History of the Jews in Chile
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History of the Jews in Chile


The location of Chile in South America. (Chile is highlighted in dark green. Chilean Antarctic Territory - claim, in light green)
Chilean Jews
Judíos de Chile
'
? ‎ (Yiddish)
Total population
18,300 (census)[1]
150.000[2] to 175,000 (descendants) [3]
Regions with significant populations
Santiago, Valparaíso
Languages
Chilean Spanish, Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino
Religion
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Peruvian Jews

The history of the Jews in Chile dates back to the arrival of Europeans to the country.[4] Over time, Chile has received several contingents of Jewish immigrants. Currently, the Jewish community in Chile comes mainly from the migrations occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly of Ashkenazi background.

Chile is home to the third-largest Jewish community in South America. Chile has an estimated 18,300 Jews, according to the American Jewish Yearbook 2019,[5][2][3] representing 0.1% of the total Chilean population. The total amount of Chileans with Jewish ancestry, however, is roughly 30,000 (defined as people having at least one Jewish parent or grandparent, and any spouse of such person).[5]

Migration history

Spanish colonization and settlement

The first Jews arrived in Chile with the Spanish conquistadors. These were Jewish converts to Catholicism because, at the time of the Inquisition, they had to hide their Jewish origin. Most of this immigration occurred in the early years of the conquest, fleeing religious persecution in Spain, since the Inquisition had not been installed yet in the Americas.[4] Diego García de Cáceres, faithful friend and executor of the founder of Santiago, Pedro de Valdivia, was one of them.

In colonial times, the most prominent Jewish character in Chile was the surgeon Francisco Maldonado da Silva, one of the first directors of the San Juan de Dios Hospital[]. Maldonado da Silva was an Argentine Jew born in San Miguel de Tucumán into a Sephardic family from Portugal. He was accused to the Tribunal of the Inquisition by her sisters, devout Christians, from attempting to convert them to Judaism. Maldonado declared openly Jew, and was sentenced to be burned alive in 1639. During this period, entire Crypto-Jewish families, those who "converted" to Catholicism but privately remained Jews, arrived. Like in the rest of Latin America, these original Jewish settlers did not retain their identity over the generations, and they were eventually assimilated into the broader majority of the Chilean Catholic society.[6] As such, the Jewish community of Chile today only really begins with the Jewish immigrations of the 19th century.

Jewish immigration in the 19th century

From 1840, decades after the abolition of the Inquisition in Chile, began the Jewish immigration to the country. The first Jews who arrived in Valparaíso were from Europe, especially from Germany and France. One of them, Manuel de Lima y Sola, was a man who became one of the founding members of the Fire Department of Valparaíso in 1851 and one of the founders of the Chilean freemasonry to create the first Masonic lodge, the "Unión Fraternal" two years later.

Jewish emigration in the 20th century

In the turbulent Pinochet era in the 1970s and 80s, many Jews left Chile. While in 1961, the Jewish population was about 30,000,[7] by 1997 the population had dwindled to 15,000.[8]

The 2012 Chilean census showed 16,294 Jews living in the country, marking an 8.8% increase from the decade before.[8]

Community institutions

Orthodox Judaism reaches approximately ten percent of Chile's Jewish community.[9]

The Chabad movement was first established in Chile in 1981 and has since constructed synagogues, schools and recreational centers.[10]

Notable Chilean Jews

See also

References

  1. ^ Congreso Judío Latinoamericano. "Comunidades judías: Chile" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Los judíos residentes en Chile". Agencia EFE. 23 December 2010. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ a b H. Harvey (2012): Las relaciones entre Chile e Israel, 1973-1990. La conexión oculta. RIL Editores, 317 pages: pp. 193. ISBN 978-956-284-812-1.
  4. ^ a b Memoria Chilena - La comunidad judía en Chile
  5. ^ a b American Jewish year book 2019 : the annual record of the North American Jewish communities since 1899. Dashefsky, Arnold., Sheskin, Ira M., 1950-. Cham: Springer. 2020. p. 330. ISBN 978-3-030-40371-3. OCLC 1164581561.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ Elkin, Judith Laikin, 1928- (2014). The Jews of Latin America (3rd ed.). Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner. pp. 1-25. ISBN 978-1-58826-896-9. OCLC 858914473.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ "American Jewish Yearbook 1961" (PDF). AJC Archives. AJC. p. 383. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ a b "The Jewish Community of Santiago". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot.
  9. ^ Caro, Isaac. "Orthodoxies, dissidence and new identities in Argentine and Chilean Judaism." Cuadernos Judaicos 25 (2008).
  10. ^ Waldman, Gilda. "The literary construction of Jewish identity in Chile: a cartography of recent memories." In Identities in an Era of Globalization and Multiculturalism, pp. 231-252. Brill, 2008.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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