Get Golden Ratio essential facts below. View Videos or join the Golden Ratio discussion. Add Golden Ratio to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Ratio between two quantities whose sum is at the same ratio to the larger one
Line segments in the golden ratio
A golden rectangle with long side a and short side b adjacent to a square with sides of length a produces a similar golden rectangle with long side a + b and short side a. This illustrates the relationship
In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. Expressed algebraically, for quantities and with
The golden ratio is also called the golden mean or golden section (Latin: sectio aurea). Other names include extreme and mean ratio,medial section, divine proportion (Latin: proportio divina),divine section (Latin: sectio divina), golden proportion, golden cut, and golden number.
Some of the greatest mathematical minds of all ages, from Pythagoras and Euclid in ancient Greece, through the medieval Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa and the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler, to present-day scientific figures such as Oxford physicist Roger Penrose, have spent endless hours over this simple ratio and its properties. ... Biologists, artists, musicians, historians, architects, psychologists, and even mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its ubiquity and appeal. In fact, it is probably fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics.
-- The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number
Ancient Greek mathematicians first studied what we now call the golden ratio, because of its frequent appearance in geometry; the division of a line into "extreme and mean ratio" (the golden section) is important in the geometry of regular pentagrams and pentagons. According to one story, 5th-century BC mathematician Hippasus discovered that the golden ratio was neither a whole number nor a fraction (an irrational number), surprising Pythagoreans.Euclid's Elements provides several propositions and their proofs employing the golden ratio,[b] and contains its first known definition which proceeds as follows:
A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the lesser.[c]
The golden ratio was studied peripherally over the next millennium. Abu Kamil (c. 850-930) employed it in his geometric calculations of pentagons and decagons; his writings influenced that of Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa) (c. 1170-1250), who used the ratio in related geometry problems, though never connected it to the series of numbers named after him.
Geometry has two great treasures: one is the theorem of Pythagoras, the other the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio. The first we may compare to a mass of gold, the second we may call a precious jewel.
The Swiss architectLe Corbusier, famous for his contributions to the moderninternational style, centered his design philosophy on systems of harmony and proportion. Le Corbusier's faith in the mathematical order of the universe was closely bound to the golden ratio and the Fibonacci series, which he described as "rhythms apparent to the eye and clear in their relations with one another. And these rhythms are at the very root of human activities. They resound in man by an organic inevitability, the same fine inevitability which causes the tracing out of the Golden Section by children, old men, savages and the learned."
In addition to the golden ratio, Le Corbusier based the system on human measurements, Fibonacci numbers, and the double unit. He took suggestion of the golden ratio in human proportions to an extreme: he sectioned his model human body's height at the navel with the two sections in golden ratio, then subdivided those sections in golden ratio at the knees and throat; he used these golden ratio proportions in the Modulor system. Le Corbusier's 1927 Villa Stein in Garches exemplified the Modulor system's application. The villa's rectangular ground plan, elevation, and inner structure closely approximate golden rectangles.
Another Swiss architect, Mario Botta, bases many of his designs on geometric figures. Several private houses he designed in Switzerland are composed of squares and circles, cubes and cylinders. In a house he designed in Origlio, the golden ratio is the proportion between the central section and the side sections of the house.
Divina proportione (Divine proportion), a three-volume work by Luca Pacioli, was published in 1509. Pacioli, a Franciscanfriar, was known mostly as a mathematician, but he was also trained and keenly interested in art. Divina proportione explored the mathematics of the golden ratio. Though it is often said that Pacioli advocated the golden ratio's application to yield pleasing, harmonious proportions, Livio points out that the interpretation has been traced to an error in 1799, and that Pacioli actually advocated the Vitruvian system of rational proportions. Pacioli also saw Catholic religious significance in the ratio, which led to his work's title.
Leonardo da Vinci's illustrations of polyhedra in Divina proportione have led some to speculate that he incorporated the golden ratio in his paintings. But the suggestion that his Mona Lisa, for example, employs golden ratio proportions, is not supported by Leonardo's own writings. Similarly, although the Vitruvian Man is often shown in connection with the golden ratio, the proportions of the figure do not actually match it, and the text only mentions whole number ratios.
A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters, performed in 1999, found that these artists had not used the golden ratio in the size of their canvases. The study concluded that the average ratio of the two sides of the paintings studied is with averages for individual artists ranging from (Goya) to (Bellini). On the other hand, Pablo Tosto listed over 350 works by well-known artists, including more than 100 which have canvasses with golden rectangle and proportions, and others with proportions like and 
Depiction of the proportions in a medieval manuscript. According to Jan Tschichold: "Page proportion 2:3. Margin proportions 1:1:2:3. Text area proportioned in the Golden Section."
There was a time when deviations from the truly beautiful page proportions and the Golden Section were rare. Many books produced between 1550 and 1770 show these proportions exactly, to within half a millimeter.
According to some sources, the golden ratio is used in everyday design, for example in the proportions of playing cards, postcards, posters, light switch plates, and widescreen televisions.
Ern? Lendvai analyzes Béla Bartók's works as being based on two opposing systems, that of the golden ratio and the acoustic scale, though other music scholars reject that analysis. French composer Erik Satie used the golden ratio in several of his pieces, including Sonneries de la Rose+Croix. The golden ratio is also apparent in the organization of the sections in the music of Debussy's Reflets dans l'eau (Reflections in Water), from Images (1st series, 1905), in which "the sequence of keys is marked out by the intervals 34,21,13 and 8, and the main climax sits at the phi position".
The musicologist Roy Howat has observed that the formal boundaries of Debussy's La Mer correspond exactly to the golden section. Trezise finds the intrinsic evidence "remarkable", but cautions that no written or reported evidence suggests that Debussy consciously sought such proportions.
The golden ratio is an irrational number. Below are two short proofs of irrationality:
Contradiction from an expression in lowest terms
If were rational, then it would be the ratio of sides of a rectangle with integer sides (the rectangle comprising the entire diagram). But it would also be a ratio of integer sides of the smaller rectangle (the rightmost portion of the diagram) obtained by deleting a square. The sequence of decreasing integer side lengths formed by deleting squares cannot be continued indefinitely because the positive integers have a lower bound, so cannot be rational.
the whole is the longer part plus the shorter part;
the whole is to the longer part as the longer part is to the shorter part.
If we call the whole and the longer part then the second statement above becomes
is to as is to
To say that the golden ratio is rational means that is a fraction where and are integers. We may take to be in lowest terms and and to be positive. But if is in lowest terms, then the identity labeled above says is in still lower terms. That is a contradiction that follows from the assumption that is rational.
By irrationality of
Another short proof - perhaps more commonly known - of the irrationality of the golden ratio makes use of the closure of rational numbers under addition and multiplication. If is rational, then is also rational, which is a contradiction if it is already known that the square root of a non-squarenatural number is irrational.
The golden ratio and its negative reciprocal are the two roots of the quadratic polynomial. The golden ratio's negative and reciprocal are the two roots of the quadratic polynomial .
The golden ratio is also closely related to the polynomial
which has roots and
Golden ratio conjugate
The conjugate root to the minimal polynomial is
The absolute value of this quantity corresponds to the length ratio taken in reverse order (shorter segment length over longer segment length, ), and is sometimes referred to as the golden ratio conjugate or silver ratio.[e] It is denoted here by the capital Phi
Alternatively, can be expressed as
This illustrates the unique property of the golden ratio among positive numbers, that
or its inverse:
Approximations to the reciprocal golden ratio by finite continued fractions, or ratios of Fibonacci numbers
An infinite series can be derived to express :
These correspond to the fact that the length of the diagonal of a regular pentagon is times the length of its side, and similar relations in a pentagram.
Approximate and true golden spirals. The green spiral is made from quarter-circles tangent to the interior of each square, while the red spiral is a Golden Spiral, a special type of logarithmic spiral. Overlapping portions appear yellow. The length of the side of one square divided by that of the next smaller square is the golden ratio.
There is no known general algorithm to arrange a given number of nodes evenly on a sphere, for any of several definitions of even distribution (see, for example, Thomson problem or Tammes problem). However, a useful approximation results from dividing the sphere into parallel bands of equal surface area and placing one node in each band at longitudes spaced by a golden section of the circle, i.e. This method was used to arrange the 1500 mirrors of the student-participatory satelliteStarshine-3.
Dividing a line segment by interior division
Dividing a line segment by interior division according to the golden ratio
Having a line segment construct a perpendicular at point with half the length of Draw the hypotenuse
Draw an arc with center and radius This arc intersects the hypotenuse at point
Draw an arc with center and radius This arc intersects the original line segment at point Point divides the original line segment into line segments and with lengths in the golden ratio.
Dividing a line segment by exterior division
Dividing a line segment by exterior division according to the golden ratio
Draw a line segment and construct off the point a segment perpendicular to and with the same length as
Do bisect the line segment with
A circular arc around with radius intersects in point the straight line through points and (also known as the extension of ). The ratio of to the constructed segment is the golden ratio.
If angle then because of the bisection, and because of the similar triangles; from the original isosceles symmetry, and by similarity. The angles in a triangle add up to so giving So the angles of the golden triangle are thus -- The angles of the remaining obtuse isosceles triangle (sometimes called the golden gnomon) are --
Suppose has length and we call length Because of the isosceles triangles and so these are also length Length therefore equals But triangle is similar to triangle so and so also equals Thus confirming that is indeed the golden ratio.
Similarly, the ratio of the area of the larger triangle to the smaller is equal to while the inverse ratio is
In a regular pentagon the ratio of a diagonal to a side is the golden ratio, while intersecting diagonals section each other in the golden ratio.
Let and be midpoints of the sides and of an equilateral triangle Extend to meet the circumcircle of at
George Odom has given a remarkably simple construction for involving an equilateral triangle: if an equilateral triangle is inscribed in a circle and the line segment joining the midpoints of two sides is produced to intersect the circle in either of two points, then these three points are in golden proportion. This result is a straightforward consequence of the intersecting chords theorem and can be used to construct a regular pentagon, a construction that attracted the attention of the noted Canadian geometer H. S. M. Coxeter who published it in Odom's name as a diagram in the American Mathematical Monthly accompanied by the single word "Behold!" 
A pentagram colored to distinguish its line segments of different lengths. The four lengths are in golden ratio to one another.
The golden ratio plays an important role in the geometry of pentagrams. Each intersection of edges sections other edges in the golden ratio. Also, the ratio of the length of the shorter segment to the segment bounded by the two intersecting edges (a side of the pentagon in the pentagram's center) is as the four-color illustration shows.
The pentagram includes ten isosceles triangles: five acute and five obtuse isosceles triangles. In all of them, the ratio of the longer side to the shorter side is The acute triangles are golden triangles. The obtuse isosceles triangles are golden gnomons.
The golden ratio properties of a regular pentagon can be confirmed by applying Ptolemy's theorem to the quadrilateral formed by removing one of its vertices. If the quadrilateral's long edge and diagonals are and short edges are then Ptolemy's theorem gives which yields
Scalenity of triangles
Consider a triangle with sides of lengths and in decreasing order. Define the "scalenity" of the triangle to be the smaller of the two ratios and The scalenity is always less than and can be made as close as desired to 
Triangle whose sides form a geometric progression
If the side lengths of a triangle form a geometric progression and are in the ratio where is the common ratio, then must lie in the range as a consequence of the triangle inequality (the sum of any two sides of a triangle must be strictly bigger than the length of the third side). If then the shorter two sides are and but their sum is thus A similar calculation shows that A triangle whose sides are in the ratio is a right triangle (because ) known as a Kepler triangle.
Golden triangle, rhombus, and rhombic triacontahedron
One of the rhombic triacontahedron's rhombi
All of the faces of the rhombic triacontahedron are golden rhombi
A Fibonacci spiral which approximates the golden spiral, using Fibonacci sequence square sizes up to The spiral is drawn starting from the inner square and continues outwards to successively larger squares.
The golden ratio is the limit of the ratios of successive terms of the Fibonacci sequence (or any Fibonacci-like sequence), as shown by Kepler:
In other words, if a Fibonacci number is divided by its immediate predecessor in the sequence, the quotient approximates e.g., These approximations are alternately lower and higher than and converge to as the Fibonacci numbers increase, and:
where above, the ratios of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, is a case when
Furthermore, the successive powers of obey the Fibonacci recurrence:
This identity allows any polynomial in to be reduced to a linear expression. For example:
The reduction to a linear expression can be accomplished in one step by using the relationship
where is the th Fibonacci number.
However, this is no special property of because polynomials in any solution to a quadratic equation can be reduced in an analogous manner, by applying:
for given coefficients such that satisfies the equation. Even more generally, any rational function (with rational coefficients) of the root of an irreducible th-degree polynomial over the rationals can be reduced to a polynomial of degree Phrased in terms of field theory, if is a root of an irreducible th-degree polynomial, then has degree over with basis
The golden ratio and inverse golden ratio have a set of symmetries that preserve and interrelate them. They are both preserved by the fractional linear transformations - this fact corresponds to the identity and the definition quadratic equation.
Further, they are interchanged by the three maps - they are reciprocals, symmetric about and (projectively) symmetric about
More deeply, these maps form a subgroup of the modular group isomorphic to the symmetric group on letters, corresponding to the stabilizer of the set of standard points on the projective line, and the symmetries correspond to the quotient map - the subgroup consisting of the identity and the -cycles, in cycle notation fixes the two numbers, while the -cycles interchange these, thus realizing the map.
The defining quadratic polynomial and the conjugate relationship lead to decimal values that have their fractional part in common with :
The sequence of powers of contains these values more generally,
any power of is equal to the sum of the two immediately preceding powers:
As a result, one can easily decompose any power of into a multiple of and a constant. The multiple and the constant are always adjacent Fibonacci numbers. This leads to another property of the positive powers of :
The golden ratio also appears in hyperbolic geometry, as the maximum distance from a point on one side of an ideal triangle to the closer of the other two sides: this distance, the side length of the equilateral triangle formed by the points of tangency of a circle inscribed within the ideal triangle, is 
for until the difference between and becomes zero, to the desired number of digits.
The Babylonian algorithm for is equivalent to Newton's method for solving the equation In its more general form, Newton's method can be applied directly to any algebraic equation, including the equation that defines the golden ratio. This gives an iteration that converges to the golden ratio itself,
for an appropriate initial estimate such as A slightly faster method is to rewrite the equation as in which case the Newton iteration becomes
These iterations all converge quadratically; that is, each step roughly doubles the number of correct digits. The golden ratio is therefore relatively easy to compute with arbitrary precision. The time needed to compute digits of the golden ratio is proportional to the time needed to divide two -digit numbers. This is considerably faster than known algorithms for the transcendental numbers and .
An easily programmed alternative using only integer arithmetic is to calculate two large consecutive Fibonacci numbers and divide them. The ratio of Fibonacci numbers and each over digits, yields over significant digits of the golden ratio.
The decimal expansion of the golden ratio  has been calculated to an accuracy of ten trillion digits.
A regular square pyramid is determined by its medial right triangle, whose edges are the pyramid's apothem semi-base and height the face inclination angle is also marked. Mathematical proportions of and and are of particular interest in relation to Egyptian pyramids.
Both Egyptian pyramids and the regular square pyramids that resemble them can be analyzed with respect to the golden ratio and other ratios.
A pyramid in which the apothem (slant height along the bisector of a face) is equal to times the semi-base (half the base width) is sometimes called a golden pyramid. The isosceles triangle that is the face of such a pyramid can be constructed from the two halves of a diagonally split golden rectangle (of size semi-base by apothem), joining the medium-length edges to make the apothem. The height of this pyramid is times the semi-base (that is, the slope of the face is ); the square of the height is equal to the area of a face, times the square of the semi-base.
A nearly similar pyramid shape, but with rational proportions, is described in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (the source of a large part of modern knowledge of ancient Egyptian mathematics), based on the triangle; the face slope corresponding to the angle with tangent is, to two decimal places, The slant height or apothem is times the semi-base. The Rhind papyrus has another pyramid problem as well, again with rational slope (expressed as run over rise). Egyptian mathematics did not include the notion of irrational numbers, and the rational inverse slope (run/rise, multiplied by a factor of to convert to their conventional units of palms per cubit) was used in the building of pyramids.
Another mathematical pyramid with proportions almost identical to the "golden" one is the one with perimeter equal to times the height, or This triangle has a face angle of very close to the of the Kepler triangle. This pyramid relationship corresponds to the coincidental relationship
Egyptian pyramids very close in proportion to these mathematical pyramids are known.
One Egyptian pyramid that is close to a "golden pyramid" is the Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Cheops or Khufu). Its slope of is close to the "golden" pyramid inclination of - and even closer to the -based pyramid inclination of However, several other mathematical theories of the shape of the great pyramid, based on rational slopes, have been found to be both more accurate and more plausible explanations for the slope.
In the mid-nineteenth century, Friedrich Röber studied various Egyptian pyramids including those of Khafre, Menkaure, and some of the Giza, Saqqara, and Abusir groups. He did not apply the golden ratio to the Great Pyramid of Giza, but instead agreed with John Shae Perring that its side-to-height ratio is For all the other pyramids he applied measurements related to the Kepler triangle, and claimed that either their whole or half-side lengths are related to their heights by the golden ratio.
In 1859, the pyramidologistJohn Taylor misinterpreted Herodotus as indicating that the Great Pyramid's height squared equals the area of one of its face triangles.[f] This led Taylor to claim that, in the Great Pyramid, the golden ratio is represented by the ratio of the length of the face (the slope height, inclined at an angle to the ground) to half the length of the side of the square base (equivalent to the secant of the angle ). The above two lengths are about 186.4 metres (612 ft) and 115.2 metres (378 ft), respectively. The ratio of these lengths is the golden ratio, accurate to more digits than either of the original measurements. Similarly, Howard Vyse reported the great pyramid height 148.2 metres (486 ft), and half-base 116.4 metres (382 ft), yielding for the ratio of slant height to half-base, again more accurate than the data variability.
Eric Temple Bell, mathematician and historian, claimed in 1950 that Egyptian mathematics would not have supported the ability to calculate the slant height of the pyramids, or the ratio to the height, except in the case of the pyramid, since the triangle was the only right triangle known to the Egyptians and they did not know the Pythagorean theorem, nor any way to reason about irrationals such as or  Example geometric problems of pyramid design in the Rhind papyrus correspond to various rational slopes.
Michael Rice asserts that principal authorities on the history of Egyptian architecture have argued that the Egyptians were well acquainted with the golden ratio and that it is part of the mathematics of the pyramids, citing Giedon (1957). Historians of science have long debated whether the Egyptians had any such knowledge, contending that its appearance in the Great Pyramid is the result of chance.
Examples of disputed observations of the golden ratio include the following:
Nautilus shells are often erroneously claimed to be golden-proportioned.
Some specific proportions in the bodies of many animals (including humans) and parts of the shells of mollusks are often claimed to be in the golden ratio. There is a large variation in the real measures of these elements in specific individuals, however, and the proportion in question is often significantly different from the golden ratio. The ratio of successive phalangeal bones of the digits and the metacarpal bone has been said to approximate the golden ratio. The nautilus shell, the construction of which proceeds in a logarithmic spiral, is often cited, usually with the idea that any logarithmic spiral is related to the golden ratio, but sometimes with the claim that each new chamber is golden-proportioned relative to the previous one. However, measurements of nautilus shells do not support this claim.
Historian John Man states that both the pages and text area of the Gutenberg Bible were "based on the golden section shape". However, according to his own measurements, the ratio of height to width of the pages is 
Studies by psychologists, starting with Gustav Fechner c. 1876, have been devised to test the idea that the golden ratio plays a role in human perception of beauty. While Fechner found a preference for rectangle ratios centered on the golden ratio, later attempts to carefully test such a hypothesis have been, at best, inconclusive.
In investing, some practitioners of technical analysis use the golden ratio to indicate support of a price level, or resistance to price increases, of a stock or commodity; after significant price changes up or down, new support and resistance levels are supposedly found at or near prices related to the starting price via the golden ratio. The use of the golden ratio in investing is also related to more complicated patterns described by Fibonacci numbers (e.g. Elliott wave principle and Fibonacci retracement). However, other market analysts have published analyses suggesting that these percentages and patterns are not supported by the data.
Many of the proportions of the Parthenon are alleged to exhibit the golden ratio, but this has largely been discredited.
The Parthenon's façade (c. 432 BC) as well as elements of its façade and elsewhere are said by some to be circumscribed by golden rectangles. Other scholars deny that the Greeks had any aesthetic association with golden ratio. For example, Keith Devlin says, "Certainly, the oft repeated assertion that the Parthenon in Athens is based on the golden ratio is not supported by actual measurements. In fact, the entire story about the Greeks and golden ratio seems to be without foundation."Midhat J. Gazalé affirms that "It was not until Euclid ... that the golden ratio's mathematical properties were studied."
From measurements of 15 temples, 18 monumental tombs, 8 sarcophagi, and 58 grave stelae from the fifth century BC to the second century AD, one researcher concluded that the golden ratio was totally absent from Greek architecture of the classical fifth century BC, and almost absent during the following six centuries.
Later sources like Vitruvius (first century BC) exclusively discuss proportions that can be expressed in whole numbers, i.e. commensurate as opposed to irrational proportions.
The Section d'Or ('Golden Section') was a collective of painters, sculptors, poets and critics associated with Cubism and Orphism. Active from 1911 to around 1914, they adopted the name both to highlight that Cubism represented the continuation of a grand tradition, rather than being an isolated movement, and in homage to the mathematical harmony associated with Georges Seurat. The Cubists observed in its harmonies, geometric structuring of motion and form, the primacy of idea over nature, an absolute scientific clarity of conception. However, despite this general interest in mathematical harmony, whether the paintings featured in the celebrated 1912 Salon de la Section d'Or exhibition used the golden ratio in any compositions is more difficult to determine. Livio, for example, claims that they did not, and Marcel Duchamp said as much in an interview. On the other hand, an analysis suggests that Juan Gris made use of the golden ratio in composing works that were likely, but not definitively, shown at the exhibition. Art historian Daniel Robbins has argued that in addition to referencing the mathematical term, the exhibition's name also refers to the earlier Bandeaux d'Or group, with which Albert Gleizes and other former members of the Abbaye de Créteil had been involved.
^If the constraint on and each being greater than zero is lifted, then there are actually two solutions, one positive and one negative, to this equation. is defined as the positive solution. The negative solution is The sum of the two solutions is and the product of the two solutions is
^Euclid, Elements, Book II, Proposition 11; Book IV, Propositions 10-11; Book VI, Proposition 30; Book XIII, Propositions 1-6, 8-11, 16-18.
^Taylor translated Herodotus: "this Pyramid, which is four-sided, each face is, on every side 8 plethra, and the height equal." He interpreted this imaginatively, and in 1860, John Herschel was the first of many authors to repeat his false claim. In 2000, Roger Herz-Fischler traced the error back to Taylor.
^Summerson John, Heavenly Mansions: And Other Essays on Architecture (New York: W.W. Norton, 1963) p. 37. "And the same applies in architecture, to the rectangles representing these and other ratios (e.g. the 'golden cut'). The sole value of these ratios is that they are intellectually fruitful and suggest the rhythms of modular design."
^Jay Hambidge, Dynamic Symmetry: The Greek Vase, New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 1920
^William Lidwell, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler, Universal Principles of Design: A Cross-Disciplinary Reference, Gloucester MA: Rockport Publishers, 2003
^Le Corbusier, The Modulor, p. 35, as cited in Padovan, Richard, Proportion: Science, Philosophy, Architecture (1999), p. 320. Taylor & Francis. ISBN0-419-22780-6: "Both the paintings and the architectural designs make use of the golden section".
^Keith Devlin (May 2007). "The Myth That Will Not Go Away". Retrieved 2013. Part of the process of becoming a mathematics writer is, it appears, learning that you cannot refer to the golden ratio without following the first mention by a phrase that goes something like 'which the ancient Greeks and others believed to have divine and mystical properties.' Almost as compulsive is the urge to add a second factoid along the lines of 'Leonardo Da Vinci believed that the human form displays the golden ratio.' There is not a shred of evidence to back up either claim, and every reason to assume they are both false. Yet both claims, along with various others in a similar vein, live on.
^Tosto, Pablo, La composición áurea en las artes plásticas - El número de oro, Librería Hachette, 1969, pp. 134-144
^Jan Tschichold. The Form of the Book, p. 43 Fig 4. "Framework of ideal proportions in a medieval manuscript without multiple columns. Determined by Jan Tschichold 1953. Page proportion 2 : 3. margin proportions 1 : 1 : 2 : 3, Text area proportioned in the Golden Section. The lower outer corner of the text area is fixed by a diagonal as well."
^Tschichold, Jan (1991). The Form of the Book. Hartley & Marks. pp. 27-28. ISBN0-88179-116-4.
Jones, Ronald (1971). "The golden section: A most remarkable measure". The Structurist. 11: 44-52. Who would suspect, for example, that the switch plate for single light switches are standardized in terms of a Golden Rectangle?
^Midhat Gazale, Gnomon: From Pharaohs to Fractals, Princeton Univ. Press, 1999
^ abEli Maor, Trigonometric Delights, Princeton Univ. Press, 2000
^Hogben, Lancelot, Mathematics for the Million, London: Allen & Unwin, 1942, p. 63., as cited by Teresi, Dick, Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science - from the Babylonians to the Maya, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003, p.56
^Rice, Michael, Egypt's Legacy: The Archetypes of Western Civilisation, 3000 to 30 B.C. p. 24 Routledge, 2003, ISBN0-415-26876-1
^S. Giedon, 1957, The Beginnings of Architecture, The A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 457, as cited in Rice, Michael, Egypt's Legacy: The Archetypes of Western Civilisation, 3000 to 30 B.C. p. 24 Routledge, 2003
^Man, John, Gutenberg: How One Man Remade the World with Word (2002) pp. 166-167, Wiley, ISBN0-471-21823-5. "The half-folio page (30.7 × 44.5 cm) was made up of two rectangles--the whole page and its text area--based on the so called 'golden section', which specifies a crucial relationship between short and long sides, and produces an irrational number, as pi is, but is a ratio of about 5:8."
^Fechner, Gustav (1876). Vorschule der Ästhetik. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. pp. 190-202.
^Green, Christopher, Juan Gris, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 18 September-29 November 1992; Staatsgalerie Stuttgart 18 December 1992-14 February 1993; Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo, 6 March-2 May 1993, Yale University Press, 1992, pp. 37-38, ISBN0300053746
^Roger Allard, Sur quelques peintre, Les Marches du Sud-Ouest, June 1911, pp. 57-64. In Mark Antliff and Patricia Leighten, A Cubism Reader, Documents and Criticism, 1906-1914, The University of Chicago Press, 2008, pp. 178-191, 330.
^Bouleau, Charles, The Painter's Secret Geometry: A Study of Composition in Art (1963) pp. 247-248, Harcourt, Brace & World, ISBN0-87817-259-9