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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Polish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to resource articles, see {{IPA-pl}}, {{IPAc-pl}} and Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Polish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Polish.

IPA Polish Example English approximation
b b About this soundbardzo bike
? ?, s(i)[2] About this soundJa? she
d d About this sounddawno door
d?z[3] dz About this sounddzban beds
d[3] d?, dz(i)[2] About this sounddziadek jeep[4]
d[3] d? About this soundD?akarta jug[4]
f f About this soundfoka feist
? g About this soundgra? girl
g(i)[2] About this soundGiewont argue
? ch, h niechby Spanish amigo
j j, i[2] About this soundjak yes
j?[5] ? About this soundko? point
k k About this soundkrowa scam
k? k(i)[2] About this soundkierowca skew
l l About this soundlampa lion
m m[6] About this soundmorze mile
n n[6] About this soundnad Nile
? ?, n(i)[6][2] About this soundnie canyon
?[7] n[6] About this soundmango doing
p p About this soundpolicja spike
r r About this soundró?owy rolled r, as in Italian Roma
s s About this soundsmak sign
? sz About this soundszybko shore[4]
t t About this soundtak stow
t[3] ?, c(i)[2] About this soundcierpki cheer[4]
t?s[3] c About this soundca?kiem cats
t[3] cz About this soundczy child[4]
v w About this soundwarto vile
w ? About this sound?adny way
x ch, h About this soundchleb Scottish loch
x? ch(i), h(i)[2] About this soundhiacynt huge
z z About this soundzebra zebra
? ?, z(i)[2] About this soundziarno vision, azure[4]
? ?, rz About this soundrzadko
IPA Polish Example English approximation
a a About this soundtam father
? e About this soundkrem bet
?[6] About this soundcz? French vin
i i[2] About this soundpiwo eat
? y About this soundmy mill
? o About this soundrok off
?[6] About this soundw?? French son
u u, ó About this sounddu?y boot
Other symbols used for Polish
IPA Explanation
' Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), usually the penultimate syllable of a word.
? Secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable).
. Syllable break.

See also


  1. ^ All voiced obstruents are devoiced to [p, t, k, f, s, ?, ?, t, t] respectively at the ends of words and in clusters ending in any unvoiced obstruents. Voiceless obstruents are voiced (/x/ becoming , etc.) in clusters ending in any voiced obstruent except /v, ?/, which are then themselves devoiced.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The letter ⟨i⟩, when it is followed by a vowel, represents a pronunciation like a ⟨j⟩ or a "soft" pronunciation of the preceding consonant (so pies is pronounced as if it were spelt *pjes). It has the same effect as an acute accent on alveolar consonants (⟨s⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨c⟩, ⟨dz⟩, ⟨n⟩) so si?, cios and niania are pronounced as if they were spelt *, *?os, *?a?a. A following ⟨i⟩ also softens consonants when it is itself pronounced as a vowel: zima, ci and dzisiaj are pronounced as if they were spelled *?ima, *?i, *d?i?aj.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Polish contrasts affricates /t?s, d?z, t, d, t, d/ with stop-fricative clusters: for example, czysta "clean" versus trzysta "three hundred".
  4. ^ a b c d e f Polish makes a distinction between retroflex and alveolo-palatal consonants, both of which sound roughly like the English postalveolars /?, ?, t?, d?/. The retroflex sounds are pronounced "hard", with the tip of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge and the blade of the tongue somewhat lowered, and the alveolo-palatal sounds are "soft", realized with the middle of the tongue raised, adding a bit of an ⟨ee⟩ sound to them.
  5. ^ Allophone of /?/ in coda position or before fricatives.
  6. ^ a b c d e f The letters ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ represent the nasal vowels /, / except when they are followed by a stop or affricate, in which case they represent oral vowels /?, ?/ followed by a nasal consonant homorganic with the following stop or affricate: k?t ['k?nt], g?ba ['mba], r?ka ['rka], pisz?cy [pi'nt?s?], pieni?dze [pj?'nd?z?], pi ['pjt], j?czy ['j?nt] (as if spelled *kont, *gemba, *renka, *piszoncy, *pie?ondze, *pie, *jenczy).
  7. ^ Allophone of /n/ before a velar /?, k, x/ in some cases.

Further reading

  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003). "Polish" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 103-107. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191.
  • Sadowska, Iwona (2012). Polish: A Comprehensive Grammar. Oxford; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-47541-9.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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