Geobacter Metallireducens
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Geobacter Metallireducens

Geobacter metallireducens
Scientific classification
G. metallireducens
Binomial name
Geobacter metallireducens
Lovley et al. 1995

Geobacter metallireducens is a gram-negative metal-reducing proteobacterium.[1] It is a strict anaerobe that oxidizes several short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, and monoaromatic compounds with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor.[2] It can also use uranium for its growth and convert U(VI) to U(IV).[3]

Geobacter metallireducens was discovered by Derek Lovley at UMass Amherst in 1993.[1] It is an iron-reducing bacteria and it has been thought that the microbe could be used to treat industrial sites where "cyanide-metal complexes" have formed to contaminate the site.[4] Geobacter metallireducens becomes motile when necessary, producing a flagellum in order to relocate when environmental conditions become unfavorable. [4]

The genome of Geobacter metallireducens has a chromosome length of 3,997,420 bp. It has a circular bacterial chromosome, meaning there are no free ends of DNA. The shape is roughly like that of an egg.[5] Geobacter metallireducens also has a GC content of 59.51%.[5] The plasmid has a lower GC content, of 52.48%, and is 13,762 bp in length. The plasmid encodes a stabilizing protein, RelE/ParE, which allows Geobacter metallireducens to adapt and thrive in different and new environmental conditions.[6]

G. metallireducens has been demonstrated to reduce chloramphenicol (CAP) to complete dechlorination products under pure culture conditions. Research utilizing cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometry revealed that the bacteria exhibited a negative correlation CAP removal efficiency with initial CAP dosages, displaying the organism's potential application of bioremediation in environments polluted by antibiotics.[7]


  1. ^ a b Lovley DR, Giovannoni SJ, White DC, Champine JE, Phillips EJ, Gorby YA, Goodwin S (1993). "Geobacter metallireducens gen. nov. sp. nov., a microorganism capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of iron and other metals". Archives of Microbiology. 159 (4): 336-344. doi:10.1007/BF00290916. PMID 8387263. S2CID 21365293.
  2. ^ Tremblay PL, Aklujkar M, Leang C, Nevin KP, Lovley D (February 2012). "A genetic system for Geobacter metallireducens: role of the flagellin and pilin in the reduction of Fe(III) oxide". Environmental Microbiology Reports. 4 (1): 82-88. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2011.00305.x. PMID 23757233.
  3. ^ Koribanics NM, Tuorto SJ, Lopez-Chiaffarelli N, McGuinness LR, Häggblom MM, Williams KH, Long PE, Kerkhof LJ (2015). "Spatial distribution of an uranium-respiring betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO field research site". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0123378. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1023378K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123378. PMC 4395306. PMID 25874721.
  4. ^ a b Childers SE, Ciufo S, Lovley DR (April 2002). "Geobacter metallireducens accesses insoluble Fe(III) oxide by chemotaxis". Nature. 416 (6882): 767-769. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..767C. doi:10.1038/416767a. PMID 11961561. S2CID 2967856.
  5. ^ a b Aklujkar M, Krushkal J, DiBartolo G, Lapidus A, Land ML, Lovley DR (May 2009). "The genome sequence of Geobacter metallireducens: features of metabolism, physiology and regulation common and dissimilar to Geobacter sulfurreducens". BMC Microbiology. 9: 109. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-109. PMC 2700814. PMID 19473543.
  6. ^ Anantharaman V, Aravind L (2003). "New connections in the prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin network: relationship with the eukaryotic nonsense-mediated RNA decay system". Genome Biology. 4 (12): R81. doi:10.1186/gb-2003-4-12-r81. PMC 329420. PMID 14659018.
  7. ^ Xu, H., Xiao, L., Zheng, S. et al. "Reductive degradation of chloramphenicol by Geobacter metallireducens". Sci. China Technol. Sci. 62, 1688-1694 (2019). doi:10.1007/s11431-018-9415-2

Further reading

External links

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