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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Serbo-Croatian (the Croatian and Serbian standards thereof) pronunciations in resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to resource articles, see {{IPA-sh}}, {{IPA-sr}}, {{IPA-hr}}, {{IPA-bs}}, {{IPA-cnr}}, and Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Examples below in the Latin script are given in the Ijekavian pronunciation, while Cyrillic ones are in the Ekavian pronunciation. See Serbo-Croatian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

IPA Example English approximation
Latin Cyrillic
b bob ??? bob
d dan ? doom
d? ?ak[1] ? jeep (Alveolo-palatal)
d? d?ep[1][2] ?e? just
f film ? film
? gore ? gore
j ja ?? yaw
k kola ? score
l Luka ? fill
l? bicikl ? little
? bilje ?? million
m more ? more
? informacija ?? comfort
n ne ?? no
n? njutn ? burden
? banka ? bank
? konj ? canyon
p pet ? space
r robot ?? trilled r
r? vrba ?? US verb, but trilled
s stol ? stole
? ?uma[2] ? shell
t tata ???? star
t? ?up[1] ? cheap (Alveolo-palatal)
ts ribica ??? shorts
t? ?eki?[1][2] ?? choose
v voda[3] ? between vet and wet
x hir ? Scottish loch
z zima ? zoo
? ?aba[2] ? treasure
IPA Example English approximation
Latin Cyrillic
a rad ??? father
e let ??? let
i list ?? least
o more ?? more
u trup ?? tool
Tone and vowel length
Tonic marks are not normally written but are found in dictionaries.[4]
IPA Example Explanation
Latin Cyrillic
e sezóna ?? non-tonic short vowel
e: ùz?ti non-tonic long vowel[5]
? djèca ? short vowel with rising tone
?: kréda long vowel with rising tone
ê sj?me ? short vowel with falling tone
ê: r?p ??? long vowel with falling tone

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Many speakers in Croatia and some in Bosnia have no distinction between /t?/ and /t?/ ( and ) or between /d?/ and /d?/ ( and ?d) and are both pronounced [t?] and [d?] respectively.
  2. ^ a b c d /?/, /t?/, /?/ and /d?/ are sometimes transcribed as , , and , respectively. The fricatives /?/ and /?/ may be realized or before /t?/ or /d?/.
  3. ^ ?v? is a light fricative, more precisely transcribed [] or [v?]. However, it does not behave as a fricative in that it does not devoice to *[f] before a voiceless consonant, nor it causes preceding voiceless consonants to become voiced.
  4. ^ Tone marks can also be found on syllabic consonants, such as [] and [r:]. Some articles may use the stress mark, ['e], which could correspond to either of the tonic accents (rising or falling) and so they are not a complete transcription, although many speakers in Croatia have no tone distinctions.
  5. ^ Many speakers in Croatia and Serbia pronounce most unstressed long vowels as short.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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