In phonetics and phonology, gemination , or consonant lengthening (from Latin geminatio "doubling", itself from gemini "twins"), is an articulation of a consonant for a longer period of time than that of a singleton consonant. It is distinct from stress. Gemination is represented in many writing systems by a doubled letter and is often perceived as a doubling of the consonant. Some phonological theories use "doubling" as a synonym for gemination, others describe two distinct phenomena.
Consonant length is a distinctive feature in certain languages, such as Arabic, Berber, Maltese, Catalan, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Classical Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Persian, Polish, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. Other languages, such as the English language, do not have phonemic consonant geminates. Vowel length is distinctive in more languages than consonant length.
Consonant gemination and vowel length are independent in languages like Arabic, Japanese, Finnish and Estonian; however, in languages like Italian, Norwegian and Swedish, vowel length and consonant length are interdependent. For example, in Norwegian and Swedish, a geminated consonant is always preceded by a short vowel, while an ungeminated consonant is preceded by a long vowel. A clear example are the Norwegian words "tak" ("ceiling or roof" of a building, pronounced with a long /?:/), and "takk" ("thanks", pronounced with a short /?/).
Lengthened fricatives, nasals, laterals, approximants and trills are simply prolonged. In lengthened stops, the obstruction of the airway is prolonged, which delays release, and the "hold" is lengthened.
Gemination of consonants is distinctive in some languages and then is subject to various phonological constraints that depend on the language.
In some languages, like Italian, Swedish, Faroese, Icelandic, and Luganda, consonant length and vowel length depend on each other. A short vowel within a stressed syllable almost always precedes a long consonant or a consonant cluster, and a long vowel must be followed by a short consonant. In Classical Arabic, a long vowel was lengthened even more before permanently-geminate consonants.
In other languages, such as Finnish, consonant length and vowel length are independent of each other. In Finnish, both are phonemic; taka /taka/ "back", takka /tak:a/ "fireplace" and taakka /ta:k:a/ "burden" are different, unrelated words. Finnish consonant length is also affected by consonant gradation. Another important phenomenon is sandhi, which produces long consonants at word boundaries when there is an archiphonemic glottal stop |ota? se| > otas se "take it!"
In addition, in some Finnish compound words, if the initial word ends in an e, the initial consonant of the following word is geminated: jätesäkki "trash bag" [jætes:æk:i], tervetuloa "welcome" [ter?et:uloa]. In certain cases, a v after a u is geminated by most people: ruuvi "screw" /ru:?:i/, vauva "baby" [?au?:a]. In the Tampere dialect, if a word receives gemination of v after u, the u is often deleted (ruuvi [ru?:i], vauva [?a?:a]), and lauantai "Saturday", for example, receives a medial v [lau?antai], which can in turn lead to deletion of u ( [la?:antai]).
Distinctive consonant length is usually restricted to certain consonants. There are very few languages that have initial consonant length; among them are Pattani Malay, Chuukese, Moroccan Arabic, a few Romance languages such as Sicilian and Neapolitan as well as many High Alemannic German dialects, such as that of Thurgovia. Some African languages, such as Setswana and Luganda, also have initial consonant length: it is very common in Luganda and indicates certain grammatical features. In colloquial Finnish and spoken Italian, long consonants are produced between words because of sandhi.
The difference between singleton and geminate consonants varies within and across languages. Sonorants show more distinct geminate-to-singleton ratios while sibilants have less distinct ratios. The bilabial and alveolar geminates are generally longer than velar ones.
The reverse of gemination reduces a long consonant to a short one, which is called degemination. It is a pattern in Baltic-Finnic consonant gradation that the strong grade (often the nominative) form of the word is degeminated into a weak grade (often all the other cases) form of the word: taakka > taakan (burden, of the burden). As a historical restructuring at the phonemic level, word-internal long consonants degeminated in Western Romance languages: e.g. Spanish /'boka/ "mouth" vs. Italian /'bokka/, which continue Latin geminate /k:/.
Written Arabic indicates gemination with a diacritic (?araka) shaped like a lowercase Greek omega or a rounded Latin w, called the shadda: ? . Written above the consonant that is to be doubled, the shadda is often used to disambiguate words that differ only in the doubling of a consonant where the word intended is not clear from the context. For example, in Arabic, Form I verbs and Form II verbs differ only in the doubling of the middle consonant of the triliteral root in the latter form, e. g., darasa (with full diacritics: ) is a Form I verb meaning to study, whereas ? darrasa (with full diacritics: ?) is the corresponding Form II verb, with the middle r consonant doubled, meaning to teach.
In Berber, each consonant has a geminate counterpart, and gemination is lexically contrastive. The distinction between single and geminate consonants is attested in medial position as well as in absolute initial and final positions.
In addition to lexical geminates, Berber also has phonologically-derived and morphologically-derived geminates . Phonologically-derived geminates can surface by concatenation (e.g. [fas sin] "give him two!") or by complete assimilation (e.g. /rad = k i-sli/ [rakk isli] "he will touch you"). The morphological alternations include imperfective gemination, with some Berber verbs forming their imperfective stem by geminating one consonant in their perfective stem (e.g. [ftu] "go! PF", [fttu] "go! IMPF"), as well as quantity alternations between singular and plural forms (e.g. [afus] "hand", [ifassn] "hands").
Word-initial gemination occurs in various Malay dialects, particularly those found on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula such as Kelantan-Pattani Malay and Terengganu Malay. Gemination in these dialects of Malay occurs for various purposes such as:
In Catalan, geminates are expressed in writing with consonant repetition or the groups tn, tm, tl and tll, such as innecessari "unnecessary", which is pronounced [in:?s?'sa?i] or ètnic (ethnic) setmana (week), atleta (athlete), rotllo (roll) etc. in careful speech. Gemination is not represented if it is purely phonetic, such as the assimilation occurring in tot bé /'tot 'be/ -> ['tob 'be] "all good". Since the repetition of the letter l generates the digraph ll, which represents the phoneme , the geminate /ll/ is represented as two ls separated by a punt volat or centered dot (l·l):
Danish has a three-way consonant length distinction. For instance:
The word bundene can phonemically be analyzed as /b?n?n?/, with the middle schwa being assimilated to [n].
With affricates, however, this does not occur. For instance:
In most instances, the absence of this doubling does not affect the meaning, though it may confuse the listener momentarily. The following minimal pairs represent examples where the doubling does affect the meaning in most accents:
In some dialects gemination is also found for some words when the suffix -ly follows a root ending in -l or -ll, as in:
In some varieties of Welsh English, the process takes place indiscriminately between vowels, e.g. in money ['m?n.ni:] but it also applies with graphemic duplication (thus, orthographically dictated), e.g. butter ['b?t?.t?]
In Ancient Greek, consonant length was distinctive, e.g., ?? [mél?:] "I am of interest" vs. ? [mél:?:] "I am going to". The distinction has been lost in the standard and most other varieties, with the exception of Cypriot (where it might carry over from Ancient Greek or arise from a number of synchronic and diachronic assimilatory processes, or even spontaneously), some varieties of the southeastern Aegean, and Italy.
For aspirated consonants, the geminate is formed by combining the corresponding non-aspirated consonant followed by its aspirated counterpart. There are few examples where an aspirated consonant is truly doubled.
In Standard Italian, consonant strengthening is usually written with two consonants and it is distinctive. For example, bevve, meaning "he/she drank", is phonemically /'bevve/ and pronounced ['bevve], while beve ("he/she drinks/is drinking") is /'beve/, pronounced ['be:ve]. Tonic syllables are bimoraic and are therefore composed of either a long vowel in an open syllable (as in beve) or a short vowel in a closed syllable (as in bevve). In varieties with post-vocalic weakening of some consonants (e.g. /ra'd?one/ -> [ra'?o:ne] "reason"), geminates are not affected (/'madd?o/ -> ['madd?o] "May").
Double or long consonants occur not only within words but also at word boundaries, and they are then pronounced but not necessarily written: chi + sa = chissà ("who knows") [kis'sa] and vado a casa ("I am going home") ['va:do a k'ka:sa] (the latter example refers to central and southern standard Italian). All consonants except , which is an allophone of /s/ rather than its own phoneme, can be geminated. This word-initial gemination is triggered either lexically by the item preceding the lengthening consonant (e.g. by preposition a "to, at" in [a k'ka:sa] a casa "homeward" but not by definite article la in [la 'ka:sa] la casa "the house"), or by any word-final stressed vowel ([par'l? ffran't?e:ze] parlò francese 's/he spoke French' but ['parlo fran't?e:ze] parlo francese 'I speak French').
Kurdish makes use of gemination to mark intensity, as in gelek "many" vs. gellek "very many" or tijî "full" vs. tijjî "cram full, completely full".
In Latin, consonant length was distinctive, as in anus "old woman" vs. annus "year". Vowel length was also distinctive in Latin, but was not reflected in the orthography. Geminates inherited from Latin still exist in Italian, in which ['anno] anno and ['a:no] ano contrast with regard to /nn/ and /n/ as in Latin. It has been almost completely lost in French and completely in Romanian. In West Iberian languages, former Latin geminate consonants often evolved to new phonemes, including some instances of nasal vowels in Portuguese and Old Galician as well as most cases of /?/ and /?/ in Spanish, but phonetic length of both consonants and vowels is no longer distinctive.
In Marathi, the compounding occurs quite frequently, as in the words haa (stubbornness), ka (platform) or satt? (power). It seems to happen most commonly with the dental and retroflex consonants.
In Norwegian, gemination is indicated in writing by double consonants. Gemination often differentiates between unrelated words. As in Italian, Norwegian uses short vowels before doubled consonants and long vowels before single consonants. There are qualitative differences between short and long vowels:
In Polish, consonant length is indicated with two identical letters. Examples:
Consonant length is distinctive and sometimes is necessary to distinguish words:
Double consonants are common on morpheme borders where the initial or final sound of the suffix is the same as the final or initial sound of the stem (depending on the position of the suffix). Examples:
Punjabi in its official script Gurmukhi uses a diacritic called an áddak ( ? ) (?, [d:?k]) which is written above the word and indicates that the following consonant is geminate. Gemination is specially characteristic of Punjabi compared to other Indo-Aryan languages like Hindi-Urdu, where instead of the presence of consonant lengthening, the preceding vowel tends to be lengthened. Consonant length is distinctive in Punjabi, for example:
In Russian, consonant length (indicated with two letters, as in ? ['vann?] "bathtub") may occur in several situations.
In Spanish there are geminated consonants in Caribbean Spanish when /l/ and /?/ in syllabic coda are assimilated to the following consonant. Examples of Cuban Spanish:
|/l/ or /r/ + /f/||>||/d/ + /f/:||[ff]||a[ff]iler, hue[ff]ano||(Sp. 'alfiler', 'huérfano')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /s/||>||/d/ + /s/:||[ds]||fa[ds]a), du[ds]e||(Sp. 'falsa or farsa', 'dulce')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /h/||>||/d/ + /h/:||[?h]||ana[?h]ésico, vi[?h]en||(Sp. 'analgésico', 'virgen')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /b/||>||/d/ + /b/:||[b?b]||si[b?b]a, cu[b?b]a||(Sp. 'silba or sirva', 'curva')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /d/||>||/d/ + /d/:||[d?d]||ce[d?d]a, acue[d?d]o||(Sp. 'celda or cerda', 'acuerdo')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /g/||>||/d/ + /g/:||[g?g]||pu[g?g]a, la[g?g]a||(Sp. 'pulga or purga', 'larga')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /p/||>||/d/ + /p/:||[b?p]||cu[b?p]a, cue[b?p]o||(Sp. 'culpa', 'cuerpo')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /t/||>||/d/ + /t/:||[d?t]||sue[d?t]e, co[d?t]a||(Sp. 'suelte o suerte', 'corta')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /?/||>||/d/ + /?/:||[d]||co[d]a, ma[d]arse||(Sp. 'colcha o corcha', 'marcharse')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /k/||>||/d/ + /k/:||[g?k]||vo[g?k]ar, ba[g?k]o||(Sp. 'volcar', 'barco')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /m/||>||/d/ + /m/:||[mm]||ca[mm]a, a[mm]a||(Sp. 'calma', 'alma o arma')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /n/||>||/d/ + /n/:||[nn]||pie[nn]a, ba[nn]eario||(Sp. 'pierna', 'balneario')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /l/||>||/d/ + /l/:||[ll]||bu[ll]a, cha[ll]a||(Sp. 'burla', 'charla')|
|/l/ or /r/ + /r/||>||/d/ + /r/:||[r]||a[r]ededor||(Sp. 'alrededor')|
In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: ? /b?'t?:?/ "bonfire", /po'dru:?/ "married couple", ? /ob'l?t:?/ "face". Geminates also occur at the start of a few words: /l?:?'n?j/ "flaxen", forms of the verb ? "to pour" ( /l?:u/, ? /l?:/ etc.), /'s:?t?/ "to suck" and derivatives. Gemination is in some cases semantically crucial; for example, means "manna" or "semolina" while ? means "delusion".
Luganda is unusual in that gemination can occur word-initially, as well as word-medially. For example, kkapa /k:apa/ "cat", /?:a?:a/ jjajja "grandfather" and /?:abo/ nnyabo "madam" all begin with geminate consonants.
There are three consonants that cannot be geminated: /j/, /w/ and /l/. Whenever morphological rules would geminate these consonants, /j/ and /w/ are prefixed with /?/, and /l/ changes to /d/. For example:
In Japanese, consonant length is distinctive (as is vowel length). Gemination in the syllabary is represented with the sokuon, a small tsu: ? for hiragana in native words and ? for katakana in foreign words. For example, (, kita) means "came; arrived", while (, kitta) means "cut; sliced". With the influx of gairaigo ("foreign words") into Modern Japanese, voiced consonants have become able to geminate as well: (bagu) means "(computer) bug", and (baggu) means "bag". Distinction between voiceless gemination and voiced gemination is visible in pairs of words such as (kitto, meaning "kit") and (kiddo, meaning "kid"). In addition, in some variants of colloquial Modern Japanese, gemination may be applied to some adjectives and adverbs (regardless of voicing) in order to add emphasis: (sugoi, "amazing") contrasts with ? (suggoi, "really amazing"); ? (, omoikiri, "with all one's strength") contrasts with (, omoikkiri, "really with all one's strength").
Loanwords originally ending with a phonemic geminated consonant are always written and pronounced without the ending gemination as in Arabic.
Although gemination is resurrected when the word takes a suffix.
Gemination also occurs when a suffix starting with a consonant comes after a word that ends with the same consonant.
Consider following example:
Estonian has three phonemic lengths; however, the third length is a suprasegmental feature, which is as much tonal patterning as a length distinction. It is traceable to allophony caused by now-deleted suffixes, for example half-long linna < *linnan "of the city" vs. overlong linna < *linnahan "to the city".[clarification needed]
Consonant length is phonemic in Finnish, for example takka ['t?k:?] ("fireplace", transcribed with the length sign [:] or with a doubled letter ['t?kk?]) and taka ['t?k?] ("back"). Consonant gemination occurs with simple consonants (hakaa : hakkaa) and between syllables in the pattern (consonant)-vowel-sonorant-stop-stop-vowel (palkka) but not generally in codas or with longer syllables. (This occurs in Sami languages and in the Finnish name Jouhkki, which is of Sami origin.) Sandhi often produces geminates.
Both consonant and vowel gemination are phonemic, and both occur independently, e.g. Mali, maali, malli, maallinen (Karelian surname, "paint", "model", and "secular").
In many Finnish dialects there are also the following types of special gemination in connection with long vowels: the southwestern special gemination (lounaismurteiden erikoisgeminaatio), with lengthening of stops + shortening of long vowel, of the type leipää < leippä; the common gemination (yleisgeminaatio), with lengthening of all consonants in short, stressed syllables, of the type putoaa > puttoo and its extension (which is strongest in the northwestern Savonian dialects); the eastern dialectal special gemination (itämurteiden erikoisgeminaatio), which is the same as the common gemination but also applies to unstressed syllables and certain clusters, of the types lehmiä > lehmmii and maksetaan > maksettaan.
Most Sami languages contrast three different degrees of consonant length. These often contrast in different forms within a single inflectional paradigm, as in Northern Sami goar'rut "let's sew!" versus goarrut "to sew, we sew" versus goarut "you (sg.) sew". Often, progressively longer consonants correspond to a progressively shorter preceding vowel.
In Proto-Samic, the common ancestor of the Sami languages, there was already a contrast between single and geminate consonants, inherited from Proto-Uralic. A process called consonant gradation then lengthened all consonants when they stood at the end of a stressed syllable, if the next syllable was open. The subsequent loss of final consonants and vowels in the later Sami languages made this process contrastive, resulting in as many as four contrastive lengths (lengthened geminate, unlengthened geminate, lengthened single, unlengthened single). The modern Sami languages have reduced this to three, by merging the unlengthened geminates with the lengthened single consonants.
In Wagiman, an indigenous Australian language, consonant length in stops is the primary phonetic feature that differentiates fortis and lenis stops. Wagiman does not have phonetic voice. Word-initial and word-final stops never contrast for length.
In written language, consonant length is often indicated by writing a consonant twice (ss, kk, pp, and so forth), but can also be indicated with a special symbol, such as the shadda in Arabic, the dagesh in Classical Hebrew, or the sokuon in Japanese.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, long consonants are normally written using the triangular colon :, e.g. penne [pen:e] ("feathers", "pens", also a kind of pasta), though doubled letters are also used (especially for underlying phonemic forms, or in tone languages to facilitate diacritic marking).
Doubled orthographic consonants do not always indicate a long phonetic consonant.