Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, and manifested in its insignia. Exceptionally, the highest class may be referred to as Grand Cordon or equivalent. In other cases, there may exist a rank even higher than Grand Cross, e.g. Grand Collar. In rare cases,[example needed] the insignia itself is referred to as the "grand cross".
In international relations, in many times the class of Grand Cross is typically reserved for royalty, heads of state and equivalent. Sometimes a holder of the highest class or grade are referred to as "Commander Grand Cross",[A 1] "Knight Grand Cross", or just "Grand Cross".
In the United Kingdom, the rank of "Knight Grand Cross" or "Dame Grand Cross" allows the recipient to continue to use the honorific "Sir" (male) or "Dame" (female) as a style before his or her name. The knighthood is initially conferred, as in other countries, at the lower rank of the order, typically "Knight".
In Bavaria, the royal military order established by Maximilian Joseph consisted of three classes with the Grand Crosses ranking above the Commanders and Knights. The Grand Cross title has also been used to confer military merit. For instance, the Grand Duchy of Baden awarded Prince Rupprecht a Grand Cross after World War I.
From 1870 to 1918, the German Empire also set the Grand Cross as the highest rank of the Order of the Iron Cross, followed by the first and second classes.
^Hieronymussen, Poul Ohm; Lundø, Jørgen, eds. (1968). Eurooppalaiset kunniamerkit värikuvina [Europæiske ordner i farver] (in Finnish). Translated by Karnila, Christer. Porvoo: WSOY. pp. 14-15. OCLC466954328.
^Carlisle, Nicholas (2012). A Concise Account of the Several Foreign Orders of Knighthood: and Other Marks of Honourable Distinction. Dallington, East Sussex: The Naval and Military Press. p. 67. ISBN9781781514290.
^Zabecki, David (2014). Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History [4 volumes]: 400 Years of Military History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 1629. ISBN9781598849806.