Help:IPA/Russian
Get Help:IPA/Russian essential facts below. View Videos or join the Help:IPA/Russian discussion. Add Help:IPA/Russian to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Help:IPA/Russian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Russian pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-ru}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Russian distinguishes hard (unpalatalized or plain) and soft (palatalized) consonants (both phonetically and orthographically). Soft consonants, most of which are denoted by a superscript j, ???, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like the articulation of the y sound in yes. In native words /j, ?:, t?/ are always soft, whereas /?, ?, ts/ are always hard.[1]

See Russian phonology and Russian alphabet for a more thorough look at the sounds of Russian.

Consonants
Hard Soft
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
b ?; ??[2] boot b? ?, ? beautiful
d ?; ??[2] do d? ??; ; [2] dew (UK)
d?[3] jug d?[3] ??; [2] jig
dz[3] ?[2] lads dz?[3] ?[1] lad's young
f ?; ?;[2] ?[4] fool f? ?; ; [4] few
? ?;[5][6] ??[2] goo ? argue
? ??; ??;[5] ? ?; ? ?[2] loch (Scottish) but voiced ? [2] Loch Ewe (Scottish) but voiced
-- j ? [je-]; ?? [j?-]; ?? [ju-]; ? [ja]; ?[7] yes
k ??; ??;[2] ?[4] scar k? ??; skew
l ??[8] pill l? ?; failure
m ?? moot m? ??; mute
n ? noon n? ?; ; ?[9] vinyard
p ?; ?;[2] ?[4] span p? ??; ; [4] spew
r ? flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish r? ?; flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish
s ?; ??;[2] ?[4] soup s? ?; ; ??; ?;[2] [4] assume (for some dialects)
? ??; ??;[2] ?;[4] ?[10] rush ?: ??; ; ?[2][11] wish sheep
t ??; ?;[2] ?[4] stand t? ?; ?; ; [4] stew (UK)
ts[3] ??; ? cats ts?[3] ?[1] cat's young
t?[3] [4] chip t?[3] ?; chip
v ??; ??;[6] ???[2] voodoo v? ?; ? view
x ?; ?[5] loch (Scottish); ugh x? ?; ; ?[5] huge (for some dialects)
z ?; ?[2] zoo z? ??; ; ?; ?[2] presume (for some dialects)
? ?; ??[2] rouge ?: ?;[12] ??[2] prestige genre
Stressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
a ? father æ ??; ?[13] pat (US)
? ??; met e ??; ?[13] mace
? ??; ?; ? roses (for some dialects) i ?; meet
o ; ?? chore ? ??; ?[13] foot
u ? cool ? ??; ?[13] choose
Unstressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
? ??; ????; ?; ???[14] about ? ??; ??; ??[15] lasagna
? ??; ???; ??; ?[14] bud ? ??; ????; ??; ??; ??[16] bit
? ????; ?[17] met
? ??; ??; ??; ??; ?? roses (for some dialects)
o ?; ???[17] chore ? ??; ??[13][18] foot
? ?? pull ? ???; ??[13] youth
Suprasegmental
IPA Example Explanation
' ?? [t't?r] stress mark, placed before the stressed syllable
: ? ['z:ad][2] consonant length mark, placed after the geminated consonant

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Even though /ts/ and its voicing [dz] are considered to be exclusively hard consonants, they may be palatalized in certain words of foreign origin.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Consonants in consonant clusters are assimilated in voicing if the final consonant in the sequence is an obstruent (except [v, v?]). All consonants become voiceless if the final consonant is voiceless or voiced if the final consonant is voiced (Halle 1959:31).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h The affricates [ts], [t?], and [t?] (and their voiced counterparts [dz], [d?], and [d?]) are sometimes written with ligature ties: [t?s], [t], and [t] ([d?z], [d], and [d]). Ties are not used in transcriptions on popflock.com resource (except in phonology articles) because they may not display correctly in all browsers.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The voiced obstruents /b, b?, d, d?, ?, v, v?, z, z?, ?/ are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
  5. ^ a b c d ??? is usually pronounced or (word-finally) in some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as ?? and ?, and in the interjections ??, ??, ??, -??, and also in [b?'?altr] (Timberlake 2004:23). /?/ devoices and lenites to [x] before voiceless obstruents (dissimilation) in the word roots -?- or -?-, -?- or -?-, -?-, and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -?-, -?-, . Speakers of the Southern Russian dialects may pronounce ??? as (soft , devoiced and ) throughout.
  6. ^ a b Intervocalic ??? represents /v/ in certain words (?, ?, ? ), and in the genitive suffix -/- (Timberlake 2004:23).
  7. ^ The soft vowel letters ??, ?, ?, ?? represent iotated vowels /je, jo, ju, ja/, except when following a consonant. When these vowels are unstressed (save for ???, which is always stressed) and follow another vowel letter, the /j/ may not be present. The letter ??? produces iotated sound /ji/ only after ?.
  8. ^ /l/ is often strongly pharyngealized , but that feature is not distinctive (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:187-188).
  9. ^ Alveolo-palatal consonants are subjected to regressive assimilative palatalization; i.e. they tend to become palatalized in front of other phones with the same place of articulation.
  10. ^ Most speakers pronounce ??? in the pronoun and its derivatives as [?]. All other occurrences of cluster stay as affricate and stop.
  11. ^ ??? is sometimes pronounced as [?:] or [] and sometimes as [?t?], but no speakers contrast the two pronunciations. This generally includes the other spellings of the sound, but the word sometimes has [?t?] because of the morpheme boundary between the prefix ??-? and the root ?--?.
  12. ^ Geminated is pronounced as soft , the voiced counterpart to , in a few lexical items (such as ?? or ?) by conservative Moscow speakers; such realization is now somewhat obsolete (Yanushevskaya & Bun?i? (2015:224)).
  13. ^ a b c d e f Vowels are fronted and/or raised in the context of palatalized consonants: /a/ and /u/ become [æ] and [?], respectively between palatalized consonants, /e/ is realized as [e] before and between palatalized consonants and /o/ becomes [?] after and between palatalized consonants.
  14. ^ a b Unstressed /a/ and /o/ regularly lose their contrast, being pronounced [?] in word-initial position, as well as when in a sequence, and [?] in posttonic position (i.e. after the stress); in non-initial pretonic position (i.e. before the stress) they are reduced to [?] only immediately before the stress, being realized [?] otherwise.
  15. ^ Only in certain word-final morphemes (Timberlake 2004:48-51).
  16. ^ Unstressed /a/ is pronounced as [?] after ??? and ??? except when word-final.[]
  17. ^ a b In the careful style of pronunciation unstressed /e/ and /o/ in words of foreign origin may be pronounced with little or no reduction.
  18. ^ Unstressed [?] only occurs in words of foreign origin.

References

  • Cubberley, Paul (2002), "The phonology of Modern Russian", Russian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge University Press
  • Halle, Morris (1959), Sound Pattern of Russian, MIT Press
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Timberlake, Alan (2004), "Sounds", A Reference Grammar of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bun?i?, Daniel (2015), "Russian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221-228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Help:IPA/Russian
 



 



 
Music Scenes