Hinghwa Romanized
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Hinghwa Romanized
Hinghwa Romanized
Hing-hua? bá?-u?-ci?
A sample of Hinghwa Romanized text
Bible in Hinghwa (Xinghua) Romanized (Genesis), published by the British and Foreign Bible Society.
Script type (modified)
CreatorWilliam N. Brewster
Time period
1890 -- 1950
LanguagesPutian dialect of the Pu-Xian Min language
Related scripts
Parent systems
Pe?h-?e-j?, Foochow Romanized
  • Hinghwa Romanized
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Hinghwa Romanized, also known as Hing-hua? bá?-u?-ci? () or Bá?-u?-ci? (), is a Latin alphabet of the Putian dialect of Pu-Xian Chinese. It was invented by William N. Brewster (), an American Methodist pioneer missionary in Hinghwa (modern Putian) in 1890.

Writing system


Hinghwa Romanized has 23 letters: a a? b c ch d e e? g h i k l m n ng o o? p s t u ?.

Puxian Min Initial Chart
  Bilabial Alveolar Lateral Velar Glottal
Plosive unaspirated p ? (b) t ? (d) k ? (g) ? ?
aspirated p? ? (p) t? ? (t) k? ? (k)
Nasals m ? (m) n ? (n) ? ? (ng)
Fricatives voiceless ? ? (s) h ? (h)
Affricates unaspirated ts ? (c)
aspirated ts? ? (ch)
Approximant l ? (l)


Vowel Diphthong Nasal Glottal
no glide a ? (a) au ? (au) a? ? (ang) a? ? (ah)
? ? (o?) ? (o?ng) ? (o?h)
o ? (eo) ?u ? (o) o? ? (eong) o? ? (eoh)
e ? (a?) ai ? (ai) ? (eng) ? (eh)
oe ? (e?) oe? ? (e?ng) oe? ? (e?h)
? ? (ng)
/-i-/ i ? (i) iu ? (iu) i? ? (ing) i? ? (ih)
ia ? (ia) iau ? (a?u) ia? ? (iang) ia? ? (iah)
/-u-/ u ? (u) ui ? (ui) u? ? (ng)
ua ? (ua) ue ? (oi) ua? ? (uang) ua? ? (uah)
/-y-/ y ? (?) y? ? (?ng) y? ? (?h)
y? ? (io) y ? (io?ng) y ? (io?h)


Tone Ing-bá? Ing-sing Ing-k Ing-ci?h Ió?ng-bá? Ió?ng-k Ió?ng-ci?h
Hinghwa Romanized none (a) ^ (â) ' (a?) none (ah) ? (á) ¯ (?) ' (a?h)
Putian (533) (453) (42) (?21) (13) ? (11) (?4)
Xianyou (544) (332) (52) (?2) (24) (21) (?4)

Example text

Tai?-che? ? D, D gah Sing-Da dó?ng-c?i, D cuh s? Sing-Da. Ca D ta?i-che? gah Sio?ng-Da dó?ng-c?i. M?ng-beo?h s? ci? da?u?h I cho ?; hang p? cho, beo? seo?h-u? ng-s? ci? da?u?h I cho ?.


In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. (John 1:1-3 KJV)

Compared with Pe?h-?e-j? and Foochow Romanized

IPA Hinghwa Romanized Foochow Romanized
p? p p
t? t t
k? k k
p b b
t d d
k g g
ts? ch ch
ts c c
Tone Ing-bá? Ing-sing Ing-k Ing-ci?h Ió?ng-bá? Ió?ng-k Ió?ng-ci?h
Hinghwa Romanized a â a? ah á ? a?h
Pe?h-?e-j? a á à ah â ? a?h


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External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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