|Imperial House of Japan|
The Imperial House of Japan (, k?shitsu), also referred to as the Imperial Family, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the Emperor is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". Other members of the Imperial Family perform ceremonial and social duties, but have no role in the affairs of government. The duties as an Emperor are passed down the line to their male children.
The Japanese monarchy is said to be the oldest continuous hereditary monarchy in the world. The Imperial House recognizes 126 monarchs, beginning with the legendary Emperor Jimmu (traditionally dated to 11 February 660 BC), and continuing up to the current emperor, Naruhito.
The Prince Hitachi
The Princess Hitachi
Article 5 of the Imperial Household Law (?, K?shitsu Tenpan) defines the Imperial Family (, k?zoku) as the Empress (, k?g?); the Grand empress dowager (?, tai-k?taig?); the Empress dowager (, k?taig?); the Emperor's legitimate sons and legitimate grandsons in the legitimate male-line (, shinn?), and their consorts (, shinn?hi); the Emperor's unmarried legitimate daughters and unmarried legitimate granddaughters in the legitimate male-line (, naishinn?); the Emperor's other legitimate male descendants in the third and later generations in the legitimate male-line (?, ?) and their consorts (, ?hi); and the Emperor's other unmarried legitimate female descendants in the third and later generations in the legitimate male-line (, jo?). In English, shinn? and ? are both translated as "prince" as well as shinn?hi, naishinn?, ?hi and jo? as "princess".
After the removal of 11 collateral branches from the Imperial House in October 1947, the official membership of the Imperial Family has effectively been limited to the male line descendants of the Emperor Taish?, excluding females who married outside the Imperial Family and their descendants.
There are currently 18 members of the Imperial Family:
The following family tree shows the lineage of the contemporary members of the Imperial Family (living members in bold). Princesses who left the Imperial Family upon their marriage are indicated in italics:
|Emperor Taish?||Empress Teimei|
|Emperor Sh?wa||Empress K?jun||Prince Mikasa||Princess Mikasa|
|The Emperor Emeritus||The Empress Emerita||Prince Hitachi||Princess Hitachi||Five daughters |
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
|Prince Tomohito of Mikasa||Princess Tomohito of Mikasa||Prince Katsura||Prince Takamado||Princess Takamado||Two daughters |
|The Emperor||The Empress||Crown Prince Akishino||Crown Princess Akishino||Sayako Kuroda||Princess Akiko of Mikasa||Princess Y?ko of Mikasa||Princess Tsuguko of Takamado||Two daughters |
|Princess Toshi||Princess Mako||Princess Kako||Prince Hisahito|
Under the terms of the 1947 Imperial Household Law, naishinn? (imperial princesses) and jo? (princesses) lose their titles and membership in the Imperial Family upon marriage, unless they marry the Emperor or another member of the Imperial Family. Four of the five daughters of Emperor Sh?wa, the two daughters of Prince Mikasa, the only daughter of the Emperor Akihito and most recently, the second and third daughter of Prince Takamado, left the Imperial Family upon marriage, joining the husband's family and thus taking the surname of the husband. The eldest daughter of Emperor Sh?wa married the eldest son of Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni in 1943. The Higashikuni family lost its imperial status in October 1947. The living former imperial princesses are:
Additionally, there are several people of Imperial descent in the Fushimi cadet branch (Shinn?ke), which itself consists of a main branch and five extant sub-branches (?ke). The cadet royal families lost membership in the Imperial Family by the American Occupation Authorities in October 1947, as part of the abolition of collateral imperial houses and the kazoku (hereditary peerage). However, there are still unofficial heads of the living collateral families. These are the living Ky?-Miyake (, "former Miyake"):
The Higashifushimi or Komatsu collateral branch became extinct in the male line in 1922, followed by the Nashimoto branch in 1951, Kach? or Kwach? branch in 1970, Yamashina branch in 1987, and Kitashirakawa branch in 2018. The main Fushimi branch will become extinct upon the death of the current head, Fushimi Hiroaki (b. 1932), as he has no male offspring to succeed him.
The Japanese monarchy was considered to be among the wealthiest in the world until the end of World War II. Before 1911, there was no distinction between the Imperial Crown Estates and the Emperor's personal properties. When the Imperial Property Law was enacted in January 1911, two categories were established namely hereditary (crown estates) and personal property of the Imperial Family. The Imperial Household Minister had the responsibility for observing any judicial proceedings concerning Imperial holdings. According to the law, Imperial properties were only taxable if there was no conflict with the Imperial House Law. However, crown estates could only be used for public or imperially-sanctioned undertakings. Personal properties of certain members of the Imperial Family, such as Empress Dowager, the Empress, Crown Prince and Crown Princess, the Imperial Grandson and the consort of the Imperial Grandson, in addition to properties held for Imperial Family members who were minors, were exempted from taxation.
Up to 1921, the Imperial Crown Estates comprised 1,112,535.58 acres (450,227.18 ha). In 1921, due to the poor economic situation in Japan, 289,259.25 acres (117,059.07 ha) of crown lands (26%) were sold or transferred to the Japanese government and the private sector. In 1930, the Nagoya Detached Palace (Nagoya Castle) was donated to the city of Nagoya and six other imperial villas were sold or donated. In 1939, Nij? Castle was donated to the city of Kyoto. The former Kyoto residence of the Tokugawa shogunate which became an imperial palace in the Meiji Restoration, was donated to the city of Kyoto.
At the end of 1935, the Imperial Court owned 3,111,965 acres (1,259,368 ha) landed estates according to official government figures. 2,599,548 acres (1,052,000 ha) of that was the Emperor's private lands. The total landholdings of the crown estates was 512,161 acres (207,264 ha). It comprised palace complexes, forest and farm lands and other residential and commercial properties. The total economic value of the Imperial properties was estimated at ¥650 million in 1935 which is approximately US$195 million at prevailing exchange rates and $19.9 billion as of 2017[note 1] Emperor Hirohito's personal fortune was an additional hundreds of millions of yen (estimated over $6 billion as of 2017 ). It included numerous family heirlooms and furnishings, purebred livestock and investments in major Japanese firms, such as the Bank of Japan, other major Japanese banks, the Imperial Hotel and Nippon Yusen..
After World War II, all of the 11 collateral branches of the Imperial Family were abolished under the Allied occupation of Japan, and the subsequent constitutional reforms imposed under Allied supervision forced those families to sell their assets to private or government owners. Staff numbers of the Imperial Household Ministry were slashed from roughly 6000 to about 1000. The Imperial Estates and the Emperor's personal fortune (then estimated at $17.15 million in 1946, or roughly $625 million as of 2017 ) were transferred to state or private ownership with the exception of 6,810 acres (2,760 ha) of landholdings. The largest imperial divestments were the former imperial Kiso and Amagi forest lands in Gifu and Shizuoka prefectures, grazing lands for livestock in Hokkaido and a stock farm in the Chiba region. They were all transferred to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Imperial property holdings were further reduced since 1947 after several handovers to the government. When Emperor Hirohito died, he left a personal fortune of £11 million in 1989. In 2017, Emperor Akihito had an estimated net worth of US$40 million.
The information shown below are as of 2003:
Currently the primary Imperial properties are the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Kyoto Imperial Palace. The estimated landholdings is 6,810 acres (2,760 ha). The T?g? Palace is located in the larger Akasaka Estate where numerous other Imperial Family members reside. There are privately used imperial villas in Hayama, Nasu and the Suzaki Imperial Villa in Shimoda. The Katsura Imperial Villa, Shugakuin Imperial Villa and Sent? Imperial Palace are in Kyoto. There are a number of Imperial farms, residences and game preserves. The Imperial Household Agency administers the Shosoin Imperial Repository in Nara. The Imperial properties are all owned by the State.
Until 2003, facts about the Japanese Imperial Family's life and finances were kept secret behind the "Chrysanthemum Curtain." Yohei Mori (former royal correspondent for the Mainichi Shimbun and assistant professor of journalism at Seijo University) revealed details about finances of the Imperial Family in his book based on 200 documents that were published with the public information law.
The Japanese Imperial Family has a staff of more than 1,000 people (47 servants per royal). This includes a 24-piece traditional orchestra (gagaku) with 1,000 year-old instruments such as the koto and the sh?, 30 gardeners, 25 chefs, 40 chauffeurs as well as 78 builders, plumbers and electricians. There are 30 archaeologists to protect the 895 imperial tombs. There is a silkworm breeder of the Momijiyama Imperial Cocoonery. The Emperor has four doctors on standby 24 hours a day, five men manage his wardrobe and 11 assist in Shinto rites.
The Imperial Palace in Tokyo has 160 servants who maintain it. This is partly due to demarcation rules, such as a maid who wipes a table cannot also wipe the floor. There are also separate stewards in charge of handling silverware and the crystal. The Kyoto Imperial Palace has a staff of 78 people. There are also 67 who care for the horses at the Tochigi ranch. There are scores of additional staff for the summer palaces at the beach and in the mountains.
The Imperial Palace has a £2 million-a-year clinic with 42 staff and 8 medical departments. An example of lavish spending is the prior redecoration of a room for £140,000 where Crown Princess Masako gave birth to Princess Aiko in 2001. Emperor Akihito spent £140,000 on building a wine cellar. It has 4,500 bottles of 11 types of white wine and seven types of red such as Chateau Mouton Rothschild (1982) and champagne Dom Perignon (1992).
The Imperial properties includes a 622 acres (252 ha) farm which supplies produce and meat for the Imperial Family. The farm costs were £3 million per year as of 2003 ; the emperor and his family had a monthly water bill of approximately £50,000, also as of 2003 .
The Imperial Guard is a special over 900 strong police force that provides personal protection for the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family including their residences for £48 million per year.
The Imperial Household owns and operates a fleet of Toyota Century motor vehicles, designated "Empresses", for exclusive use of the Imperial Household. In 2006, the Imperial Household Agency took delivery of the first of four bespoke Toyota Century Royals. The first of these specially prepared vehicles, Empress 1, serve as the official state car of the Emperor. Two Century Royals, Empress 3 and Empress 5, were assigned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for special use by visiting dignitaries and foreign heads of state. The last, Empress 2, was built in 2008 as a hearse exclusively for royal funerals. Despite the royal family's extravagant expenditures, there is a limitation with travel expenses since the Emperor's entourage pays a maximum of £110 a night, regardless of the actual cost of the hotel. Hotels accept it since they regard it as an honour to host the Imperial Family.
Aside from the inner court (the Emperor and Empress, and their children including the Crown Prince and Crown Princess), the civil list covers an additional 19 family members who live in imperial residences. They are not prohibited from holding jobs or running businesses. For example, Prince Tomohito of Mikasa, his wife and two daughters receive £310,000 per year, but they are not well known by the Japanese public and have few royal duties.
The real annual cost was estimated to be $325 million per year, also as of 2003.
The Imperial Family was responsible for the human experimentation programs, as members of the imperial family, including, but not limited to, Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko, Prince Chichibu, Prince Mikasa and Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi, participated in the programs in various ways, which included authorizing, funding, supplying, and inspecting biomedical facilities.
A 1997 survey by Asahi Shimbun showed that 82% of Japanese supported the continuation of the monarchy. Polls after showed 1⁄3rd of respondents were "indifferent" towards it. The imperial system is considered a symbol of the country, it provides a sense of linkage, purpose, spiritual core, diplomatic role as ambassador and a source of tradition and stability. A small percentage argue that the imperial system is out of date, not in sync with the contemporary times.
According to legend, the first Japanese Emperor was Jimmu. Along with the next 13 Emperors, Jimmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kimmei