Housing and Development Board
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Housing and Development Board

Housing & Development Board (HDB)
Housing and Development Board (logo).png
Logo of the HDB
Agency overview
Formed1 February 1960; 61 years ago (1960-02-01)
Preceding agency
JurisdictionGovernment of Singapore
HeadquartersHDB Hub, 480 Lorong 6 Toa Payoh, Singapore 310480
Agency executives
  • Bobby Chin Yoke Choong, Chairman
  • Tan Meng Dui[1], CEO
Parent agencyMinistry of National Development (Singapore)
Websitewww.hdb.gov.sg
The HDB Hub at Toa Payoh, headquarters of the Housing & Development Board of Singapore.
HDB flats in Jurong West

The Housing & Development Board (abbreviation: HDB, often referred to as the Housing Board) is the statutory board of the Ministry of National Development responsible for public housing in Singapore. Founded in 1960 as a result of efforts in the late 1950s to set up an authority to take over the Singapore Improvement Trust's (SIT) public housing responsibilities, the HDB focused on the construction of emergency housing and the resettlement of kampong residents into public housing in the first few years of its existence. This focus shifted from the late 1960s, with the HDB building flats with improved fittings and offering them for sale, and from the 1970s, it initiated efforts to improve community cohesion in its estates and solicit resident feedback. In the 1990s and 2000s, the HDB introduced upgrading and redevelopment schemes for mature estates, as well as new types of housing intended to cater to different income groups and in partnership with private developers, and it was reorganised in 2003 to better suit Singapore's housing market in the 2000s. Efforts to engage residents for upgrading schemes increased in the 2000s and 2010s, and the HDB also started solar panel installation works from the early 2010s.

The HDB consists of a 12-member board and 3 departments, the Building, Estate and Corporate departments. Besides public housing provision, the HDB handles land reclamation works in Singapore and maintains the infrastructure of Singapore's national resource stockpiles.

History

Background and formation

By the 1940s and 1950s, Singapore experienced rapid population growth, with the population increasing to 1.7 million from 940,700 between 1947 and 1957. The living conditions of people in Singapore also worsened, with many people staying in informal settlements or in cramped shophouses.[2] Moreover, the SIT, which was then responsible for public housing in Singapore, faced many problems in providing public housing, with the rents for flats being too low to be financially sustainable, but unaffordable for many of the poorer people in Singapore, and delays in approval for new housing developments greatly slowing down housing construction by 1958.[3]

In the mid-1950s, in light of the findings of the Committee on Local Government, the government initiated efforts to set up a new housing authority in place of the SIT.[4] These efforts culminated in the Housing and Development Bill, which was read to the Legislative Assembly in 1958 and passed the next year. With the bill's passing, the HDB was formed in February 1960, taking over the SIT's public housing responsibilities.[5]

The 1960s to 1980s

Upon the HDB's formation, it announced plans to build more than 50,000 flats, mostly in the city, under a five year scheme,[6] and found ways to build flats as cheaply as possible so that the poor could afford to stay in them.[7] The HDB also continued the SIT's efforts in building emergency flats in Tiong Bahru, which were mostly used to rehouse people displaced by the Bukit Ho Swee fire in May 1961. After the fire, the HDB focused its efforts on Bukit Ho Swee's redevelopment, rapidly designing and constructing a public housing estate on the fire site, with people displaced by urban renewal projects and kampong fires rehoused in the estate's flats. The one-room emergency flats were greatly disliked by their occupants, so by the mid-1960s, the HDB had moved on to building larger flats, especially around the Central Area. Nevertheless, the Bukit Ho Swee estate marked the beginning of the HDB's resettlement efforts, and kampong dwellers were swiftly rehoused in public housing. By 1965, 54,430 flats had been built, with an increasing proportion of the population living in HDB dwellings.[8]

The rehousing of kampong dwellers allowed the HDB to pursue its redevelopment plans for the Central Area,[8] and the Urban Renewal Department was formed within the HDB in 1966 to manage the redevelopment works. This department also handled the construction of new amenities in the Central Area, and collaborated with private enterprises in constructing new buildings on cleared sites. However, by the 1970s, the urban renewal projects proved to be too large for the department to handle alone,[9] so the department was replaced by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, a statutory board, in 1974.[10]

With the construction of the Bukit Ho Swee estate, the HDB also sought to change how estate residents behaved, and to give the state greater control over their lives.[8] Moreover, with the new housing estates not segregated by race, the HDB facilitated the formation of multiracial communities in place of racially divided ones.[11] Nevertheless, by the 1980s, racial divisions within HDB estates became increasingly pronounced, so in order to mitigate possible ethnic tensions, the Ethnic Integration Policy, which capped the racial proportions of residents in HDB estates, was introduced in 1989.[12]

The HDB began to offer flats for purchase in 1964, but as many flat dwellers at the time could not afford to do so, it was initially not very successful. Applicants were allowed to use their Central Provident Fund (CPF) contributions to pay for their flats from 1968, and the take-up rate for flat purchase increased such that by the 1980s, most flat applicants were opting to purchase their flats.[2] From the late 1960s onwards, the HDB started to design flats and estates with improved amenities and fittings in a bid to improve quality of life. To further these efforts, in the 1970s and 1980s, the HDB introduced Resident's Committees in its housing estates to promote community cohesion, loosened regulations on flat modifications, and engaged in upgrading works. These works included the expansion of old one-room flats and the construction of new amenities in older estates.[13] In addition, the HDB started soliciting feedback from residents through the Sample Household Surveys (SHS) from 1975.[14]

In 1982, control over the Housing and Urban Development Company (HUDC) was transferred to the HDB.[15] With the prices of HUDC flats approaching those of private housing, and the middle class being able to purchase HDB flats, the HDB stopped building HUDC flats in 1985.[13]

1990s to present

In a bid to encourage younger people to continue living in older public housing estates, the HDB announced a large-scale upgrading scheme for those estates in 1989.[13] Known as the Main Upgrading Programme,[11] it attempted to improve these estates by adding new facilities to these estates, improved fittings in flats and to vary the looks of housing blocks in different precincts. In addition, the HDB initiated a redevelopment programme, the Selective En bloc Redevelopment Scheme (SERS) in 1995, in which selected housing blocks are razed and their residents compensated, and carried out renewal schemes in town centres in several older estates in the late 1990s.[13]

Along with the upgrading schemes, the HDB also introduced several new housing schemes in the 1990s. These included the Design and Build and Design Plus schemes, with flats designed in collaboration with private architects and built to a higher standard than other flats, and executive condominiums, with amenities similar to private housing.[13] Further schemes were introduced in the 2000s, such as Build-to-Order, in which construction of flats began only after applicants have applied for them,[16] and the Design, Build and Sell Scheme, in which the flats were developed and sold by private developers.[17]

Nevertheless, the HDB was unable to adapt to the changes in Singapore's housing market fast enough in the early 2000s. To determine its position in the housing market, the HDB was reorganised, transferring flat loan provision to private banks,[18] and corporatising its Building and Development Division to form a new subsidary, HDB Corp.[19]

The HDB increased efforts to engage residents in its provision of public housing in the 2000s. These efforts included public consultation schemes and the Neighbourhood Renewal Programme, in which facilities within multiple adjacent precincts were improved or upgraded, and residents were able to provide feedback on the planned improvements. Efforts to foster more extensive resident participation were made in 2013 with the Building Our Neighbourhood Dreams! project, in which residents could propose neighbourhood improvements instead of just providing feedback, but the initial projects were not well received.[14]

The HDB began installation of solar panels on public housing blocks and in its properties in the 2010s. In 2014, together with the Economic Development Board, it initiated the SolarNova programme, handling solar panel installation on government properties and buildings.[20]

Responsibilities

Under the Housing and Development Act, the HDB is tasked to plan and carry out the construction or upgrading of any building, clear slums, manage and maintain the estates and buildings that it owns, and to provide loans to people to buy land or public housing.[21] The HDB also carries out land reclamation works and handles the infrastructure for Singapore's national resource stockpiles.[20]

Organisation

The HDB consists of a Chairman and 11 other members,[22] along with three departments, the Building, Estate and Corporate departments, under the purview of a chief executive officer,[23] who is a member of the board.[24] Each department is further subdivided into different groups, with the Research and Planning, Development and Procurement, Building Quality and Building and Infrastructure groups as well as the Building and Research Institute under the Building department, the Estate Administration and Property, Housing Management, Community Relations and Properties and Land groups under the Estate department, and the Corporate Development, Corporate Communications, Finance, Information Services and Legal groups under the Corporate department.[23]

The HDB also controls 75% of EM Services, a company which handles the upkeep of the HDB's housing estates and properties, as well as the properties of other public organisations.[25] HDB employees are organised under a house union, HDB Staff Union (HDBSU).[26]

Programmes

New flats programmes

HDB new flats programmes
Programmes Abbrev Start End Remarks
Registration for Flat RFS 1980s Feb 2002 Any surplus units from BTOs, balance BEs or
HDB buy-back schemes through balloting method
Walk-in Selection WIS Mar 2002 Feb 2007
Mthly/Qtrly/Hyrly/Balance Sale E-Sale Apr 2007 -
Balloting Exercise BE Aug 1995 - Only available for initial large surplus units of SERS
Build-To-Order (HDB) BTO Apr 2001 - Buying a new flat with a waiting period of 4 years
Design, Build and Sell Scheme DBSS Oct 2006 2012 Buying a new condominium design flat built by private developer

Upgrading programmes

HDB Upgrading programmes
Programmes Abbrev Start End Remarks
Main Upgrading Programme MUP Jul 1990 Apr 2011 Interior upgrading programmes for flats built up to 1986, and
HIP which have not undergone MUP, with added optional improvements. The HIP has since been extended to flats built up to 1997. In addition, flats will have a second upgrade under HIP II.[27]
Home Improvement Programme HIP Aug 2007 -
Home Improvement Programme II HIP Aug 2018 -
Interim Upgrading Programme IUP Aug 1993 Aug 2002 The common areas of a precinct were upgraded, landscape upgrading programmes stopped in flavour of IUP Plus
Selective En bloc Redevelopment Scheme SERS Aug 1995 - Launched in August 1995 to renew old housing estates in Singapore. Offers flat owners a unique opportunity to move to a new home near their existing estate.[28]
Voluntary Early Redevelopment Scheme VERS Aug 2018 - Announced during the 2018 National Day Rally, VERS allows flat owners to vote on early redevelopment of housing blocks.[29]
Lift Upgrading Programme LUP Sep 2001 Feb 2018 Direct level access to lift for flats.
Interim Upgrading Programme Plus IUP Plus May 2002 Dec 2014
Neighbourhood Renewal Programme NRP Aug 2007 - This would include MUP/HIP (interior) and IUP Plus (landscape) as it focuses on block and neighbourhood improvements

See also

References

  1. ^ "HDB CEO Cheong Koon Hean to step down in January, NEA CEO Tan Meng Dui to take over in February". CNA. 30 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b Lim, William Siew Wai (July-August 1984). "Public housing and community development in Singapore". Ekistics. 51 (307): 319-327. JSTOR 43621881. Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ "The Housing Problem". The Straits Times. Singapore. 12 September 1958. p. 8. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  4. ^ "Govt. acts: SIT's days numbered". The Straits Times. Singapore. 12 June 1956. p. 4. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  5. ^ "2 new boards take over from the S.I.T". The Straits Times. Singapore. 1 February 1960. p. 7. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  6. ^ "Govt. to spend $230 mil. on homes in next five years". The Straits Times. Singapore. 10 August 1960. p. 4. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  7. ^ "Coming: A housing record". The Straits Times. Singapore. 6 July 1960. p. 7. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  8. ^ a b c Loh, Kah Seng (2009). "5 The Politics of Fires in Post-1950s Singapore and the Making of the Modernist Nation-State". In Aljunied, Syed Muhd Khairudin; Heng, Derek (eds.). Reframing Singapore: Memory - Identity - Trans-Regionalism. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 89-108.
  9. ^ "The real beginning -- 18 years ago". The Straits Times. Singapore. 15 April 1984. p. 7. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  10. ^ "Tan gets top urban renewal post". New Nation. Singapore. 9 February 1974. p. 2. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  11. ^ a b Goh, Robbie B.H. (August 2001). "Ideologies of 'Upgrading' in Singapore Public Housing: Post-modern Style, Globalisation and Class Construction in the Built Environment". Urban Studies. 38 (9): 1589-1604. JSTOR 43196729. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ Beatrice Weder Di Mauro (1 April 2018). Building a Cohesive Society: The Case of Singapore's Housing Policies (Report). Centre For International Governance Innovation. Retrieved 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e Teo, Siew Eng; Kong, Lily (March 1997). "Public Housing in Singapore: Interpreting 'Quality' in the 1990s". Urban Studies. 34 (3): 441-452. JSTOR 43083375. Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ a b Cho, Im Sik; Nasution, Ivan; Lee, Jihye; Mascherenhas, Nina (Winter 2017). "Mechanisms for facilitating community participation in Singapore's neighbourhood-planning framework". Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. 34 (4): 320-335. JSTOR 44987240. Retrieved 2021.
  15. ^ Oei, Sin Geok (8 March 1984). "Dropped - The last HUDC project in exclusive area". Singapore Monitor. Singapore. p. 3. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  16. ^ Chua, Chelsea (22 March 2001). "Get ready for the where-when-what flats". Today. Singapore. p. 1. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  17. ^ Generalova, Elena; Generalov, Viktor (2014). "Social Issues: Designing High-Rise Housing: The Singapore Experience". CTBUH Journal (4): 40-45. JSTOR 24192834. Retrieved 2021.
  18. ^ Ng, Boon Yian (28 January 2003). "HDB at crossroads". Today. Singapore. p. 1. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  19. ^ Paulo, Derrick A (1 July 2003). "HDB record payout". Today. Singapore. p. 1. Retrieved 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  20. ^ a b "Annual Report 2019/2020". hdb.gov.sg. Housing and Development Board. Retrieved 2021.
  21. ^ "Housing and Development Act". sso.agc.gov.sg. Singapore Statutes Online. Retrieved 2021.
  22. ^ "Annual Report 2019/2020". hdb.gov.sg. Housing and Development Board. Retrieved 2021.
  23. ^ a b "Organisation Chart". hdb.gov.sg. Housing and Development Board. Retrieved 2021.
  24. ^ "Corporate Governance". hdb.gov.sg. Housing and Development Board. Retrieved 2021.
  25. ^ "Subsidiary and Associated Companies". hdb.gov.sg. Housing and Development Board. Retrieved 2021.
  26. ^ "Housing & Development Board | Tripartite Alliance for Fair and Progressive Employment Practices (TAFEP)". www.tafep.sg. Retrieved 2016.
  27. ^ "National Day Rally 2018: All HDB flats will be upgraded twice under expanded Home Improvement Programme". The Straits Times. 19 August 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  28. ^ "SERS". www.hdb.gov.sg. HDB InfoWEB. The Selective En bloc Redevelopment Scheme (SERS) renews our older housing estates. If you are a SERS resident, you will get the opportunity to move to a new home with a new 99-year lease, and continue living close to your current neighbours. SERS flat owners will also be given a package comprising compensation and rehousing benefits.
  29. ^ "National Day Rally 2018: Owners of old HDB flats can vote to let Govt buy back flats early, get new ones with proceeds". The Straits Times. 19 August 2018. Retrieved 2019.

External links


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