Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham
|Died||7 May 833/13 Rab II 218|
|Era||Islamic golden age |
|Region||Basra and Egypt|
|Main interest(s)||Prophetic biography|
|Notable work(s)||The Life of the Prophet|
Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari al-Mu'afiri al-Ba?ri (Arabic: ? ? ? ? ; died 7 May 833), or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq. The nisba Al-Ba?ri means "of Basra", in modern Iraq.
Ibn Hisham has been said to have grown up in Basra and moved afterwards to Egypt. His family was native to Basra but he himself was born in Old Cairo. He gained a name as a grammarian and student of language and history in Egypt. His family was of Himyarite origin and belongs to Banu Ma'afir tribe of Yemen.
As-S?rah an-Nabawiyyah ( ?), 'The Life of the Prophet'; is an edited recension of Ibn Isq's classic S?ratu Ras?li l-L?h (? ? ?) 'The Life of God's Messenger'. Ibn Isq's now lost work survives only in Ibn Hish?m's and al-Tabari's recensions, although fragments of several others survive, and Ibn Hish?m and al-Tabar? share virtually the same material.
Ibn Hish?m explains in the preface of the work, the criteria by which he made his choice from the original work of Ibn Isq in the tradition of his disciple Ziy?d al-Baqqi (d. 799). Accordingly, Ibn Hish?m omits stories from Al-S?rah that contain no mention of Mu?ammad, certain poems, traditions whose accuracy Ziy?d al-Baqqi [n 1] could not confirm, and offensive passages that could offend the reader. Al-Tabari includes controversial episodes of the Satanic Verses including an apocryphal story about Mu?ammad's attempted suicide. Ibn Hish?m gives more accurate versions of the poems he includes and supplies explanations of difficult terms and phrases of the Arabic language, additions of genealogical content to certain proper names, and brief descriptions of the places mentioned in Al-S?rah. Ibn Hish?m appends his notes to the corresponding passages of the original text with the words: "q?la Ibn Hish?m" (Ibn Hish?m says).
Later Ibn Hish?m's As-Sira would chiefly be transmitted by his pupil, Ibn al-Barq?. This treatment of Ibn Ish?q's work was circulated to scholars in Cordoba in Islamic Spain by around 864. The first printed edition was published in Arabic by the German orientalist Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, in Göttingen (1858-1860). The Life of Mo?ammad According to Mo?ammed b. Ish?q, ed. 'Abd al-Malik b. Hisham. Gustav Weil (Stuttgart 1864) was the first published translation.
In the 20th century the book has been printed several times in the Middle East.  The German orientalist Gernot Rotter produced an abridged (about one third) German translation of The life of the Prophet. As-S?ra An-Nabaw?ya. (Spohr, Kandern in the Black Forest 1999). An English translation by the British orientalist Alfred Guillaume: The Life of Muhammad. A translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. (1955); 11th edition. (Oxford University Press, Karachi 1996).