Illeism
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Illeism

Illeism (from Latin ille meaning "he, that") is the act of referring to oneself in the third person instead of first person. It is sometimes used in literature as a stylistic device. In real-life usage, illeism can reflect a number of different stylistic intentions or involuntary circumstances.

In literature

Early literature such as Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico or Xenophon's Anabasis, both ostensibly non-fictional accounts of wars led by their authors, used illeism to impart an air of objective impartiality, which included justifications of the author's actions. In this way personal bias is presented, albeit dishonestly, as objectivity.

In an essay, theologian Richard B. Hays challenged earlier findings that he disagrees with: "These were the findings of one Richard B. Hays, and the newer essay treats the earlier work and earlier author at arms' length."[1]

Illeism may also be used to show idiocy, as with the character Mongo in Blazing Saddles, e.g. "Mongo like candy" and "Mongo only pawn in game of life"; though it may also show innocent simplicity, as it does with Harry Potter's Dobby the Elf ("Dobby has come to protect, even if he does have to shut his ears in the oven door").

In everyday speech

Iin different contexts, illeism can be used to reinforce self-promotion, as used to sometimes comic effect by Bob Dole throughout his political career ("When the president is ready to deploy, Bob Dole is ready to lead the fight on the Senate Floor", Bob Dole speaking about the Strategic Defense Initiative at the NCPAC convention, 1987). This was particularly made notable during the United States presidential election of 1996 and lampooned broadly in popular media for years afterwards. Deepanjana Pal of Firstpost noted that speaking in the third person "is a classic technique used by generations of Bollywood scriptwriters to establish a character's aristocracy, power and gravitas".[2]

On the other hand, third person self-referral can be associated with self-irony and not taking oneself too seriously (since the excessive use of pronoun "I" is often seen as a sign of narcissism and egocentrism),[3] as well as with eccentricity in general. Psychological studies show that thinking and speaking of oneself in the third person increases wisdom and has a positive effect on one's mental state because an individual who does so is more intellectually humble, more capable of empathy and understanding the perspectives of others, and is able to distance emotionally from one's own problems.[4][5][6] Accordingly, in certain Eastern religions, like Hinduism, illeism is sometimes seen as a sign of enlightenment, since through it, an individual detaches their eternal self (atman) from their bodily form; in particular, Jnana yoga encourages its practitioners to refer to themselves in the third person.[7] Known illeists of that sort include Swami Ramdas,[8] Ma Yoga Laxmi,[9] Anandamayi Ma,[10] and Mata Amritanandamayi.[11]

A number of celebrities, including Marilyn Monroe,[12][13] Alice Cooper,[14] and Deanna Durbin,[15] referred to themselves in the third person to distance their public persona from their actual self.

Some parents use illeism (refer to themselves as "Daddy" or "Mommy") because very young children may not yet understand that the pronouns "I" and "you" refer to different people based on context.[16][17]

Notable illeists

Real people

Politics

Sports

Entertainment

Religion and spirituality

Other

Fictional characters

Books

Comics

  • Doctor Doom is known for more often than not referring to himself as "Doom" instead of "me" or "I".[79]
  • The Hulk[79]
  • Mantis almost always refers to herself as "Mantis", "she", and "this one"; this has to do with her upbringing at the Temple of the Priests of Pama, an alien pacifistic sect heavily inspired by real-life Eastern religious movements.[80]

Television

. Mr. French from Family Affair

Film

Manga and anime

Video games

  • Candice, the seventh Gym Leader in the Sinnoh region in Pokémon Diamond & Pearl, often uses illeism in her speech, such as "Candice is on fire!"
  • Guzma, the leader of Team Skull in Pokémon Sun & Moon, speaks like this; notable examples are "It's ya boy Guzma!" and "Guzmaaaaaaaaaaaaa! What's wrong with you?!"

See also

References

  1. ^ Richard B. Hays, "'Here We Have No Lasting City': New Covenantalism in Hebrews" in Richard J. Bauckham et al. (eds.), The Epistle to the Hebrews and Christian Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2009), 151-173, esp. 151-152, 167.
  2. ^ "Rahul Gandhi, blurring lines between filmi and real politicians". Firstpost. 2014-01-28. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Raskin, Robert (1988). "Narcissism and the Use of Personal Pronouns". Journal of Personality. 56 (2): 393-404. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1988.tb00892.x. PMID 3404383.
  4. ^ "Why speaking to yourself in the third person makes you wiser". Aeon. 2019-08-07. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "The Benefits of Talking About Yourself in the Third Person". HowStuffWorks. 2018-04-16. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "The Psychological Case for Talking in the Third Person". Mic. 2015-02-25. Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Hinduism-The Religious Life". uwyo.edu. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  8. ^ "Swami Ramdas". bhagavan-ramana.org. Retrieved 2015.
  9. ^ "Osho World Online Magazine :: February 2013". Oshoworld.com. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Aymard, Orianne (2014-05-01). When a Goddess Dies: Worshipping Ma Anandamayi after Her Death. ISBN 978-0199368631.
  11. ^ "rediff.com: The Rediff Interview/Mata Amritanandmayi". rediff.com. Retrieved 2015.
  12. ^ a b Spoto, Donald (2001). Marilyn Monroe: The Biography. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 324. ISBN 9780815411833.
  13. ^ a b Leaming, Barbara (2010). Marilyn Monroe. Crown. p. 404. ISBN 9780307557773.
  14. ^ a b Whitworth, Melissa (August 28, 2007). "Alice Cooper: 'Some people turn to God, I turned to golf'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on August 29, 2007. Retrieved 2011.
  15. ^ a b Private letter to film historian/critic William K. Everson in the late 1970s
  16. ^ https://parenting.stackexchange.com/questions/4788/why-do-parents-refer-to-themselves-in-the-third-person/4790
  17. ^ https://www.parent.com/why-do-we-refer-to-ourselves-in-the-third-person-when-we-talk-to-our-kids/
  18. ^ Alexander, Catherine M. S., ed. (2003). The Cambridge Shakespeare Library: Shakespeare's times, texts, and stages. Cambridge University Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780521808002.
  19. ^ See the Wikisource of the book: s:The Education of Henry Adams
  20. ^ Glass, Loren Daniel (2004). Authors Inc: Literary Celebrity in the Modern United States, 1880-1980. NYU Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780814731604.
  21. ^ Eisenhower, Dwight (1967). at ease. DoubleDay & Company. pp. 214.
  22. ^ "France: Third Person Singular". Time Magazine. 1970-10-19. Retrieved .(subscription required)
  23. ^ a b c d Barford, Vanessa (2015-08-28). "Why do some people refer to themselves in the third person?". BBC News. Retrieved 2015.
  24. ^ Harris, Scott (1996-03-10). "Bob Dole Needs to Put the 'I' in Identity". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved .
  25. ^ a b "Acervo Digital VEJA - Digital Pages". abril.com.br. Retrieved 2015.
  26. ^ Bourn, Chris. "Why People Like Trump Refer to Themselves in the Third Person". Mel Magazine. Mel Magazine. Retrieved 2020.
  27. ^ Forza Italia, Berlusconi parla in terza persona, La Repubblica, 26 October 2013
  28. ^ Alberts, Sheldon (9 November 2011), There's no 'you' in Herman Cain, The National Post
  29. ^ "Hang me if I have committed any crime, but no apology, Narendra Modi says - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2014-04-16. Retrieved .
  30. ^ "5?". now.com. 2016-07-17. Retrieved .
  31. ^ Manthorpe, Jonathan. Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan (2005 ed.). St. Martin's Griffin. p. 15.
  32. ^ Landers, Chris (2016-02-11). "Johnny Cueto was pretty impressed with Johnny Cueto's Game 5 gem in this third-person interview". mlb.com. How was Johnny Cueto able to step up in such a pivotal Game 5? "Games like this are where you see Johnny Cueto -- the real Johnny Cueto." Yes, Cueto gave his interview through an interpreter, but if you listen closely, you'll hear the pitcher was speaking in the third person the whole time.
  33. ^ Marchman, Tim; Fischer-Baum, Reuben (September 25, 2013). "Who Is The Most Pompous Sports Pundit? A Scientific Investigation". Deadspin. Pronouns within quotes weren't counted unless the author was quoting himself, and we also counted when Gregg Easterbrook used "TMQ" or "your columnist" in the obvious place of a pronoun. ("TMQ's been on the record as saying...")
  34. ^ Mewis, Joe (2013-10-03). "Read the best Zlatan Ibrahimovic quotes on the outspoken Swedish striker's birthday". The Mirror. Retrieved . There's big boasts, lashings of ego and plenty of third person references ahoy
  35. ^ Hruby, Patrick (2012-08-18). "Lebron James definitely has Dan Gilbert all wrong". ESPN Page 2. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved .
  36. ^ Nordquist, Richard (2012-09-24). "A Few More Oddities: Illeism, Semantic Satiation, and Garden-Path Sentences". About.com guide. Retrieved . Here, for instance, is how pro basketball player LeBron James justified his decision to leave the Cleveland Cavaliers to join the Miami Heat: I wanted to do what was best for LeBron James and what LeBron James was going to do to make him happy.
  37. ^ Taibbi, Matt (2010-03-02). "A Field Guide to Sports Egos". Men's Journal. Archived from the original on 2013-01-28. Retrieved . They actually have a word for what Rickey Henderson is: illeist.
  38. ^ "Doug Robinson: Karl Malone is one of a kind". Deseret News. 2010-08-10. Retrieved . Maybe Malone didn't even know he was the one who was saying those things, because he tended to talk about himself as another being, in third person. Or maybe he was just schizophrenic, whatever.
  39. ^ Amis, Martin (2004-10-01). "In search of Dieguito". The Guardian. London. Retrieved .
  40. ^ e. g. here
  41. ^ Shefter, Adam (2011-02-27). "Sources: Cam Newton thrown for loop". ESPN.com. His comment drew such a reaction because some say his swagger teeters on the edge of pure arrogance. In roughly 12 minutes at the podium, he referred to himself in the third person three times. When asked if some mistake his confidence for cockiness, he said: "I'm not sure, but I'm a confident person, and it was instilled in myself at an early age to believe in myself".
  42. ^ Hattenstone, Simon (2003-06-30). "And God created Pele". The Guardian. London. Retrieved .
  43. ^ Fink, Jesse (2011-11-13). "Pelé's mouth should get a straight red". The Sunday Guardian. Retrieved .
  44. ^ "Former Nottingham Forest manager Billy Davies claims 'whispering campaign' has sabotaged Premier League ambitions". The Independent. 27 February 2016. Retrieved 2020.
  45. ^ Wiltz, Teresa (2006-11-02). "Love Him, Or Leave Him?". Washington Post. Retrieved . They all purport to be in love with Flav, a man who refers to himself in the third person and whose idea of fine dining is a dash to Red Lobster.
  46. ^ Fowler, Matt (2009-07-02). "Line-O-Rama: The Rock Says". IGN. Retrieved .
  47. ^ "The Deseret News - Google News Archive Search". google.com. Retrieved 2015.
  48. ^ Canales, Luis. Imperial Gina.
  49. ^ A simple country girl The Boston Globe, 29 July 1956
  50. ^ Everybody Picks on Lollobrigida The Miami News, 11 September 1955
  51. ^ Barton, Ruth (2010). Hedy Lamarr: The Most Beautiful Woman in Film. University Press of Kentucky. p. 108. ISBN 9780813126104.
  52. ^ Bret, David (2014). Jean Harlow: Tarnished Angel. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-781-31343-5.
  53. ^ Porter, Darwin (2003). The Secret Life of Humphrey Bogart: The Early Years (1899-1931). Blood Moon Productions, Ltd. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-966-80305-1.
  54. ^ "Queremos tanto a Lila". Revistamarcapasos.com. 1999-02-22. Retrieved .
  55. ^ IGN Staff (October 10, 2006). "Mr. T Reveals Why He Pities Fools". Retrieved 2013.
  56. ^ Jenkins, Craig (4 January 2021). "Hip-Hop Needs No Other Supervillain After MF DOOM". Vulture.
  57. ^ Delaney, Sam (June 1, 2019). "'I confuse people': Noel Edmonds on bank fraud, Mr Blobby and his 'barmy' reputation". The Guardian.
  58. ^ Aymard, Orianne (2014-05-01). When a Goddess Dies: Worshipping Ma Anandamayi after Her Death. ISBN 978-0199368631.
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  60. ^ Susunaga Weeraperuma. "The Life of Swami Ramdas" (PDF). Retrieved 2020.
  61. ^ Singh, Puran (1924). The Story of Swami Rama: The Poet Monk of the Punjab. Madras: Ganesh & Co.
  62. ^ "Osho World Online Magazine :: February 2013". Oshoworld.com. Retrieved .
  63. ^ Rod Elledge (2007). Use of the Third Person for Self-Reference by Jesus and Yahweh: A Study of Illeism in the Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Texts and Its Implications for Christology. Bloomsbury T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567671448.
  64. ^ Dalí, Salvador (April 19, 1958). "Salvador Dalí - The Mike Wallace interview – Transcript". The Mike Wallace Interview (video). Interviewed by Mike Wallace. Retrieved – via Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin.
  65. ^ Norman Mailer (1997-09-30). The Fight. Vintage. ISBN 0-375-70038-2.
  66. ^ De Sousa Correa, Delia (2000). The Nineteenth-century Novel: Realisms. Psychology Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780415238267.
  67. ^ 'Winnetou' actor Pierre Brice dies Deutsche Welle
  68. ^ Seeking the Aboriginal experience in Germany, Windspeaker
  69. ^ Your next box set: Agatha Christie's Poirot, Emine Saner, The Guardian, 28 Jul 2011
  70. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1997). The Hobbit (Revised ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. p. 72. ISBN 0-345-33968-1.
  71. ^ ""You're Not the Same Kind of Human Being": The Evolution of Pity to Horror in Daniel Keyes' Flowers for Algernon - Cline - Disability Studies Quarterly". DSQ-SDS.org. Brent Walter Cline. 32 (4). 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2015.
  72. ^ Chalker, Jack L. (2013-07-25). When the Changewinds Blow. ISBN 9780575097995.
  73. ^ [1]
  74. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-07. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  75. ^ Nguyen, Hann (2 April 2019). "'Game of Thrones': Unmasking Arya's Mysterious Faceless Man". TV Guide. Retrieved 2020.
  76. ^ RavenWolf, Silver (2001). Witches' Key to Terror. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 25. ISBN 9780738700496. The three girls milled around the kitchen, dodging Ramona, looking for midnight snacks. Bethany wished for the thousandth time that the housekeeper would not talk about herself in the third person. Too weird.
  77. ^ "Bookslut | Kafka on the Shore by Haruki Murakami".
  78. ^ Mussari, Mark (2011). Haruki Murakami. Marshall Cavendish. p. 77. ISBN 9780761441243. Retrieved .
  79. ^ a b Chris Bourn (April 26, 2018). "The Psychology of Referring to Yourself in the Third Person". MEL Magazine. Retrieved 2020.
  80. ^ Guardians of the Galaxy: 15 Things You Never Knew About Mantis
  81. ^ "Why does Elmo refer to himself in the third person? Won't this teach kids improper English?". Frequently Asked Questions. Sesame Workshop. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved .
  82. ^ "Auf Wiedersehen, Pet". TV Cream. Retrieved .
  83. ^ Kettle, James (2011-05-28). "The best of Seinfeld". The Guardian. Retrieved .
  84. ^ Sullivan, Jonathan (2010-01-22). "DVD Review: Becker - The Third Season". Blogcritics.
  85. ^ Mike Sager (10 June 2015). "Omar Little on 'The Wire' - Why Omar Is the Best Character on 'The Wire'". Esquire. Retrieved 2016.
  86. ^ Hinckley, David (2009-04-07). "ABC's 'The Unusuals' odd squad mixes drama and humor". New York Daily News. Retrieved .
  87. ^ Alston, Joshua (2010-10-14). "'Eastbound & Down': The Ugliest American". The Daily Beast. Retrieved .
  88. ^ Gilmore, Dave (October 22, 2012). "'Boardwalk Empire' recap, 'Ging Gang Goolie'". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved .
  89. ^ Wightman, Catriona (2011-09-27). "'Hart of Dixie': First impressions - TV Blog". Digital Spy. Retrieved .
  90. ^ Simpson, Craig (June 17, 2009). "Summer of '84--Waxing on Nostalgia: The Karate Kid". Slant Magazine. Miyagi is a trickier case: at first it looks like Avildsen overplays the man's exoticness (cue that pan flute!), enforced by Kamen's questionable emphasis on the character's me-no-likey phonetic third-person English. ("Miyagi this, Miyagi that...")
  91. ^ "Quotes for Magua (Character)". IMDB. 2014-08-01. When the Grey Hair is dead, Magua will eat his heart. Before he dies, Magua will put his children under the knife, so the Grey Hair will know his seed is wiped out forever.
  92. ^ "Fast & Furious (2009) - Quotes". IMDB. 2020-06-04. Papa Dwight wants you to take off your shoes! Dwight loves feet!.
  93. ^ "Cars 2 - An interview with director John Lasseter". Sound and Picture Online. 2011-06-20. He's not just any formula car. He's the star from Italy, Francesco Bernoulli. He is so full of himself--he's an open-wheel car and in the car world, an open-wheel car is like those guys who barely button their shirts. He talks about himself in the third person. Voicing Francesco Bernoulli is John Turturro and he hit it out of the park. It's one of the most entertaining characters we've ever created.
  94. ^ "A Cracked Concerto". Kanon (2006-2007). Episode 14.
  95. ^ Bowers, J. (2007-09-27). "Nodame Cantabile, Vols. 6-10 (Del Rey)". playbackstl.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-17. Retrieved .
  96. ^ Moody, Allen (2013-11-05). "Haganai - Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Like Tim, I didn't like most of the other characters, especially Rika, whose tics (speaking of herself in the third person, and imagining sexual situations in the damnedest places- for example, in mecha manga) kept making me shout "Make it STOP!!!!"

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Illeism
 



 



 
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