House of Representatives of the Philippines
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House of Representatives of the Philippines

House of Representatives of the Philippines

Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas
19th Congress of the Philippines
Seal of the House of Representatives
Seal of the House of Representatives
Flag of the House of Representatives
Flag of the House of Representatives
Type
Type
Term limits
3 consecutive terms (9 years)
History
FoundedOctober 1907 (1907-10)
Leadership
Martin Romualdez, Lakas
since July 25, 2022
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Lakas
since July 25, 2022
Isidro Ungab, Lakas
since July 25, 2022
Roberto Puno, NUP
since July 25, 2022
Kristine Singson-Meehan, NPC
since July 25, 2022
Camille Villar, Nacionalista
since July 25, 2022
Raymond Democrito Mendoza, TUCP
since July 25, 2022
Ralph Recto, Nacionalista
since July 25, 2022
Manuel Jose Dalipe, Lakas
since July 25, 2022
Marcelino Libanan, 4Ps
since July 25, 2022
Structure
Seats316 representatives
253 from congressional districts
63 party-list representatives
Philippine House of Representatives composition.svg
Political groups
Majority bloc (268)
  •   Lakas-CMD (66)
  •   PDP-Laban (41)
  •   NUP (36)
  •   Nacionalista (35)
  •   NPC (34)
  •   Party-list Coalition (28)
  •   Liberal (5)
  •   Local parties (8)[a]
  •   PFP (2)
  •   PRP (2)
  •   Aksyon (1)
  •   CDP (1)
  •   LDP (1)
  •   PDDS (1)
  •   UNA (1)
  •   Independent (6)

Minority bloc (22)

TBA (10)

Vacant (4)

  •   Vacancies (4)
Committees63 standing committees and 17 special committees
Length of term
3 years
AuthorityArticle VI, Constitution of the Philippines
Elections
Parallel voting (First-past-the-post voting in 80% of seats, and modified party-list proportional representation in 20%)
Last election
May 9, 2022
Next election
May 12, 2025
RedistrictingDistricts are redistricted by Congress after each census (has never been done since 1987)
By statute (most frequent method)
Meeting place
Batasang pambansa session hall - 2022.jpg
Batasang Pambansa Complex, Batasan Hills, Quezon City, Philippines
Website
www.congress.gov.ph
Rules
Rules of the House of Representatives (English)

The House of Representatives of the Philippines (Filipino: Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas, Kamara or Kamara de Representantes from the Spanish word cámara, meaning "chamber") is the lower house of Congress, the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, with the Senate of the Philippines as the upper house. The lower house is usually called Congress,[c] although the term collectively refers to both houses.[1]

Members of the House are officially styled as representative (kinatawan) and sometimes informally called congressmen or congresswomen (mga kongresista) and are elected to a three-year term. They can be re-elected, but cannot serve more than three consecutive terms except with an interruption of one term like the senate. Around eighty percent of congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. The 19th Congress has 253[2] congressional districts. Party-list representatives are elected through the party-list system which constitutes not more than twenty percent of the total number of representatives.

Aside from needing its agreement to every bill in order to be sent for the president's signature to become law, the House of Representatives has power to impeach certain officials and all money bills must originate from the lower house.

The House of Representatives is headed by the speaker. The position is currently held by Rep. Martin Romualdez. The speaker of the House is the third in the presidential line of succession, after the vice and senate presidents. The official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the Batasang Pambansa (literally "national legislature") located in Batasan Hills, Quezon City. The building is often simply called Batasan and the word has also become a metonym to refer to the House of Representatives.

History

Philippine Assembly

At the beginning of American colonial rule, from March 16, 1900, the sole national legislative body was the Philippine Commission with all members appointed by the President of the United States. Headed by the Governor-General of the Philippines the body exercised all legislative authority given to it by the President and the United States Congress until October 1907 when it was joined by the Philippine Assembly. William Howard Taft was chosen to be the first American civilian Governor-General and the first leader of this Philippine Commission, which subsequently became known as the Taft Commission.

The Philippine Bill of 1902, a basic law, or organic act, of the Insular Government, mandated that once certain conditions were met a bicameral, or two-chamber, Philippine Legislature would be created with the previously existing, all-appointed Philippine Commission as the upper house and the Philippine Assembly as the lower house. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907. Under the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. Osmeña and Quezon led the Nacionalista Party, with a platform of independence from the United States, into successive electoral victories against the Progresista Party and later the Democrata Party, which first advocated United States statehood, then opposed immediate independence.

It is this body, founded as the Philippine Assembly, that would continue in one form or another, and with a few different names, up until the present day.

Jones Act of 1916

In 1916, the Jones Act, officially the Philippine Autonomy Act, changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished and a new fully elected, bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. The Nacionalistas continued their electoral dominance at this point, although they were split into two factions led by Osmeña and Quezon; the two reconciled in 1924, and controlled the Assembly via a virtual dominant-party system.

Commonwealth and the Third Republic

The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted.

Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines in 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. The "Liberal bloc" of the Nacionalistas permanently split from their ranks, creating the Liberal Party. These two will contest all of the elections in what appeared to be a two-party system. The party of the ruling president wins the elections in the House of Representatives; in cases where the party of the president and the majority of the members of the House of Representatives are different, a sufficient enough number will break away and join the party of the president, thereby ensuring that the president will have control of the House of Representatives.

Martial Law

This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and abolished Congress. He would rule by decree even after the 1973 Constitution abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral Batasang Pambansa parliamentary system of government, as parliamentary election would not occur in 1978. Marcos' Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL; New Society Movement) won all of the seats except those from the Central Visayas ushering in an era of KBL dominance, which will continue until the People Power Revolution overthrew Marcos in 1986.

1987 Constitution

The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. One deviation from the previous setup was the introduction of the mid-term election; however, the dynamics of the House of Representatives resumed its pre-1972 state, with the party of the president controlling the chamber, although political pluralism ensued that prevented the restoration of the old Nacionalista-Liberal two-party system. Instead, a multi-party system evolved.

Corazon Aquino who nominally had no party, supported the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP; Struggle of the Democratic Filipinos). With the victory of Fidel V. Ramos in the 1992 presidential election, many representatives defected to his Lakas-NUCD party; the same would happen with Joseph Estrada's victory in 1998, but he lost support when he was ousted after the 2001 EDSA Revolution that brought his vice president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo to power. This also meant the restoration of Lakas-NUCD as the top party in the chamber. The same would happen when Benigno Aquino III won in 2010, which returned the Liberals into power.

The presiding officer is the Speaker. Unlike the Senate President, the Speaker usually serves the entire term of Congress, although there had been instances when the Speaker left office due to conflict with the president: examples include Jose de Venecia Jr.'s resignation as speaker in 2008 when his son Joey de Venecia exposed alleged corrupt practices by First Gentleman Mike Arroyo, and Manny Villar's ouster occurred after he allowed the impeachment of President Estrada in 2000.

Electoral system

The Philippines uses parallel voting for its lower house elections. For the 2022 elections, there will be 316 seats in the House; 253 of these are district representatives, and 63 are party-list representatives. The number of seats to be disputed may change depending on the creation of new congressional districts.

Philippine law mandates that there should be one party-list representative for every four district representatives. District representatives are elected under the plurality voting system from single-member districts. Party-list representatives are elected via the nationwide vote with a 2% election threshold, with a party winning not more than three seats. The party with the most votes usually wins three seats, then the other parties with more than 2% of the vote two seats. At this point, if all of the party-list seats are not filled up, the parties with less than 2% of the vote will win one seat each until all party-list seats are filled up.

Political parties competing in the party-list election are barred from participating district elections, and vice versa, unless permitted by the Commission on Elections. Party-lists and political parties participating in the district elections may forge coalition deals with one another.

Campaigning for elections from congressional districts seats are decidedly local; the candidates are most likely a part of an election slate that includes candidates for other positions in the locality, and slates may comprise different parties. The political parties contesting the election make no attempt to create a national campaign.

Party-list campaigning, on the other hand, is done on a national scale. Parties usually attempt to appeal to a specific demographic. Polling is usually conducted for the party-list election, while pollsters may release polls on specific district races. In district elections, pollsters do not attempt to make forecasts on how many votes a party would achieve, nor the number of seats a party would win; they do attempt to do that in party-list elections, though.

Officers

The members of the House of Representatives who are also its officers are also ex officio members of all of the committees and have a vote.

The leadership positions, except for the Secretary General and Sergeant-at-Arms, are currently vacant. The terms of office of the officers elected during the 18th Congress ended on June 30, 2022. On July 25, 2022, the 19th Congress of the Philippines shall elect among themselves their leaders.

Speaker

The speaker is the head of the House of Representatives. He presides over the session; decides on all questions of order, subject to appeal by any member; signs all acts, resolutions, memorials, writs, warrants, and subpoenas issued by or upon order of the House; appoints, suspends, dismisses, or disciplines House personnel; and exercise administrative functions.

The speaker is elected by a majority of all the members of the House, including vacant seats. The speaker is traditionally elected at the convening of each congress. Before a speaker is elected, the House's sergeant-at-arms sits as the "Presiding Officer" until a speaker is elected. Compared to the Senate President, the unseating of an incumbent speaker is rarer.

Deputy Speakers

There was a position of speaker pro tempore for congresses prior the reorganization of the officers of the House of Representatives during the 10th Congress in 1995. The speaker pro tempore was the next highest position in the House after the speaker.

The position was replaced by deputy speakers in 1995. Originally, there was one Deputy Speaker for each island group of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Then, in 2001 during the 12th Congress, a Deputy Speaker "at large" was created. In the next Congress, another "at large" deputy speakership was created, along with a Deputy Speaker for women. In the 15th Congress starting in 2010, all six deputy speakers are "at large".

In the 16th Congress, the deputy speakers represent the chamber at-large. Starting in the 17th Congress, each region is represented by a Deputy Speaker, with additional deputy speakers from the party-list ranks.

The deputy speakers perform the speaker's role when the speaker is absent. In case in the resignation of the speaker, the deputy speakers shall elect from among themselves an acting speaker, until a speaker is elected.

Majority Floor Leader

The majority leader, aside from being the spokesman of the majority party, is to direct the deliberations on the floor. The Majority Leader is also concurrently the Chairman of the Committee on Rules. The majority leader is elected in a party caucus of the ruling majority party.

Minority Floor Leader

The minority leader is the spokesman of the minority party in the House and is an ex-officio member of all standing Committees. The minority leader is elected in party caucus of all Members of the House in the minority party, although by tradition, the losing candidate for speaker is named the minority leader.

Secretary General

The secretary general enforces orders and decisions of the House; keeps the Journal of each session; notes all questions of order, among other things. The secretary general presides over the chamber at the first legislative session after an election, and is elected by a majority of the members.

As of November 18, 2020, former Batangas Representative Mark L. Mendoza is the Secretary General of the House of Representatives.[3]

Sergeant-at-Arms

The Sergeant-at-Arms is responsible for the maintenance of order in the House of Representatives, among other things. Like the Secretary General, the Sergeant-at-Arms is elected by a majority of the members.

As of October 12, 2020, retired Police Major General Mao Aplasca is the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives.[4]

Qualifications

The qualifications for membership in the House are expressly stated in Section 6, Art. VI of the 1987 Philippine Constitution as follows:

  • No person shall be a Representative unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and on the day of the election, is at least 25 years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter except for a party-list representative, and a resident of the country for not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election.
  • The age is fixed at 25 and must be possessed on the day of the elections, that is, when the polls are opened and the votes cast, and not on the day of the proclamation of the winners by the board of canvassers.
  • With regard to the residence requirements, it was ruled in the case of Lim v. Pelaez that it must be the place where one habitually resides and to which he, after absence, has the intention of returning.
  • The enumeration laid down by the 1987 Constitution is exclusive under the Latin principle of expressio unius est exclusio alterius. This means that Congress cannot anymore add additional qualifications other than those provided by the Constitution.

Membership

There are two types of congressmen: those who represent geographic districts, and those who represent party-lists. The first-past-the-post (simple plurality voting) method is used to determine who represents each of the 243 geographic districts. The party-list representatives are elected via the party-list system. The party-list representatives should always comprise 20% of the seats.

Originally set at 200 in the ordinance of the 1987 constitution, the number of districts has grown to 243. All of the new districts are via created via piecemeal redistricting of the then existing 200 districts, and via the creation of new provinces and cities. The constitution gave Congress to nationally redistrict the country after the release of every census, but this has not been done.

The original 200 districts meant that there should have been 50 party-list representatives. However, the constitution did not give the specifics on how party-list congressmen should have been elected. This led to presidents appointing sectoral representatives, which were then approved by the Commission on Appointments; only a handful of sectoral representatives were seated in this way. With the enactment of the Party-List System Act, the first party-list election was in 1998; with the 2% election threshold, a 3-seat cap and tens of parties participating, this led to only about a fraction of the party-list seats being distributed. Eventually, there had been several Supreme Court decisions changing the way the winning seats are distributed, ensuring that all party-list seats are filled up.

There were supposed to be 245 congressional districts that were to be disputed in the 2019 election, so there were 61 party-list seats contested in the party-list election. Elections in two of these districts were delayed due to its creation right before campaigning. The Supreme Court ruled that one district be contested in the next (2022) election, then the Commission on Elections applied the court's ruling to the other district, bringing the number of districts to 243, while still keeping the 61 party-list representatives, for a total of 304 seats.

Vacancies from representatives elected via districts are dealt with special elections, which may be done if the vacancy occurred less than a year before the next regularly-scheduled election. Special elections are infrequently done; despite several vacancies, the last special election was in 2012. For party-list representatives, the nominee next on the list is asked to replace the outgoing representative; if the nominee agrees, then that person would be sworn in as a member, if the nominee doesn't agree, then the nominee after that person is asked, and the process is repeated. Vacating party-list representatives have always been replaced this way.

Congressional district representation

Eighty percent of representatives shall come from congressional districts, with each district returning one representative. The constitution mandates that every province and every city with a population of 250,000 must have at least one representative. Each legislative district, regardless of population, has one congressman. For provinces that have more than one legislative district, the provincial districts are identical to the corresponding legislative district, with the exclusion of cities that do not vote for provincial officials. If cities are divided into multiple districts for city hall representation purposes, these are also used for congressional representation.

The representatives from the districts comprise at most 80% of the members of the House; therefore, for a party to have a majority of seats in the House, the party needs to win a larger majority of district seats. No party since the approval of the 1987 constitution has been able to win a majority of seats, hence coalitions are not uncommon.

Legislative districts in provinces

Legislative districts in cities

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ The URL of the website of the House of Representatives is, for example, www.congress.gov.ph.
  4. ^ The component cities of Batangas and Lipa are officially known as the 5th and 6th Districts of Batangas, respectively.
  5. ^ The component city of San Jose del Monte is represented separately from Bulacan, but remains as part of the province's 4th District for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members.
  6. ^ The independent-component city of Naga remains part of Camarines Sur's congressional representation.
  7. ^ The component cities of Bacoor, Dasmariñas, General Trias and Imus are officially known as the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 3rd Districts of Cavite, respectively.
  8. ^ The independent-component city of Santiago remains part of Isabela's congressional representation.
  9. ^ The component cities of Biñan and Calamba are represented separately from Laguna, but remains as part of the province's 1st and 2nd Districts, respectively, for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members. The component city of Santa Rosa will be represented separately from Laguna starting 2022, but will remain part of the province's 1st SP district.
  10. ^ The highly-urbanized city of Tacloban and the independent-component city of Ormoc remain part of Leyte's congressional representation.
  11. ^ The independent-component city of Cotabato remains part of Maguindanao's congressional representation.
  12. ^ The highly-urbanized city of Puerto Princesa remains part of Palawan's congressional representation.
  13. ^ The highly-urbanized city of Angeles remains part of Pampanga's congressional representation.
  14. ^ The independent-component city of Dagupan remains part of Pangasinan's congressional representation.
  15. ^ The highly-urbanized city of Lucena remains part of Quezon's congressional representation.
  16. ^ The component city of Antipolo is represented separately from Rizal, but returns one member from each of its districts to the province's Sangguniang Panlalawigan.
  17. ^ The highly-urbanized city of Olongapo remains part of Zambales's congressional representation.

Party-list representation

The party-list system is the name designated for party-list representation. Under the 1987 Constitution, the electorate can vote for certain party-list organizations in order to give voice to significant minorities of society that would otherwise not be adequately represented through geographical district. From 1987 to 1998, party-list representatives were appointed by the President.

Since 1998, each voter votes for a single party-list organization. Organizations that garner at least 2% of the total number of votes are awarded one representative for every 2% up to a maximum of three representatives. Thus, there can be at most 50 party-list representatives in Congress, though usually no more than 20 are elected because many organizations do not reach the required 2% minimum number of votes.

After the 2007 election, in a controversial decision, the Supreme Court ordered the COMELEC to change how it allocates the party-list seats. Under the new formula only one party will have the maximum 3 seats. It based its decision on a formula contained in the VFP vs. COMELEC decision. In 2009, in the BANAT vs. COMELEC decision, it was changed anew in which parties with less than 2% of the vote were given seats to fulfill the 20% quota as set forth in the constitution.

Aside from determining which party won and allocating the number of seats won per party, another point of contention was whether the nominees should be a member of the marginalized group they are supposed to represent; in the Ang Bagong Bayani vs. COMELEC decision, the Supreme Court not only ruled that the nominees should be a member of the marginalized sector, but it also disallowed major political parties from participating in the party-list election. However, on the BANAT decision, the court ruled that since the law didn't specify who belongs to a marginalized sector, the court allowed anyone to be a nominee as long as the nominee as a member of the party (not necessarily the marginalized group the party is supposed to represent).

Sectoral representation

Prior to the enactment of the Party-list Act, the president, with the advice and consent of the Commission on Appointments, nominated sectoral representatives. These represented various sectors, from labor, peasants, urban poor, the youth, women and cultural communities. Their numbers grew from 15 members in the 8th Congress, to 32 in the 10th Congress.

In the Interim Batasang Pambansa, a sectoral election was held to fill up the sectoral seats of parliament.

Legislative caretakers

Under the Republic Act No. 6645 or "An Act Prescribing the Manner of Filling a Vacancy in the Congress of the Philippines", if a seat was vacated with at most 18 months prior to an election the House of Representatives could request the Commission on Elections to hold a special election to fill in the vacancy. The law does not specify for a mechanism if the seat was vacated within 18 months prior to an election. The House of Representatives through its Speaker customarily appoints a caretaker or legislative liaison officer to fill in the vacancy.[5] The caretaker cannot vote in the name of the district that is being taken care of.

Redistricting

Population of each congressional district in the Philippines. Districts shaded with blue hues have less than 250,000 people, those shaded green are just over 250,000, yellow and orange are more than 250,000, and the those shaded red can be split into two or more districts.
Persons per representative per province or city in the House of Representatives: Provinces (blue) and cities (red) are arranged in descending order of population from Cavite to Batanes (provinces) and from Quezon City to San Juan (cities).
Persons per representative from 1903 to 2007. The last nationwide apportionment act was the ordinance to the 1987 constitution, which was based on the 1980 census.

Congress is mandated to reapportion the legislative districts within three years following the return of every census.[6] Since its restoration in 1987, Congress has not passed any general apportionment law, despite the publication of six censuses in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2007, 2010 and 2015.[7] The increase in the number of representative districts since 1987 were mostly due to the creation of new provinces, cities, and piecemeal redistricting of certain provinces and cities.

The apportionment of congressional districts is not dependent upon a specially-mandated independent government body, but rather through Republic Acts which are drafted by members of Congress. Therefore, apportionment often can be influenced by political motivations. Incumbent representatives who are not permitted by law to serve after three consecutive terms sometimes resort to dividing their district, or even creating a new province which will be guaranteed a seat, just so that their allies be able to run, while "switching offices" with them. Likewise, politicians whose political fortunes are likely to be jeopardized by any change in district boundaries may delay or even ignore the need for reapportionment.

Since 1987, the creation of some new congressional districts have been met with controversy, especially due to incumbent political clans and their allies benefiting from the new district arrangements. Some of these new congressional districts are tied to the creation of a new province, because such an act necessarily entails the creation of a new congressional district.

  • Creation of Davao Occidental, 2013: The rival Cagas and Bautista clans dominate politics in the province of Davao del Sur; their members have been elected as congressional representatives for the first and second districts of the province since 1987. However, the province's governorship has been in contest between the two clans in recent years: Claude Bautista, the current governor, was elected in 2013; before that Douglas Cagas served as governor from 2007 to 2013, after succeeding Benjamin Bautista Jr. who served from 2002 to 2007.[8] Supporters of both clans have been subjected to political violence, prompting the police to put the province of Davao del Sur in the election watchlist.[9] The law which created Davao Occidental, Republic Act No. 10360, was co-authored by House Representatives Marc Douglas Cagas IV and Franklin Bautista as House Bill 4451; the creation of the new province is seen as a way to halt the "often violent" political rivalry between the clans by ensuring that the Cagas and Bautista clans have separate domains.[9]
  • Reapportionment of Camarines Sur, 2009: A new congressional district was created within Camarines Sur under Republic Act No. 9716, which resulted in the reduction of the population of the province's first district to below the Constitutional ideal of 250,000 inhabitants. The move was seen as a form of political accommodation that would (and ultimately did) prevent two allies of then-President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo from running in the same district. Rolando Andaya, who was on his third term as congressman for the first district, was appointed Budget Secretary in 2006; his plans to run as representative of the same district in 2010 put him in direct competition with Diosdado Macapagal-Arroyo, the president's youngest son, who was also seeking re-election. Then-Senator Noynoy Aquino challenged the constitutionality of the law but the Supreme Court of the Philippines ultimately ruled that the creation of the new district was constitutional.[10]
  • Creation of Dinagat Islands, 2007: The separation of Dinagat Islands from Surigao del Norte has further solidified the hold of the Ecleo clan over the impoverished and typhoon-prone area, which remains among the poorest provinces in the country.[11]

Most populous legislative districts

Currently the district with the lowest population is the lone district of Batanes, with only 18,831 inhabitants in 2020. The most populous congressional district, the 1st District of Rizal, has around 69 times more inhabitants. Data below reflect the district boundaries for the 2019 elections, and the population counts from the 2020 census.[12]

Rank Legislative district Population (2020)
1 1st District of Rizal 1,207,509
2 1st District of Caloocan 953,125
3 1st District of Maguindanao 926,037
4 1st District of Pampanga 880,360
5 1st District of Cebu 809,335
6 Lone district of Pasig 803,159
7 3rd District of Pampanga 782,547
8 3rd District of Batangas 768,561
9 1st District of Bulacan 758,872
10 2nd District of Quezon 753,343

Underrepresentation

Because of the lack of a nationwide reapportionment after the publication of every census since the Constitution was promulgated in 1987, faster-growing provinces and cities have become severely underrepresented. Each legislative district is ideally supposed to encompass a population of 250,000.[13]

Powers

The House of Representatives is modeled after the United States House of Representatives; the two chambers of Congress have roughly equal powers, and every bill or resolution that has to go through both houses needs the consent of both chambers before being passed for the president's signature. Once a bill is defeated in the House of Representatives, it is lost. Once a bill is approved by the House of Representatives on third reading, the bill is passed to the Senate, unless an identical bill has also been passed by the lower house. When a counterpart bill in the Senate is different from the one passed by the House of Representatives, either a bicameral conference committee is created consisting of members from both chambers of Congress to reconcile the differences, or either chamber may instead approve the other chamber's version.

Just like most lower houses, money bills, originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may still propose or concur with amendments, same with bills of local application and private bills. The House of Representatives has the sole power to initiate impeachment proceedings, and may impeach an official by a vote of one-third of its members. Once an official is impeached, the Senate tries that official.

Seat

The 2nd Philippine Legislature convened at The Mansion in Baguio in 1921.
Joint session of the Philippine Legislature, Manila. November 15, 1916
Philippine legislature before 1924

The Batasang Pambansa Complex (National Legislature) at Quezon City is the seat of the House of Representatives since its restoration in 1987; it took its name from the Batasang Pambansa, the national parliament which convened there from 1978 to 1986.

The Philippine Legislature was inaugurated at the Manila Grand Opera House at 1907, then it conducted business at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros. Governor-General Leonard Wood summoned the 2nd Philippine Legislature at Baguio and convened at The Mansion in Baguio for three weeks. The legislature returned to the Ayutamiento, as the Legislative Building was being constructed; it first convened there on July 26, 1926. The House of Representatives continued to occupy the second floor until 1945 when the area was shelled during the Battle of Manila. The building was damaged beyond repair and Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Lepanto[14] (modern-day S. H. Loyola) Street, Manila until the Legislative Building can be occupied again in 1949. Congress stayed at the Legislative Building, by now called the Congress Building, until President Marcos shut Congress and ruled by decree starting in 1972.[15]

Marcos then oversaw the construction of the new home of parliament at Quezon City, which convened in 1978. The parliament, called the Batasang Pambansa continued to sit there until the passage of the 1986 Freedom Constitution. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex in 1987.

Batasang Pambansa Complex

The Batasang Pambansa Complex, now officially called the House of Representatives Building Complex, is at the National Government Center, Constitution Hills, Quezon City. Accessible via Commonwealth Avenue, the complex consists of four buildings. The Main Building hosts the session hall; the North and South wings, inaugurated in December 1977, are attached to it. The newest building, the Ramon Mitra, Jr. Building, was completed in 2001. It houses the Legislative Library, the Committee offices, the Reference and Research Bureau, and the Conference Rooms.[16]

Current composition

The members of the House of Representatives, aside from being grouped into political parties, are also grouped into the "majority bloc", "minority bloc" and "independents" (different from the independent in the sense that they are not affiliated into a political party). Originally, members who voted for the winning Speaker belong to the majority and members who voted for the opponent are the minority. The majority and minority bloc are to elect amongst themselves a floor leader. While members are allowed to switch blocs, they must do so in writing. Also, the bloc where they intend to transfer shall accept their application through writing. When the bloc the member ought to transfer refuses to accept the transferring member, or a member does not want to be a member of either bloc, that member becomes an independent member. A member that transfers to a new bloc forfeits one's committee chairmanships and memberships, until the bloc the member transfers to elects the member to committees.

The membership in each committee should be in proportion to the size of each bloc, with each bloc deciding who amongst them who will go to each committee, upon a motion by the floor leader concerned to the House of Representatives in plenary. The Speaker, Deputy Speakers, floor leaders, deputy floor leaders and the chairperson of the Committee on Accounts can vote in committees; the committee chairperson can only vote to break a tie.

To ensure that the representatives each get their pork barrel, most of them will join the majority bloc, or even to the president's party, as basis of patronage politics (known as the Padrino System locally); thus, the House of Representatives always aligns itself with the party of the sitting president.

The majority bloc sits at the right side of the speaker, facing the House of Representatives.

?
64 58 43 38 36 34 10 26
Lakas PCFI PDP-Laban NUP NP NPC LP Others

Leadership

19th Congress Standing Committees

Committee Committee Chairman
Accounts Congw. Yedda Marie K. Romualdez
Agrarian Reform Cong. Solomon R. Chungalao
Appropriations Cong. Elizaldy S. Co
Aquaculture and Fisheries Resources Cong. Alfredo D. Marañon III
Banks and Financial Intermediaries Cong. Irwin C. Tieng
Basic Education and Culture Cong. Roman Romulo
Civil Service and Professional Regulations Congw. Kristine Alexie B. Tutor
Climate Change Cong. Edgar M. Chatto
Constitutional Amendments Cong. Rufus Rodriguez
Cooperatives Development Congw. Nicanor B. Briones
Dangerous Drugs Cong. Robert Ace S. Barbers
Disaster Resilience Cong. Alan 1 B. Ecleo
Ecology Congw. Emmarie "Lollipop" M. Ouano-Dizon
Economic Affairs Cong. Teodorico T. Haresco Jr.
Energy Cong. Lorn Allan Jay Velasco
Ethics and Privileges Cong. Felimon M. Espares
Foreign Affairs Congw. Maria Rachel Arenas
Games and Amusement Cong. Antonio A. Ferrer
Good Governance and Public Accountability Congw. Florida P. Robes
Government Enterprises and Privatization Cong. Edwin L. Olivarez
Government Reorganization Cong. Jonathan Keith T. Flores
Health Cong. Ciriaco Gato Jr.
Higher and Technical Education Cong. Mark O. Go
Housing and Urban Development Cong. Jose Francisco "Kiko" B. Benitez, Ph.D.
Human Rights Cong. Bienvenido M. Abante
Indigenous Cultural Communities and Indigenous Peoples Cong. Allen Jesse C. Mangaoang
Inter-parliamentary Relations And Diplomacy Congw. Glona C. Labadlabad
Justice Cong. Juliet Marie De Leon Ferrer
Labor And Employment Cong. Juan Fidel Felipe F. Nograles
Legislative Franchises Cong. Gus S. Tambunting
Local Government Cong. Rex Gatchalian
Mindanao Affairs Cong. Yasser Alonto Balindong
Muslim Affairs Cong. Mohamad Khalid Q. Dimaporo
National Defense and Security Cong. Raul Tupas
Natural Resources Cong. Elpidio F. Barzaga Jr.
North Luzon Growth Quadrangle Cong. Angelo Marcos Barba
Overseas Workers' Affairs Cong. Ron P. Salo
People's Participation Congw. Florida P. Robes
Population And Family Relations Cong. Ian Paul L. Dy
Poverty Alleviation Cong. Michael Romero
Public Accounts Cong. Joseph Stephen "Caraps" S. Paduano
Public Information Cong. Jose Aquino II
Public Order and Safety Cong. Dan S. Fernandez
Public Works and Highways Cong. Romeo S. Momo
Revision of Laws Cong. Edward Vera Perez Maceda
Rules Cong. Manuel Jose "Mannix" M. Dalipe
Rural Development Cong. Wilton T. Kho
Science and Technology Cong. Carlito S. Marquez
Social Services Congw. Rosanna Vergara
Suffrage and Electoral Reforms Cong. Maximo Y. Dalog Jr.
Sustainable Development Goals Cong. Eddie Villanueva
Tourism Cong. Elandro Jesus F. Madrona
Trade and Industry Cong. Mario Vittorio Mariño
Transportation Cong. Romeo M. Acop
Veterans Affairs and Welfare Cong. Jorge Bustos
Visayas Development Congw. Lolita T. Javier
Ways and Means Cong. Joey Salceda
Welfare of Children Congw. Angelica Natasha Co
Women and Gender Equality Congw. Geraldine Roman
Youth And Sports Development Cong. Faustino Michael Carlos T. Dy III

Latest election

Elections at congressional districts

2022 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
PartyVotes%+/-Seats+/-
PDP-Laban10,950,69622.73−8.4966−16
Nacionalista Party6,610,87613.72−2.3836−6
National Unity Party6,087,28812.63+3.1233+8
Nationalist People's Coalition5,637,21111.70−2.6135−2
Lakas-CMD4,523,9729.39+4.2826+14
Liberal Party1,823,4263.78−1.9510−8
Hugpong ng Pagbabago1,223,8152.54+0.936+3
People's Reform Party942,7191.96+1.623+2
Aksyon Demokratiko868,6681.80+0.8200
Partido Pilipino sa Pagbabago503,8271.05New00
Partido para sa Demokratikong Reporma478,0310.99New2New
Partido Federal ng Pilipinas458,0380.95−1.432−3
Pederalismo ng Dugong Dakilang Samahan426,4510.89+0.252New
National Unity Party/One Cebu423,8180.88New2New
Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino373,9880.78+0.161−1
Bukidnon Paglaum336,2660.70−0.1320
Unang Sigaw ng Nueva Ecija313,5210.65+0.3500
United Bangsamoro Justice Party292,1100.61New00
PROMDI288,0490.60New00
National Unity Party/United Negros Alliance254,3550.53New2New
Padayon Pilipino245,2060.51+0.272New
Aksyon Demokratiko/Asenso Manileño240,5590.50New3New
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan213,9500.44+0.3600
People's Champ Movement204,0760.42New1New
Nacionalista Party/Bileg Ti Ilokano201,4180.42New1New
National Unity Party/Asenso Manileño165,5770.34New2New
Sulong Zambales Party144,0600.30New1New
Mindoro bago Sarili142,0950.29New1New
Basilan Unity Party137,9760.29New1New
Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines128,1340.27+0.0710
United Benguet Party123,8010.26New1New
Partido Pederal ng Maharlika104,5880.22New00
Bigkis Pinoy94,5710.20New00
Nationalist People's Coalition/Asenso Manileño90,0750.19New1New
Partido Navoteño79,5050.17−0.0310
Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas78,0290.16+0.0200
Lakas-CMD/United Negros Alliance76,1150.16New0New
Hugpong sa Tawong Lungsod73,7960.15−0.340−1
Adelante Zamboanga Party73,7850.15+0.081New
Samahang Kaagapay ng Agilang Pilipino73,3460.15New00
Partidong Pagbabago ng Palawan71,9860.15−0.310−2
Reform PH - People's Party70,1160.15New00
United Nationalist Alliance68,5720.14−0.431New
Partido Prosperidad y Amor para na Zamboanga67,1330.14New00
Lingkod ng Mamamayan ng Valenzuela City50,5990.11New00
Labor Party Philippines50,1500.10+0.0800
Achievers with Integrity Movement48,4620.10New00
PDP-Laban/Partido Siquijodnon33,9890.07New1New
Ummah Party29,0430.06New00
Ang Kapatiran17,4840.04New00
Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino10,6420.02−0.960−1
Partido Lakas ng Masa5,2230.01New00
Philippine Green Republican Party4,8560.01+0.0100
Katipunan ng Nagkakaisang Pilipino4,3700.01−0.2800
Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi2,2950.00New00
Bagumbayan-VNP1,6070.00−0.0800
Independent2,137,0934.44−0.536+4
Party-list seats63+2
Total48,181,407100.00-316+12
Valid votes48,181,40787.14+0.80
Invalid/blank votes7,109,41412.86−0.80
Total votes55,290,821100.00-
Registered voters/turnout65,745,52684.10+8.20
Source: COMELEC (Results per individual province/city, election day turnout, absentee turnout

Party-list election

PartyVotes%+/-Seats+/-
Anti-Crime and Terrorism Community Involvement and Support2,111,0915.74-3.7730
Ang Buklod ng mga Motorista ng Pilipinas1,001,2432.72New2New
Tingog Sinirangan886,9592.41+1.012+1
Pagtibayin at Palaguin ang Pangkabuhayang Pilipino848,2372.30New2New
Ako Bicol Political Party816,4452.22-1.5420
Social Amelioration and Genuine Intervention on Poverty780,4562.12+1.202+1
Alyansa ng mga Mamamayang Probinsyano714,6341.94-0.821-1
Uswag Ilonggo Party689,6071.87New1New
Tutok To Win685,5781.86New1New
Citizens' Battle Against Corruption637,0441.73-1.601-1
Coalition of Associations of Senior Citizens in the Philippines614,6711.67-0.1810
Duterte Youth602,1961.64+0.3710
Agimat ng Masa586,9091.59New1New
Kabataan Partylist536,6901.46+0.7610
Agrikultura Ngayon Gawing Akma at Tama530,4851.44New1New
Marino Samahan ng mga Seaman530,3821.44-1.001-1
Ako Bisaya512,7951.39-0.0210
Probinsyano Ako471,9041.28-0.981-1
LPG Marketers Association453,8951.23+0.4810
Abante Pangasinan-Ilokano Party451,3721.23New1New
Gabriela Women's Party423,8911.15-0.4610
Construction Workers Solidarity412,3331.12+0.1210
Agri-Agra na Reporma para sa Magsasaka ng Pilipinas393,9871.07+0.591+1
Komunidad ng Pamilya Pasyente at Persons with Disabilities391,1741.06New1New
Ako Ilocano Ako387,0861.05New1New
Kusug Tausug385,7701.05+0.2310
An Waray385,4601.05-0.5410
Kalinga-Advocacy for Social Empowerment and Nation-Building Through Easing Poverty374,3081.02-0.2010
Agricultural Sector Alliance of the Philippines367,5331.00+0.2510
Cooperative NATCCO Party346,3410.94-0.5610
Malasakit at Bayanihan Foundation345,1990.94New1New
Barangay Health Wellness335,5980.91-0.0610
Galing sa Puso Party333,8170.91+0.0210
Bagong Henerasyon330,9370.90-0.1410
ACT Teachers Partylist330,5290.90-0.5210
Talino at Galing ng Pinoy327,9120.89+0.1110
Bicol Saro325,3710.88New1New
United Senior Citizens Koalition ng Pilipinas[a]320,6270.87New0New
Dumper Philippines Taxi Drivers Association314,6180.85+0.0510
Pinatatag na Ugnayan para sa mga Oportunidad sa Pabahay ng Masa299,9900.82New1New
Abang Lingkod296,8000.81-0.1810
Puwersa ng Bayaning Atleta294,6190.80-0.3710
One Filipinos Worldwide Coalition Partylist293,3010.80New1New
Abono288,7520.78-0.5810
Alagaan Natin Ating Kalusugan281,5120.76-0.0910
Kabalikat ng Mamamayan280,0660.76+0.0510
Magkakasama sa Sakahan Kaunlaran276,8890.75-1.0310
One Patriotic Coalition of Marginalized Nationals273,1950.74-1.821-1
Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives271,3800.74-0.9810
Pusong Pinoy262,0440.71New1New
Trade Union Congress Party260,7790.71-0.2110
Public Safety Alliance for Transformation and Rule of Law Inc.252,5710.69-0.0910
Manila Teacher's Savings and Loan Association249,5250.68-0.2110
Ang Asosasyon Sang Mangunguma Nga Bisaya-Owa Mangunguma246,0530.67-0.1710
Philippine Rural Electric Cooperatives Association243,4870.66-0.7610
Alliance of Organizations, Networks and Associations of the Philippines238,7040.65-0.5010
Akbayan Citizens' Action Party236,2260.64+0.0200
Democratic Independent Workers Association234,9960.64-0.060-1
Asenso Pinoy232,2290.63New00
Mindanao Indigenous Conference for Peace and Development[b]230,3150.63New00
Ang Pamilya Muna225,0410.61New00
Advocacy for Teacher Empowerment through Action, Cooperation and Harmony Toward Educational Reforms, Inc.221,3270.60-0.380-1
Bayan Muna219,8480.60-3.410-3
1st Consumers Alliance for Rural Energy218,2150.59+0.1300
You Against Corruption and Poverty214,6940.58-0.0200
Kasama Regional Political Party213,5390.58New00
Ako Bisdak - Bisayang Dako204,1110.55+0.3700
Abante Sambayanan[b]201,9610.55New00
Alliance of Public Transport Organization183,8690.50New00
Nagkakaisang Pilipino para sa Pag-Angat ng Maralitang Manileño174,4520.47New00
Towards Development and Action174,3960.47New00
Advocates and Keepers Organization of OFWs169,1770.46New00
Philippine National Police Retirees Association160,4180.44+0.1500
Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Industriya ng Live Events158,2450.43New00
Pamilyang Magsasaka158,0340.43New00
Philippine Educators Alliance for Community Empowerment157,6170.430.0000
Bayaning Tsuper157,2780.43New00
Acts Overseas Filipino Workers Coalition of Organizations155,0720.42-0.0500
Pinagbuklod na Filipino para sa Bayan151,5020.41+0.3400
Tulungan Tayo147,0500.40New00
Filipino Rights Protection Advocates of Manila Movement144,9690.39New00
Bahay para sa Pamilyang Pilipino142,6760.39-0.620-1
Tagapagtaguyod ng mga Reporma at Adhikaing Babalikat at Hahango sa mga Oportunidad para sa mga Pilipino138,9730.38New00
Anak Mindanao134,6470.37-0.390-1
Ako Padayon Pilipino Party List132,2220.36-0.480-1
Cancer Alleviation Network on Care, Education and Rehabilitation128,2840.35New00
Kalipunan ng Maralita at Malayang Mamamayan126,3930.34New00
Magdalo para sa Pilipino119,1890.32-0.590-1
PDP Cares Foundation117,1390.32New00
Rural Electric Consumers and Beneficiaries of Development and Advancement117,1260.32-0.820-1
Act as One Philippines116,1730.32New00
Kooperatiba-Kapisanan ng Magsasaka ng Pilipinas114,5870.31+0.1300
Walang Iwanan sa Free Internet Inc.113,9710.31New00
Bisaya Gyud Party-List113,3880.31New00
Hugpong Federal Movement of the Philippines112,6540.31New00
Moro Ako - Ok Party-List110,1710.30New00
Angkla: ang Partido ng mga Pilipinong Marino109,3430.30-0.3500
Ang National Coalition of Indigenous People Action Na!108,8070.30New00
Passengers and Riders Organization108,6470.30New00
Ang Kabuhayan Partylist108,5350.29+0.0200
Ang Tinig ng Seniors Citizens sa Filipinas, Inc.[b]104,9570.29New00
Lungsod Aasenso103,1490.28New00
Buhay Hayaan Yumabong103,0770.28-1.020-1
Una ang Edukasyon102,6870.28-0.1500
Igorot Warriors International, Inc.[b]95,2170.26New00
OFW Family Club93,0590.25-0.470-1
Health, Education, Livelihood Program of the Philippines93,0070.25New00
Wow Pilipinas Movement90,6980.25-0.3700
Kapamilya ng Manggagawang Pilipino89,6950.24New00
Ating Agapay Sentrong Samahan ng mga Obrero88,6110.24-0.0300
Friends of the Poor and Jobless Party-List[b]88,5640.24New00
Butil Farmers Party87,3050.24-0.3500
Avid Builders of Active Nation's Citizenry Towards Empowered Philippines87,2110.24-0.1100
Subanen Party-List86,5330.24New00
Turismo Isulong Mo86,1190.23New00
Abe Kapampangan85,2260.23-0.0700
Barkadahan para sa Bansa83,8600.23New00
Anakpawis81,4360.22-0.3100
Ugyon Mangunguma, Mangingisda kag Mamumugon nga Ilonggo[b]73,4540.20New00
Ang Kabuhayang Kayang Kaya72,5470.20New00
National Association of Electricity Consumers for Reforms71,8220.20-0.0900
Rebolusyonaryong Alyansang Makabansa69,7400.19-0.660-1
Ayuda sa May Kapansanan[b]66,4570.18New00
Ang Bumbero ng Pilipinas65,9290.18New00
Kilusang Maypagasa65,1330.18-0.1000
Mothers for Change64,7850.18New00
One Coop64,6270.18New00
Ang Komadrona64,0870.17New00
Samahan ng Totoong Larong may Puso Foundation60,3840.16New00
Malabung Workers Party59,4990.16New00
Ang Laban ng Indiginong Filipino58,6580.16-0.0900
Kabalikat ng Bayan sa Kaunlaran57,6920.16New00
Bunyog Pagkakaisa57,0300.15New00
Computer Literacy, Innovation Connectivity and Knowledge55,8420.15New00
Kabalikat Patungo sa Umuunlad na Sistematiko at Organisadong Pangkabuhayan Movement53,6350.15New00
Home Owners, and Marginalized Empowerment Through Opportunities with Neighborhood Economic Reliability53,5600.15New00
Kilos Mamamayan Ngayon Na52,2050.14New00
United Frontliners of the Philippines50,8490.14New00
Alsa Bisaya47,4150.13New00
Bangon Philippine Outsourcing47,3820.13New00
Lingkud Bayanihan Party[b]43,8960.12New00
Maharlikang Pilipino Party43,2600.12New00
Advocates for Retail & Fashion, Textile & Tradition, Events, Entertainment & Creative Sector42,0860.11New00
Ipatupad for Workers Inc.41,7970.11New00
Kabalikat ng Hustisiya ng Nagkakaisang Manileno39,3440.11+0.0100
Babae Ako para sa Bayan39,2540.11New00
Damayan para sa Reporma Tungo sa Inklusibo at Laganap na mga Oportunidad Ngayon36,3940.10New00
Partido Cocoman35,5830.10New00
Aktibong Kaagapay ng mga Manggagawa34,3380.09New00
Ako Breeder Party-List[b]32,6300.09New00
Ako Musikero Association28,2970.08New00
Philippine Society for Industrial Security27,8510.08New00
Ang Koalisyon ng Indigenous People27,5830.07New00
Aksyon Magsasaka-Partido Tinig ng Masa27,3640.07-0.6200
Mindoro Sandugo para sa Kaunlaran26,8000.07New00
Samahang Ilaw at Bisig25,8710.07New00
One Unified Transport Alliance of the Philippines Bicol Region23,0210.06-0.0200
Alagaan ang Sambayanang Pilipino22,5430.06New00
Parents Teachers Alliance22,3190.06-0.0400
Ang Programang Aasenso Taumbayan - Dream, Act, Participate and Advocate for Sustainable Transformation[b]20,9490.06New00
Arts Business and Science Professionals20,1490.05-0.0600
Alliance for Resilience, Sustainability and Empowerment[b]20,1310.05New00
Movement of Active Apostolic Guardians Association of the Philippines19,6450.05New00
Solid Movement Towards Comprehensive Change18,9540.05New00
Noble Advancement of Marvelous People of the Philippines Inc.18,1720.05+0.0100
Alternatiba ng Masa18,0480.05New00
Partido Lakas ng Masa17,7830.05-0.0500
Pilipino Society and Development Advocates Commuter-Consumer17,4060.05New00
United Filipino Consumers and Commuters16,7330.05New00
Aksyon Tungo sa Asenso at Pagsulong ng Pilipino16,1160.04New00
People's Volunteer Against Illegal Drugs14,3300.04New00
National Firemen's Confederation of the Philippines11,6920.03New00
Laban ng Isang Bayan Para sa Reporma at Oportunidad[b]11,0670.03New00
1 Tahanan10,3830.03New00
Pilipinas para sa Pinoy8,7740.02-0.0300
Aangat Kusinerong Pinoy8,2610.02New00
Kusog Bikolandia7,8400.02New00
Total36,802,064100.00-62+1
Valid votes36,802,06465.61+6.65
Invalid/blank votes19,293,17034.39-6.65
Total votes56,095,234--
Registered voters/turnout67,525,61983.07+8.76
Source: COMELEC
  1. ^ United Senior Citizens is entitled to a seat in Congress based on the results. However, as of May 25th, they have not been proclaimed as they have a pending case in the COMELEC regarding their accreditation.[17]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l This partylist was rejected by COMELEC from joining the 2022 elections, but has secured a Temporary Restraining Order from the Supreme Court. Because of this, they have been included in the ballot and their votes are counted for calculation purposes.[18]

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ The Legislative Branch | Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines
  2. ^ "HOUSE MEMBERS by REGION". Congress of the Philippines - House of Representatives. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ Galvez, Daphne (November 18, 2020). "House elects new Secretary General". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ Colcol, Erwin (October 12, 2020). "Pro-Velasco solons elect House SecGen, Sergeant-at-Arms". GMA News. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ "Party-list rep as district caretaker a first". Rappler. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library. "The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article VI". Retrieved 2008.
  7. ^ National Statistical Coordination Board. "NSCB - Statistics - Population and Housing". Archived from the original on July 4, 2012. Retrieved 2008.
  8. ^ Davao Occidental: Mindanao's 27th Province. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  9. ^ a b New Davao province has to wait. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  10. ^ Noynoy asks SC to strike down law on new CamSur district. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  11. ^ Dinagat: The hands that heal hold power. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  12. ^ "Population Counts by Legislative District (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  13. ^ "RP pop'n calls for 350 Congress seats". Retrieved 2010.
  14. ^ Quezon Memorial Book. Quezon Memorial Committee. 1952.
  15. ^ "The Official Buildings of the House of Representatives: The Ancestral Quarters". Congress.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ "The Official Buildings of the House of Representatives: The Present Legislative Building". Congress.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011.
  17. ^ Fernandez, Daniza (May 26, 2022). "Comelec proclaims winning party-list groups". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2022.
  18. ^ "More rejected party-list groups get SC relief before printing of ballots". Rappler. January 7, 2022. Retrieved 2022.

External links


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