remove Germanic place names, Schlangendorf became Zmiivka, Mühlhausendorf became Mykhailivka, and Klosterdorf became Kostirka. Gammalsvenskby was renamed Verbivka.[13][16]

In 1951, after the exchange of territories by Poland and the Soviet Union, around 2,500 people were relocated to the area from the Drohobych Oblast villages of Lodyna, Dolyshni Berehy, and Naniv. Due to the resulting increase in population, the four villages were united under the name Zmiivka. With this migration, Zmiivka became home to the largest Boykos (Ukrainian Highlander) diaspora in Kherson Oblast, making up nearly 80% of the villagers. The newly relocated populace was officially prohibited from celebrating their traditional holidays, such as Vertep during Christmas. To make matters worse, the locals among whom they were settled considered the newcomers to be anti-Soviet nationalists.[17]

In 1955 a dam was constructed on the Dnieper, creating the Kakhovka Reservoir. This submerged part of the village along with several islands and fishing waters.[18]

Gammalsvenskby today

Swedish Tre Kronor
Tre Kronor in Zmiivka
Tre Kronor in Beryslav Raion

Prior to the fall of the Soviet Union, contacts with Sweden and Canada were re-established, and in the 1990s the Church of Sweden, Gotland Municipality, and other Swedish organizations lent economic support and led relief efforts.[19] Chumak, a Swedish-owned producer of oil, ketchup and canned food, was established in the nearby town of Kakhovka.[20] In 2008, King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia visited Zmiivka and Gammalsvenskby as part of a state visit to Ukraine.[21]

As of 2016, the village had only around 108 people who share a Swedish cultural heritage. Only a few of them still speak the local Swedish dialect fluently and German is often used instead. However, the Swedish heritage is reflected in Zmiivka's emblem, which incorporates the Swedish national symbol (the Tre Kronor), as well as a blue cross on a yellow field, which inverses the Swedish flag's colors. On 15 April 2001, Gotland signed a sister city agreement with the village.[22] Tourism from Sweden remains an important aspect of the village's economy and an impetus for preservation of the Gammalsvenska dialect.[23]

The whole of Beryslav Raion is now heavily Ukrainianized due to the resettlement of many people from western Ukraine in the region, including to the local villages of Lvivski Otruby [uk], Lvove [uk], and Tarasa Shevchenka [uk].

Gammalsvenska dialect

RegionGammalsvenskby, Zmiivka, Kherson Oblast, Ukraine
Native speakers
10 (2014)[24]
Language codes

The Swedish dialect spoken in Gammalsvenskby, Gammalsvenska (locally, Gammölsvänsk; literally "Old Swedish"), derives from the Estonian Swedish dialect of the late 1700s as spoken on the island of Dagö.[25] While rooted in Swedish, the dialect shows influence and borrowings from Estonian, German, Russian, and Ukrainian.[26]

Prior to 1929, Gammalsvenska remained the first language for the Ukrainian Swedes; however, the last generation of Swedish-first speakers were born just after World War II Sovietization policies, marriage into non-Swedish families, and social pressures diminished the teaching of Gammalsvenska by parents to their children.[18] Since the 1950s a Russian-Ukrainian surzhyk has been the dominant language in the village, although some Standard Swedish is taught in schools where it is seen as economically advantageous for jobs in local tourism and other employment opportunities.[18] Use of Gammalsvenska is restricted mostly to older ethnic Swedes born in the 1920s or 1930s.[26] As of 2014 only about 10 fluent Gammalsvenska speakers, all elderly women, were known in Ukraine.[24]

In Meadows, Manitoba, where most of the immigrants from Gammalsvenskby to Canada eventually settled, Gammalsvenska was retained into the early 1900s. However, as of 2004, only a handful of elderly speakers remain.[5]

Example of Gammalsvenska[24][26]
Gammalsvenska Pattana Katüflar Pürkan Kärpsar Himmäl Knjüt Stövla Boklezane[a] Düllje[b]
Estonian Pardid Kartulid Porgandid Kõrvitsad Taevas Sõlm Saapad Tomatid Pirn
Swedish Ankor Potatisar Morötter Pumpor Himmel Knut Stövlar Tomater Päron
German Enten Kartoffeln Möhren Kürbisse Himmel Knoten Stiefel Tomatoen Birne
English Ducks Potatoes Carrots Pumpkins Sky Knot Boots Tomatoes Pear
  1. ^ From regional Russian or Ukrainian a? (baklazan)
  2. ^ From the Ukrainian ? (dulya)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e ?, ? (October 6, 2016). " ? ? 1930-? " [How the Swedes of Ukraine Escaped the Soviet Regime Back in the 1930s]. (in Russian). Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ Bartlett, Roger (1993). "The Russian and the Baltic German nobility in the eighteenth century" (PDF). Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique. 34 (1/2): 233-243. doi:10.3406/cmr.1993.2349. JSTOR 20170857.
  3. ^ Malitska, Julia (2017). Negotiating Imperial Rule Colonists and Marriage in the Nineteenth-century Black Sea Steppe (PDF) (PhD). Huddinge, Sweden: Södertörn University. ISBN 978-91-87843-93-8. Retrieved 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Giesinger, Adam (April 1975). "Villages in Which Our Forefathers Lived" (PDF). American Historical Society of Germans from Russia (17): 33-37. Retrieved 2021.
  5. ^ a b Rudling, Per Anders (2005). "Ukrainian Swedes in Canada: Gammalsvenskby in the Swedish-Canadian Press 1929-1931". Scandiavian-Canadian Studies/Études scandinaves au Canada. 15: 62-91.
  6. ^ Brunberg Rickul, Göte (January 27, 2020). "Estlandssvenskarnas historia" [The History of Estonian Swedes]. Estlandssvenskarnas Kulturförening (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e Hedman, Jörgen (1994). Svenskbysläkter : släktförteckningar över familjerna från Gammalsvenskby i Ukraina [Swedish Village Families: Genealogies of Families from Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine] (in Swedish). Visby, Sweden: Ödins Förlag.
  8. ^ Malitska, Julia (2014). "People in Between: Baltic Islanders as Colonists on the Steppe". In Wawrzeniuk, Piotr; Malitska, Julia (eds.). The Lost Swedish Tribe: Reapproaching the history of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine. Huddinge, Sweden: Södertörn University. pp. 61-85. ISBN 978-9186069858.
  9. ^ a b Kotljarchuk, Andrej (2014). In the Forge of Stalin: Swedish Colonists of Ukraine in Totalitarian Experiments of the Twentieth Century (PDF) (Report). Stockholms Studies in History, 100. Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm University. ISBN 978-91-87235-96-2. Retrieved 2021.
  10. ^ "Gammal-Svenskbys nya stenkyrka" [Gammal-Svenskby's new stone church]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). January 13, 1885. p. 2.
  11. ^ a b c Gyllenhaal, Lars; Westberg, Lennart (2014). Swedes at War: Willing Warriors of a Neutral Nation, 1914-1945. Translated by Finstrom, Carl Gustav. Bedford, Pennsylvania: The Aberjona Press. ISBN 978-1-93884-7-02-8.
  12. ^ a b c d Hedman, Jörgen (2000). "Gammalsvenskby: The True Story of the Swedish Settlement in the Ukraine" (PDF). Retrieved 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d Kotljarchuk, Andrej (2014). "Little Red Sweden in Ukraine - the 1930s Comintern project in Gammalsvenskby". In Wawrzeniuk, Piotr; Malitska, Julia (eds.). The Lost Swedish Tribe: Reapproaching the history of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine (PDF). Huddinge, Sweden: Södertörn University. pp. 111-149. ISBN 978-9186069858. Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ Gardner, Nicky; Kries, Susanne (2017). "Letter from Europe: Swedes in Ukraine". Hidden Europe. No. 25. Retrieved 2021.
  15. ^ Svedberg, Göran (2008). "Inför kungabesöket" [Before the Royal Visit]. (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021.
  16. ^ ?, ? (2017). "? ? (Appendix ?)" (PDF). ? (- ?) [Economics of Ukraine in the 20th Century (Eco- and Sociolinguistic Aspects)] (?..?.) (in Ukrainian). Ternopil, Ukraine: Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University. Retrieved 2021.
  17. ^ Cybriwsky, Roman Adrian (2018). Along Ukraine's River: A Social and Environmental History of the Dnipro. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press. pp. 208-209. ISBN 978-963-386-204-9. Retrieved 2021.
  18. ^ a b c Forsman, Ludvig (June 2016). "Language shift from a nonspeaker perspective: Themes in the accounts of linguistic practices of first-generation non-swedish speakers in Gammalsvenskby, Ukraine". Language in Society. 45 (3): 375-396. doi:10.1017/S0047404516000361. S2CID 147797560.
  19. ^ Knutas, Kjell (December 1194). "Hjälpsändning till Gammalsvenskby" [Auxillary Shipment to Gammalsvenskby] (PDF). Kustbon (in Swedish). Vol. 51 no. 4. p. 15. Retrieved 2021.
  20. ^ Kuns, Brian (2010). Lines in the Landscape: Land reform and the landscape in southern Ukraine (PDF) (Master's). Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm University. Retrieved 2021.
  21. ^ "Political relations between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Sweden". Embassy of Ukraine in the Kingdom of Sweden. November 3, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  22. ^ "Gammelsvenskby i Ukraina" [Gammelsvenskby in Ukraine] (in Swedish). Archived from the original on November 23, 2005. Retrieved 2012.
  23. ^ , (November 29, 2008). " ?" [Staroshvedsky village]. ? (in Russian) (46). p. 65. Retrieved 2021.
  24. ^ a b c Mankov, Alexander E. (2014). "A Scandinavian Island in a Slavonic Linguistic Environment. The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: Nouns (Paper 2)". Slov?ne: International Journal of Slavic Studies. 3 (1): 120-170.
  25. ^ "Gammölsvänsk". The Language Archive. Nijmegen, Netherlands: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. hdl:1839/00-0000-0000-0008-A981-0. Retrieved 2021.
  26. ^ a b c Mankov, Alexander E. (2018). "The dialect of Gammalsvenskby: Scandinavian-Slavonic language contact" (PDF). In Drude, Sebastian; Ostler, Nicholas; Moser, Marielle (eds.). Endangered languages and the land: Mapping landscapes of multilingualism. 22nd Annual Conference of the Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL XXII/2018). London: FEL & EL Publishing. ISBN 978-1-9160726-0-2.

External links and further reading

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