Ibn Hisham
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Ibn Hisham

Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham
TitleIbn Hisham
Died7 May 833/13 Rab II 218
EraIslamic golden age
(Abbasid era)
RegionBasra and Egypt
Main interest(s)Prophetic biography
Notable work(s)The Life of the Prophet
Muslim leader
Influenced by

Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari al-Mu'afiri al-Ba?ri (Arabic: ? ? ? ? ‎; died 7 May 833),[1] or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.[2] The nisba Al-Ba?ri means "of Basra", in modern Iraq.


Ibn Hisham has been said to have grown up in Basra and moved afterwards to Egypt.[3] His family was native to Basra but he himself was born in Old Cairo.[4] He gained a name as a grammarian and student of language and history in Egypt. His family was of Himyarite origin and belongs to Banu Ma'afir tribe of Yemen.[1][5]

Biography of Mu?ammad

As-S?rah an-Nabawiyyah ( ?), 'The Life of the Prophet'; is an edited recension of Ibn Isq's classic S?ratu Ras?li l-L?h (? ? ?) 'The Life of God's Messenger'.[6][7][8] Ibn Isq's now lost work survives only in Ibn Hish?m's and al-Tabari's recensions, although fragments of several others survive,[9] and Ibn Hish?m and al-Tabar? share virtually the same material.[9]

Ibn Hish?m explains in the preface of the work, the criteria by which he made his choice from the original work of Ibn Isq in the tradition of his disciple Ziy?d al-Baqqi (d. 799). Accordingly, Ibn Hish?m omits stories from Al-S?rah that contain no mention of Mu?ammad,[10] certain poems, traditions whose accuracy Ziy?d al-Baqqi [n 1] could not confirm, and offensive passages that could offend the reader.[10][11][12] Al-Tabari includes controversial episodes of the Satanic Verses including an apocryphal story about Mu?ammad's attempted suicide.[13][14] Ibn Hish?m gives more accurate versions of the poems he includes and supplies explanations of difficult terms and phrases of the Arabic language, additions of genealogical content to certain proper names, and brief descriptions of the places mentioned in Al-S?rah. Ibn Hish?m appends his notes to the corresponding passages of the original text with the words: "q?la Ibn Hish?m" (Ibn Hish?m says).[10]

Translations and editions

Later Ibn Hish?m's As-Sira would chiefly be transmitted by his pupil, Ibn al-Barq?.[10] This treatment of Ibn Ish?q's work was circulated to scholars in Cordoba in Islamic Spain by around 864. The first printed edition was published in Arabic by the German orientalist Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, in Göttingen (1858-1860). The Life of Mo?ammad According to Mo?ammed b. Ish?q, ed. 'Abd al-Malik b. Hisham. Gustav Weil (Stuttgart 1864) was the first published translation.

In the 20th century the book has been printed several times in the Middle East.[15] [16] The German orientalist Gernot Rotter produced an abridged (about one third) German translation of The life of the Prophet. As-S?ra An-Nabaw?ya. (Spohr, Kandern in the Black Forest 1999). An English translation by the British orientalist Alfred Guillaume: The Life of Muhammad. A translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. (1955); 11th edition. (Oxford University Press, Karachi 1996).

Other works

See also


  1. ^ Ziy?d al-Baqqi (d. 183/799), lived mostly in Kufa. Ibn Hish?m's knowledge of Ibn Isq's biography derived from al-Baqqi.


  1. ^ a b Nadwi Muinuddin (1929). Catalogue Of The Arabic And Persian Manuscripts Vol Xv. pp. 182-183.
  2. ^ Kathryn Kueny, The Rhetoric of Sobriety: Wine in Early Islam, pg. 59. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001. ISBN 9780791490181
  3. ^ Mustafa al-Suqa, Ibrahim al-Abyari and Abdul-Hafidh Shalabi, Tahqiq Sirah an-Nabawiyyah li Ibn Hisham, ed.: Dar Ihya al-Turath, pp. 23-4.
  4. ^ Muir, William (1861). The Life of Mahomet: With Introductory Chapters on the Original Sources for the Biography of Mahomet, and on the Pre-Islamite History of Arabia. 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. xciv.
  5. ^ Mustafa al-Suqa, Ibrahim al-Abyari and Abdul-Hafidh Shalabi. Tahqiq Sirah an-Nabawiyyah li Ibn Hisham (PDF) (in Arabic). pp. 44-45-46.
  6. ^ Mahmood ul-Hasan, Ibn Al-At?h?ir: An Arab Historian : a Critical Analysis of His Tarikh-al-kamil and Tarikh-al-atabeca, pg. 71. New Delhi: Northern Book Center, 2005. ISBN 9788172111540
  7. ^ Antonie Wessels, A Modern Arabic Biography of Mu?ammad: A Critical Study of Mu?ammad ?usayn, pg. 1. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1972.
  8. ^ Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, pg. 18. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 9780521779333
  9. ^ a b Donner, Fred McGraw (1998). Narratives of Islamic origins: the beginnings of Islamic historical writing. Darwin Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-87850-127-4. Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d Montgomery Watt, W. (1968). "Ibn Hish?m". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 3 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 800-801. ISBN 9004081186.
  11. ^ Holland, Tom (2012). In the Shadow of the Sword. Doubleday. p. 42. ISBN 9780385531368.
  12. ^ Newby, Gordon Darnell; Ibn Isq, Mu?ammad (1989). The Making of the Last Prophet: A Reconstruction of the Earliest Biography of Muhammad. University of South Carolina Press. p. 9.
  13. ^ Raven, Wim, S?ra and the Qurn - Ibn Isq and his editors, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Vol. 5. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006. p. 29-51.
  14. ^ Cf., Ibn Ishaq (Guillaume's reconstruction, at pp. 165-167) and al-Tabari (SUNY edition, at VI: 107-112).
  15. ^ Sezgin, Fuat (1967). Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. 1. Leiden: Brill.
  16. ^ Sezgin 1967, p. 298.
  17. ^ Printed in Hyderabad (India), 1928.
  18. ^ Sezgin 1967, p. 299, n.2.

External links

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