Indo-European Vocabulary
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Indo-European Vocabulary

The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.


The following conventions are used:

  • Cognates are in general given in the oldest well-documented language of each family, although forms in modern languages are given for families in which the older stages of the languages are poorly documented or do not differ significantly from the modern languages. In addition, modern English forms are given for comparison purposes.
  • Nouns are given in their nominative case, with the genitive case supplied in parentheses when its stem differs from that of the nominative. (For some languages, especially Sanskrit, the basic stem is given in place of the nominative.)
  • Verbs are given in their "dictionary form". The exact form given depends on the specific language:
  • In place of Latin, an Oscan or Umbrian cognate is occasionally given when no corresponding Latin cognate exists. Similarly, a cognate from another Anatolian language (e.g. Luvian, Lycian) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Hittite.
  • For Tocharian, both the Tocharian A and Tocharian B cognates are given whenever possible.
  • For the Celtic languages, both Old Irish and Welsh cognates are given when possible. For Welsh, normally the modern form is given, but occasionally the form from Old Welsh is supplied when it is known and displays important features lost in the modern form. A Middle Irish cognate is given when the Old Irish form is unknown, and Gaulish, Cornish and/or Breton (modern) cognates may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Welsh.
  • For the Baltic languages, Lithuanian (modern) and Old Prussian cognates are given when possible. (Both Lithuanian and Old Prussian are included because Lithuanian often includes information missing in Old Prussian, e.g. due to lack of written accent marks in the latter.) Similarly to the Celtic situation, Old Lithuanian forms may occasionally be given in place of modern Lithuanian; Latvian (modern) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Lithuanian.
  • For the Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic cognates are given when possible. Forms from modern Slavic languages or other Church Slavic dialects may occasionally be given in place of Old Church Slavonic.
  • For English, a modern English cognate is given when it exists, along with the corresponding Old English form; otherwise, only an Old English form is given.
  • For Gothic, a form in another Germanic language (Old Norse; Old High German; or Middle High German) is sometimes given in its place or in addition, when it reveals important features.


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*méH?t?r- "mother"[a][1][2] mother (< OE m?dor) ON móðir "mother" m?ter "mother" =>
[note 1]
m?t?r "mother";
D?m?t?r Demeter;
m?trópolis "metropolis, lit., mother-city"
mt?, m?t "mother" Av m?tar- "mother" NPers m?dar OCS mati, mater- "mother" Lith móteris "woman", motina; OPrus muti "mother" Gaul. m?t?r "mother",

OIr m?thir "mother"; W modryb "auntie"

mayr "mother" motër "sister" A m?car, B m?cer "mother"
*pH?tér- "father"
father (< OE fæder) fadar "father" pater "father" =>
[note 2]
pat?r "father" (> patriarch) pit "father"; Pitrs "spirits of the ancestors" (litt. "the fathers") Av pitar- (nom. also pta, ta), OPers pita "father", NPers padar OIr athir "father"; Welsh edrydd "paternal domain" hayr "father" A p?car, B p?cer "father"
*b?réH?ter- "brother"[6][7][8] brother (< OE br?þor) br?þar "brother" fr?ter "brother" =>
[note 3]
p?rt?r "member of a phratry (brotherhood)" (> phratry) b?rt? "brother"; Rom phral "brother" (> pal)[9][10][c] Av br?tar-, OPers br?tar-, Ossetian ärvád "brother, relative", NPers bar?dar, Kurdish bira OCS bratr? "brother" Lith brõlis, OPrus brati "brother" Gaul Bratronos (pers. name);[11] OIr br?th(a)ir, W brawd (pl. brodyr) "brother" e?bayr (gen. e?bawr) "brother" A pracar, B procer "brother" Lyd brafr(-sis) "brother"[12]
*swésor "sister" [13][14][8] sister (< OE sweostor, influenced by ON systir) swistar "sister" soror "sister" (> sorority) éor "sister" svás? "sister" Av x?a?har- "sister"; NPers ?w?har "sister" OCS sestra "sister" Lith sesuõ (seser?s), OPrus sestra "sister" Gaul suiorebe "with two sisters" (dual)[15]

OIr siur, W chwaer "sister"

k?oyr (k?e?), k?or-k? "sister"[d] vashë, vajzë "girl" (< *varjë < *vëharë < PAlb *swesar?) A ?ar', B ?er "sister"
"sibling, lit. same-father(ed)"
ON samfeðra homopát?r OP hamapitar- A ?omapacar
*d?ugH?-tér- "daughter"[16][17][18][19] daughter (< OE dohtor) daúhtar "daughter" Oscan futír "daughter" t?ugát?r "daughter"; Myc tu-ka-te "daughter"[20][e] dúhit? "daughter" Av dug?dar-, duar-, NPers do?tar "daughter" Kurdish dot "daughter" OCS dti, dter- "daughter" Lith dukteris, OPrus dukti "daughter" Gaulish duxtir "daughter"; Celtib TuaTer (duater) "daughter"[22][23] dustr "daughter" A ck?car, B tk?cer "daughter" HLuw túwatara "daughter";[24]

?Lyd datro "daughter"; CLuw/Hitt duttarii?ata-;[f] Lyc kbatra "daughter"[g]

*suHnú- "son"
(See also *sewh?-)
son (< OE sunu) sunus "son" huiós "son" s?nú- "son" Av hunu? "son" OCS syn? "son" Lith s?nùs, OPrus suns "son" ? Celtib EBURSUNOS "son of Eburos (?)"[h][i]

? Celt/Lus EQUEUNUBO (< *ekwei-s?nu-b?os) "to the sons on the horse"[j]

çun "boy/son" A se, B soyä "son"
Osc puklo-
Av pu?ra- "son" ustr "son"
*nepot- "nephew, grandson" obsolete neve "nephew, male cousin, grandson" (< OE nefa) OHG nevo "nephew" nep?s (nep?tis) "grandson, nephew" (> nepotism) népodes "descendants" náp?t- "grandson, descendant" Av nap?t-, naptar-, OPers nap?t- "grandson, descendant" OLith nepotis, OPrus neputs "grandson" OIr nïæ "sister's son", W nai "nephew" nip "grandson, nephew"
*d?iH?ur- "husband's brother, brother-in-law" OE t?cor "husband's brother" OHG zeihhor "husband's brother" levir "husband's brother" dr "husband's brother" dev, devará "husband's brother" OCS d?ver? "brother-in-law" Lith dieveris "husband's brother" W daw(f) "brother-in-law" taygr "husband's brother"
*snusós "daughter-in-law" OE snoru "daughter-in-law" OHG snur "daughter-in-law" nurus "daughter-in-law" nuos "daughter-in-law" snu- "daughter-in-law" Old Ir. *(s)nu?áh Bactrian (asn?uo) NPers. sunoh / sunh?r "daughter-in-law" OCS sn?xa "daughter-in-law" W gwaudd "daughter-in-law" nuse "bride" nu "daughter-in-law"
*wed?- "pledge, bind, secure, lead"[38] wed (< OE weddian "to pledge, wed") vadh "bride" OCS voditi "to lead"
"to marry"
gener (gener?)
"marriage, wedding; matrimony" (> gamete, monogamy, bigamy, etc.);
"son-in-law; brother-in-law; bridegroom; anyone related by marriage"
"offspring-maker; son-in-law"
Pers d?m?d "son-in-law"
*su?ek?r- "mother-in-law" OE sweger "mother-in-law" swaihr "mother-in-law" socrus "mother-in-law" ekur? "mother-in-law" ?va?r- "mother-in-law" OCS svekry "mother-in-law" Lith ?e?uras "father-in-law", OPrus swasri "mother-in-law" W chwegr "mother-in-law" skesur "mother-in-law" vjehërr "father-in-law"
*h?éwh?os "maternal grandfather, maternal uncle" aw? "grandmother" avus "grandfather"; avunculus "maternal uncle" (> avuncular) Rus uj, vuj "uncle" (obsolete); Ukr vuyko "maternal uncle"[43] Lith avynas "maternal uncle", OPrus awis "uncle" MW ewythr, MBre eontr, MCo eviter "maternal uncle" (< PCelt awon-t?r "uncle"); OIr aue "descendant, grandchild"[44] OArm haw "grandfather" B ?we "grandfather" ?ua-, Lyc ?uga- "grandfather";

CLuw ?u-u-?a-ti "grandfather" (abl.-ins.)[45]

*yemH- "twin; to hold"[46][47] ON Ymir geminus "twin";
Remus "twin, Remus"
yáma- "twin; first man to die"
h?wid?éwh? "widow" < *h?weyd?h?- "to separate"[k][48] widow (< OE widwe) widuw? "widow" vidua "widow" vidháv? "widow" OCS v?dova "widow"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*demon- "person, human (litt. of the earth)"
(See also *d?eom-)
OE guma "person, man", br?dguma "bridegroom"[l] guma "man" hom? "person" =>
[note 4]
khth?n "the earth" (> autochthonous);
khamai "on the ground"
k?ám "ground, earth" OCS zem(l)janin? "earthling" OLith ?muõ "person"; Lith ?moná "wife"; OPrus zmunents "human" OIr duine, W dyn "person" < *dom-yo- A ?om "boy"; B ?aumo "person"
*H?ner- "man, hero" ON Nj?rðr (name of a God) Ner-? (personal name), neri?sus "strong" an?r (andros) "man" (> Andreas, Andrew) nár- (nom. n?) "man, person" Av nar- (nom. n?) "man, person" Kurdish nêr "male animal, masculine" OCS narav? "character, custom"; Lith nóras "wish, want", narsa; narsùs "brave;" OPrus nàrs "courage" W nêr "lord, prince, leader; hero"; Celt narto "strength" ayr (a?n) "man, person" njer "man, person"
*wiH-ro- "man" werewolf (< OE wer "man") waír "man" vir "man" =>
[note 5]
v?rá- "man, hero" Av v?ra- "man, hero" Belar (Smolensk) "a rite of passage for young men into adulthood"; (Mogilev) ? "a feast or meal organized by a young man, after reaching adulthood, for his companions"[n] Lith výras "man"; OPrus wirs "man, husband" OIr fer, W g?r "man" burrë "man" A wir "young"
*g?én-eH?- "woman, wife" queen (< OE cw?n "queen, woman, wife") q?ns (q?náis), qin? "woman, wife" gun?[o] (gunaikos)[p] "woman, wife" < *g?un-eH? (> gynecology);

Boet baná "woman"

gn? (gns-) "wife of a god", jánis, ján? "woman, wife" Av g?n?, ?n?, ?aini-, NPers zan "woman, wife" Kurdish jin "woman, wife" OCS ?ena "woman, wife" OPrus gena "woman, wife" Gaul bnanom "of the women" (g. pl.);[52]

OIr ben (mná) "woman, wife" < *g?én-eH? (*g?n-eH?-s), (neut.) "wife < *g?én; W benyw "woman"

kin (kno?) "woman" zonjë "lady, wife, woman" < *g?en-yeH?; Gheg grue, Tosk grua "wife" < *g?n-?n A ?ä? (pl. ?nu), B ?ana "woman, wife" Hitt ku(w)an(a) "woman";[53] Luw wanatti "woman, wife"; Lyd kãna- "wife",[54] "woman"[55]
*pótis "master, ruler, husband"[48] -faþs "lord, leader" potis "able, capable, possible" páti "master, husband, ruler" OCS gospod? "lord, master"
déms pótis "master of the house" despót?s "lord, master, owner" (> despot) dámpati "lord of the house; (dual) husband and wife"
g?óstis "guest, host, stranger"[56] guest (< OE giest);
host < Lat. hostis;
< Lat. hospes
gasts "guest" hostis "stranger, guest"; host?lis "hostile"; hospes, hospit- "host, guest, visitor" < hostipotis < PIE *g?óstipotis (*g?óstis + *pótis) OCS gost? "guest"; gospod? "lord, master" < PIE *g?óstipotis
*wey?- "settlement, to enter, settle"[38] -wick, -wich < Lat. v?cus v?cus "village, settlement" oîkos "house, dwelling place"; oiko·nomía "management of household administration" (> economy) vi? "settlement, dwelling space" OCS v?s? "hamlet, village"
*h?rs "king, ruler"[57] reiks, -ric (in personal names) "king" r?x, r?g- "king" =>
[note 6]
r?j-, r?jan "king" (> maharaja, Raj (as in British Raj)) Gaulish *r?x "king" (In personal names. Eg, Vercingetorix, etc)

Pronouns and particles

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*egH? "I" I (< OE ic?) ik "I" eg? "I" < *egoH? eg?, eg?n "I" ahám "I" < *egH?-om Av az?m, OPers adam, Parth. az "I" < *egH?-omKurdish ez "I (direct case)" OCS az? "I" Lith à?, OLith e?, OPrus as, Latv es "I" es "I" es "I" u, unë "I" (-në possibly originally a suffix) ñuk "I" ?k "I" influenced by ammuk "me"
*H?me- "me (acc.)" me (< OE m?, mec < *H?me-ge) mik "me (acc.)" m?(d) "me (acc.)" emé, me "me (acc.)" m?m "me (acc.)" < *H?m?-m, m? "me (acc. encl.)" Av m?m "me" OCS m? "me (acc.)" < *H?m?-m Lith manè "me (acc.)" OIr me-sse, mé, W mi "I" is "me (acc.)" <? *H?me-ge mua, mue "me (acc.)" < *H?m?-m ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H?me-ge, -mu "me (acc. encl.)"
*H?mei "me (dat.)", *(H?)moi "me (dat. encl.)" me (< OE m?) mis "me (dat.)" mihi "me (dat.)" moi "me (dat., gen. encl.)" máhya(m) "me (dat.)", m?, me "me (dat. encl.)" Av maibya "me (dat.)" (? not in Pokorny), me (Old Avestan moi) "me (dat. encl.)" OCS mi (dat enc.) < *(H?)moi Lith man "for me", OPrus maiy "me (dat. encl.)" OIr infix -m- "me"; W -'m infixed accusative first person singular pronoun "me" inj "me (dat.)" meje ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H?me-ge, -mi "me (dat. encl.)"
*H?meme-, *H?mene- "of me, mine"; *H?mo-yo-, * H?me-yo- "my" my, mine (< OE m?n < *H?mei-no-) meins "my"; meina "of me" me? "of me"; meus "my" < *H?me-yo- eme?o "of me"; emós "my" máma "of me"; ma/m? "my" < *H?mo- Av mana, OPers man? "of me"; Av ma (m/n), m? (f) "my" OCS mene "to me", moj/a/e (m/f/n) "mine" Lith mana(s), OPrus mais/maia "my" W fyn "of me, my"; Breton ma "of me, my" im "my" im "my" (article i + em) AB ñi "my" < Proto-Tocharian *mäñi mi? "my" < *H?me-yo-
*tu "you" (nom. sg.) thou (< OE þ? "you") þu "you" t? "you" Doric (standard ) t(u)vám "you"; Av t? "you"

NPers to "you"

OCS ty "you" Lith , OPr tu "you" OIr t?, tu-ssu, tu-sso, W ti du "you" ti "you" A tu, B t(u)we "you" zik, zikka "you" < *tega < *te + *eg?
*wei "we"; *n?s-mé, encl. *nos "us" we (< OE w?), us (< OE ?s < PGerm *uns < *n?s) weis "we", uns "us" n?s "we, us" h?m- "we, us";[q] Aeol ámme "us" < *asme < *n?sme vay-ám "we" < *wei-óm, asm?n "us" < *n?sme + acc. -?n, encl. nas "us" < *nos Av va?m "we", ahma "us", encl. n, n, n? "us" Bulg nìe "we", OCS gen. nas? "us" < *n?s-s?m Lith mès "we"; OPr gen. n?uson "ours" < *n?s-s?m OIr ni "we, us" <? *s-n?s, gen. ar n- < *n?s-r?-m; W ni "we" < *n?s na "we" < *n?s, ne "us" < *n?s A was, B wes "we" w?s "we" < *wei-es, anz "us", encl. na? "us"
*y? "you (nom. pl.)"; *us-wé, *us-mé,[58] encl. *wos "you (acc./dat. pl.)" ye (< OE g? "you (nom. pl.)"), you (< OE ?ow[r] "you (acc./dat. pl.)") j?s "you (nom. pl.)", izwis[r] "you (acc./dat. pl.)" v?s "you (nom./acc. pl.)" hum- "you (pl.)"; Aeol úmme "you (acc. pl.)" < *usme y?yám "you (nom. pl.)", yu?mn "you (acc. pl.)" < y- + *usme + acc. -?n, encl. vas "you (obl. pl.)" Av ym, y "you (nom. pl.)", ymat? "you (abl. pl.)", encl. v "you (obl. pl.)" OCS vy "you (nom./acc. pl.)", vas? "yours (pl.)" Lith j?s "you (nom. pl.)", j?s? "yours (pl.)"; OPr iouson "yours (pl.)" OIr s?, sissi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw-, uai-b "of you (pl.)" < *?-sw?, NIr far n- "your (pl.)"; W chwi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- ju "you (nom. pl.)" < *u < *vos A yas, B yes "you (nom. pl.)" sumes < *usme
*s(w)e- "oneself"; (reflexive pronoun) self (< OE self, seolf) swes (ref. gn. pn.), OHG sih (ref. pn.) s? (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) sva- (ref. pn.) Avestan hva- (ref. pn.) Bulg sèbe "oneself", OCS svoji (ref. gn. pn.) Lith sava(s), OPrus swajs "my own, myself" OIr fein (self, himself); W hun(an) "self, myself, himself/herself etc" iwr self, himself/herself vetë A ?n-i, B ?añ "(one's) own" Lydian s'fa- (ref. pn.), Carian sfes (ref. pn.)
*k?id, k?od "what" what (< OE hwæt) ?a "what" quid "what?", quod "what..., that..." "what?", "what..." kím "what" NPers ?i, ?e "what" Bulg kakvò "what", OCS -to "what?" Lith kàd "that..."; OPrus kawids "which, what a" OIr cid "what?" *i (?r) (< *hi), in (< *hi-n?') "what?" çfarë "what?" kuit (?) "what", kuit-ki "whatever"; Luvian kuit "what?"
*k?is, k?os, k?ei/k?oi "who" who (< OE hw? < *k?oi) ?as "who?" quis "who?", qu? "who..." tís, Thess kís, CyprArc sís "who?", tìs "who..." kás, kís "who?" Av k? (ka-hy?, ?a-hy?) "who?, which?", ?i? "who" Bulg kòj "who", OCS k?-to (?eso) "who?" Lith kàs "who?"; OPrus kas "who" OIr cia, W pwy "who" ? (oyr) "who?"


"A" "B" kush acc. "who?" A kus, B kuse "who, which" kui? "who, which"
*-k?e "and; any" -(u)h "and", ?az-uh "whoever" -que "and", quis-que "each one, whoever"; Venetic -ke "and"; South Picenian -p "and" -te "and", tís te, hós-te "whoever" -ca "and", ká?-ca "whoever" Av ?a, OPers "and"; Av ?i?-ca, OPers ?i?-?iy "whoever" Bulg ?e "but, and, because"; Old Czech a-?e, a? "if" OIr na-ch, MW nac "not" < "*and not";[s] Lepontic -pe "and" o-k? "whoever" Lydian -k "and"; Hitt kuis-ki, Lycian ti-ke "whoever"
*n?- "not, un-" un- (< OE un-) un- "un-" in- (archaic en-) "un-" a-, an- "un-" a-, an-, na- "un-" Av, OPers a-, an- "un-" OCS ne- "not" < *ne- Lith ne- < *ne-, OPrus ni- "not" OIr in-, ?-, an-, W an- "un-" an- "un-" nuk "not" AB a(n)-, am-, e(n)-, em-, on- "un-"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*sem- "one, together" same (< ON samr); OE sam- "together"; [also German Language zusammen] sama "same" sem-el "once", sem-per "always", sim-plex "single, simple", sin-gul? "one each, single" he?s, hén, mía "one" < *sems, *sem, *smiH? sam- "together", samá "same, equal, any" Av hama-, OPers hama- "any, all" OCS sam? "self, alone, one" Lith sam-, s?- "with"; OPrus sa-, sen- "with, dividing" OIr samlith "at the same time"; W hafal "equal" mi "one" A sas, B ?e "one" < *sems
*ói-nos, ói-wos "one" one (< OE ?n) ains "one" ?nus (archaic oinos) o?nos "one (on a die)", o?(w)os "alone" (?ka- < *oi-ko-; Mittani-Aryan aika-vartana "one turn (around a track)")[59] Av a?va-, OPers aiva- "one, only, alone" OCS in? "one, another" Lith víenas, OPrus ains "one" OIr ?en, W un "one" andr-?n "right there", ast-?n "right here" ? Gheg tânë, Tosk tërë "all" < PIE *tod-oino-një "one" < *?ân < PIE *eni-oino-[t] B -aiwenta "group" < "*unit"
*dwóH? , neut. *dwóy(H?) "two" two (< OE tw?) twái (fem. tw?s, neut. twa) "two" duo "two" dú? "two" dv(u) "two" Av dva, fem. neut. ba? "two"

NPers do "two"

OCS d?va "two" Lith , OPrus dwai "two" OIr da, W dau (fem. dwy) "two" erku "two" dy "two" A wu, B wi "two" d?-, ta-; HLuw tuwa/i- "two"; Lyc kbi- "two"; Mil tba "two"[u][61]
*tréyes (fem. *tisres,[62] neut. *tríH?) "three" three (< OE þr?e) þreis "three" tr?s "three" tre?s "three" tráyas (fem. tisrás) "three" Av ?ray?, ?rayas (fem. tisr?, neut. ?ri), OPers çi-, Parth hr? "three" OCS tr?je "three" Lith tr?s, OPrus tris, Latg treis "three" OIr trí (fem. téoir), W tri (fem. tair, teir) "three" erek? "three" tre masc., tri fem. "three" A tre, B trai "three" tri- "three"; teriyas- (gen. pl.)
*k?etwóres (fem. *k?étesres, neut. *k?etw?r) "four" four (< OE f?ower) fidwor "four" (In Germanic influenced by pénk?e "five") quattuor "four"[v] téssares "four" masc. catvras (acc. catúras), neut. catvri, fem. cátasras "four" Av masc. ?a?w?r? (acc. ?atur?m), fem. ?ata?r? "four"; NPers ?ah?r "four" OCS ?etyre "four" Lith keturì, OPrus ketturei "four"[w] Gaul petuar[ios] "four"[64]

OIr ceth(a)ir (fem. ceth?oir, influenced by fem. t?oir "three") "four"; W pedwar (fem. pedair) "four"

ork?, k?a? (rare) "four katër "four" A ?twar, B ?twer "four" (remodelled)
*pénk?e "five" five (< OE f?f) fimf "five" qu?nque "five"[x] pénte "five" páñca "five"; Mittani-Aryan panza- "five"[59] Av pan?a "five" OCS p?t? "five" Lith penkì, OPrus penkei "five"[y] Gaul pinpe-, pompe "five"[64]

OIr cóic, W pum(p) "five"

hing "five" pesë "five" A päñ, B pi? "five"
*swék?s "six" six (< OE siex) sáihs "six" sex "six" héx, dial. wéx "six" ?á? "six" Av x?va? "six" OCS ?est? "six" Lith ?e?ì, OPrus uai "six" Celtib sues "six";[64]

Gaul suexos "sixth"; OIr , W chwe(ch) "six"

vec? "six" gjashtë "six" A ?äk, B ?kas "six"
*sept "seven" seven (< OE seofon) sibun "seven" septem "seven" heptá "seven" saptá "seven"; Mittani-Aryan ?atta- "seven"[59] Av hapta "seven" OCS sedm? "seven" Lith septynì, OPrus septinnei "seven" OIr secht, W saith "seven" eawt?n "seven" shtatë "seven" A ?pät, B ?ukt "seven" sipta- "seven"
*H?ok?t?(u) "eight" eight (< OE eahta) ahtáu "eight" oct? "eight" okt? "eight" a?(u) "eight" Av a?ta "eight" OCS osm? "eight"[z] Lith a?tuonì, OPrus astonei, Latg ostoni "eight" Gaul oxtu- "eight"[64]

OIr ocht n- "eight";[aa] W wyth "eight"

ut? "eight" tetë "eight" < *H?ok?t?-t- A okät, B okt "eight" Lyc aitãta "eight"[67]
*(H?)néwn? "nine" nine (< OE nigon) niun "nine" novem "nine" ennéa "nine" náva "nine" Av nava "nine" OCS dev?t? "nine" < *newn?-ti- (Influenced by dékm?t "ten") Lith devynì (influenced by dékm?t "ten"), OPrus newinei "nine" OIr noí n-, W naw "nine" inn "nine" nëntë "nine" < *newn?-ti- AB ñu Lyc nuñtãta "nine"[68]
*dék?m?t "ten" ten (< OE tien) taíhun "ten" decem "ten" déka "ten" dá?a "ten" Av dasa "ten" OCS des?t? "ten" Lith dimt, OPrus desimtan "ten" Gaul decam- "ten";[64]

Celtib tekam- "ten";[69] OIr deich, W deg, deng "ten"

tasn "ten" dhjetë "ten" < *dék?m?t-i- A ?äk, B ?ak "ten" [ab]
*wk?m?tiH? "twenty" < *dwi-dk?m?t-iH? "two tens" (remodelled) (remodelled) v?gint? "twenty" eíkosi "twenty" viatí "twenty", dviatí "twenty" Av v?saiti, Ossetian insäi "twenty" (remodelled) Lith dvide?imt "twenty" OIr fiche (fichet), OW uceint "twenty" k?san "twenty" zet "twenty" A wiki, B ikä? "twenty"
*k?m?tóm "hundred" < *dk?m?tóm hundred (< OE hund, hund-red) hunda (pl.) "hundred" centum "hundred" he-katón "hundred" ?atám "hundred" Av sat?m "hundred" OCS s?to "hundred" Lith ?im?tas, OPrus simtan "hundred" OIr cét, W can(t) "hundred" A känt, B kante "hundred"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
(< OE hrif)
corpus, corporis
"body" =>
[note 7]
"beautiful appearance, beauty"
*káput ~ *kap-wét-s
(< OE h?afod);
OE hafela, hafola "head"
caput, capitis
"head" =>
[note 8]
[ac] kapla
"skull, cranium; bowl"
*(d)ák?ru- "tear" tear (< OE t?ar, tæhher) tagr "tear" lacrima "tear" (> lachrymose) dákru "tear" á?ru "tear" Av asr?- "tear" OPrus assara "tear", Lith a?ara "tear OIr d?r, W deigr "tear"; Cornish dagr "tear" artawsr "tear" < *drak?ur A ?kär "tear", B pl. akr?na "tears" is?a?ru "tear"
*dnuH?-, *dnwéH? "tongue" tongue (< OE tunge) tugg? "tongue" lingua "tongue" (archaic dingua) =>
[note 9]
jihv "tongue" < *?iw?, juh Av hizv? < *?iw?, OPers hiz?n, Parth ezn "tongue"[76] OCS j?zy-k? "tongue" < *n?-k- OPrus inzuws "tongue", Lith lie?uvis "tongue" teng "tongue"; W tafod "tongue, language" lezu "tongue" (influenced by lizem, "I lick") A käntu, B kantwo "tongue" (*kantwa < *tankwa)
*ésH?r?, *esH?nés "blood" archaic aser, sanguis "blood" (< possibly h?sh?-én- obl. stem + guen) (> sanguine, etc.) éar "blood" ás?j, asnás "blood" Lat asins, Ltg asnis (gen. aa) "blood" ariwn "blood" A ys?r "blood" ?s?ar (es?anas) "blood"
?(o)nH?d?os "jaw, cheek, chin" chin (< OE c?inn) kinnus "cheek" gena "cheek" génus (génuos) "chin, jaw"; gnát?os, gnat?mós "jaw" < *?nH?d?- hánu-? "jaw" < *enu-s, gaa "cheek" Av z?nu- "jaw-" < *enu-s, OPers dan?g < *danu-ka-, Parth zanax "chin, jaw" NPers gune "cheek" chune "jaw" OPrus ?auna "jaw", Lith ?ándas "cheek" OIr gi(u)n "mouth"; W gên, pl. geneu "cheek, chin"; Old Cornish pl. genau < *genewes "cheeks, chins" cn-awt "jaw, cheek" A ?anwe-m "jaw"
*?énu, ?néus "knee" knee (< OE cn?o) kniu "knee" gen? "knee" (> genuflect) gónu (Hom gen. gounós < *gonwós) "knee", pró-k?nu "with outstretched knee" < *pró-g?nu jnu- "knee", pra-jñus "bow-legged" Av acc. ?n?m, dat./abl. pl. ?nuby? "knee", fra-?nu- "holding the knee forward"; Parth z?n?k, NPers z?n? "knee" cunr, nom pl. cungk? "knee" gjuni "knee" < Post-PIE *?nu-n(o)- A kanwe?, B keni "two knees" genu "knee"
*?ómb?os "tooth, row of teeth" comb (< OE camb) OHG kamb "comb" gómphos "bolt, nail"; gómphíos "molar tooth" jámbha- "tooth, tusk; set of teeth (pl.)"; jámbhya- "molar teeth" Pash ?âma "jawbone"; Khot ys?mä "tooth"[77] OCS z?b?, Ukr zub, Pol z?b "tooth" Latv zùobs "tooth"; Lith ?am?bas "sharp edge" dhëmb "tooth, tusk" A kam, B keme "tooth"
*H?dónt-, *H?dn?t- "tooth" tooth (< OE t?þ < *H?dont-) tunþus "tooth" < *H?dn?t- d?ns (dentis) "tooth" < *H?dn?t- (> dental) od?n (odóntos) "tooth" < Proto-Greek *edónt-, cf. Aeol. édontes "teeth" (> orthodontist, etc) dán, dántas "tooth" Av dantan-, d?t? "tooth" NPers dandân "tooth" Russ. desná "gum" < *H?dent-sn- OPrus dants "tooth", Lith dantis "tooth" OIr d?t "tooth", W dant "tooth" atamn "tooth"
*H?óst- "bone" os (ossis) "bone" ostéon "bone" (osteoporosis, etc.) ásthi (asthnás) "bone" Av ast-, asti- (gen. pl. ast?m, instr. pl. azdb) "bone" NPers ostoxan "bone" OCS kost? "bone" OIr asil "limb", MIr asna "rib" <? *astonyo-; MW ass-en, asseu "rib", W asgwrn "bone" < *ost-ko- os-kr "bone" asht, ahstë "bone" B ?y, pl. ?sta "bone" ?ast?i- "bone"
*H?ous- "ear" ear (< OE ?are) áus? "ear" auris "ear" o?s "ear" a "cavity of the ear" Av u?i "both ears"; NPers ho? "ear" OCS ucho (u?ese) "ear" OPrus auss "ear", Lith ausis "ear" OIr ?u, ? "ear" unkn, nom pl. akan?k? "ear" vesh "ear" < *?us, *?s-
*H?ok?- "eye" eye (< OE ?age) áug? "eye" oculus "eye" < *?k?elo-s =>
[note 10]
ósse "both eyes"; ómma "eye" < *óp-mn?; ökkon[78] "eye" ák?i (akás) "eye" Av a?i "both eyes" OCS oko "eye" OPrus aks "eye", Lith akis "eye" OIr enech, W enep "face" akn, nom pl. ak? "eye" sy "eye" A ak, B ek "eye"
*h?oh?-(e)s- "mouth" Scot ure (< OE ?r, ?ra) ?s, ?ris "mouth" (> oral) Ved s "mouth, face" Av ?h "mouth" OCS usta "mouth" Lith úostas "mouth of a river, harbor" OIr á "mouth" ai?, gen. i? "mouth"
*k?erd- "heart"; *k?red-d- "to believe"
(See also ?réd·d?h?eti)
heart (< OE heorte) haírt? "heart" cor (cordis) "heart"; cr?d? "I believe" < *krezd?- < *k?red-d- =>
[note 11]
kardí?, Homeric kradí?, Cypriot korízd? "heart" < *k?r?d(y)?; poetic k?r (k?ros) "heart" < *krd (> cardiac, cardiology. etc.) h?d "heart" < post-PIE *?hr?d; h?daya, h?rdi "heart"; Av z?r?d "heart" < post-PIE *?hr?d; OCS s?rd?ce "heart", serda "medium, core" OPrus siran "heart" (acc.), seyr "heart", serds "core", Lith ?irdis "heart", ?erdis "core" OIr cride "heart"; W craidd "center";
Gaul crid "heart"[79]
sirt "heart" A kri "will", B pl. käry?ñ "hearts" Hitt karz (kardias) "heart"; Luw zarza "heart"[80]
*h?neb?- "navel, hub";
*h?nóbl "navel"[81][82]
navel (< OE nafola);
nave (< OE nafu)
umbil?cus "navel";
umb? "elbow"
omphalós "navel; umbilical cord" nbhi ""navel, belly button; center;
nábhya "nave, center part of a wheel"
*kréwh?- "gore, blood (blood outside the body)"[83] raw "uncooked food" (< OE hræw "corpse, carrion") ON hrár "raw" cruor "thick blood, gore"; cr?dus "raw, bloody", cr?d?lis "cruel, rude" =>
[note 12]
kréas "flesh, meat"; kréa "raw flesh" krávis- "raw flesh"; kravyá "raw flesh, carrion", kr?rá "bloody, raw" Av xr?ra, xr?ma "bloody"; vi-xr?mant- "bloodless"; xrvi.dru "of the bloody mace [of Aeshma]" YAv xrvi?yant "grim, bloodthirsty"[84] OCS kry "blood"; Rus krov? "blood" OPrus crauyo, krawian; Lith kra?jas "blood"; Latv kreve "coagulated blood,[85] bloody scab"[86] OIr crúaid, MIr cr? "blood"
*nas- "nose" nose (< OE nosu) ON n?s "nose" n?sus, n?ris "nose" (> nasal) nas- "nose" Av n?h-, nhan-, OPers acc. sg. n?ham "nose" OCS nos? "nose" OPrus nasi "nose", Lith nosis "nose"
*p?ds, *ped- "foot"
(See also *ped-)
foot (< OE f?t) f?tus "foot" p?s (pedis) "foot" (> pedal, etc.) poús (podós) "foot" =>
[note 13]
pd- (padás) "foot" Av pad-, OPers p?d, Parth p "foot" NPers pa "foot" OCS p "on foot" OPrus pida "foot", Lith p?da "foot" OIr ?s "below" < PIE loc. pl. *p?d-su; W is(od) "below, under; lower (than)" otn "foot", otk? "feet" poshtë "below" A pe "foot", B paiyye "foot" pata-, CLuw p?ta-, Lyc pedi- "foot"
"heel, upper thigh"
OE fiersn "heel, calx" fairzna
Spa pierna
"heel, hoof; footstep"
"heel; rear of the army; kick"
"nail (finger or toe)"
(< OE næ?el)
"fingernail, toenail; claw; hoof";
"hoof, claw; an aromatic spice"
"claw, nail, hoof; a kind of aromatic substance; onyx (the gem)"
"foot; foot of a seat; tree root"
OCS noga "foot, leg";
nog?t? "nail"
*y?k?r?, yek?nés "liver" jecur (jecinoris) "liver" h?par (h?patos) "liver" yákr?t (yaknás) "liver" Av y?kar?, NPers ?igar, Pashto yna "liver" Serbian jetra "liver", Serbian and Macedonian ikra "fish roe" OPrus jakna, Lat aknas "liver", Lith jeknos[93] W (i)afu "liver"; MIr i(u)chair (i(u)chrach) "fish roe" leard "liver" Luwian ikkuwar/n- "liver"[ad]
*ésr? ~ *s-r-és "hand" hir "hand" (rare, anatomical) kheír "hand" (> chiropractor, surgery (chirurgy), enchiridion, etc.) hás-ta "hand" Av zas-ta "hand" je? "hand, arm" dorë "hand" A tsar, B ?ar "hand" kear "hand",[95]

Luwian ?ssaris "hand"

*méh?-r? ~ *mh?-én- ~ *mh?-nt-éh?
"hand, the pointing one"
(< OE mund "hand, hand of protection, protector)
Ger vormund
"legal guardian"
manus, man?s
"hand" =>
[note 14]
*b?ehús "arm"[99] bough (< OE b?g) pêkhus "forearm" b?hú "arm"
*h?b?rúHs "eyebrow"[100] brow, Scot broo (< OE br?) ophrs "eyebrow" bhr "eyebrow" OCS bry "eyebrow"
"wing, feather"
(See also *peth?-)
(< OE feþer)
penna < *petna
"wing; feather; quill pen"
(> pen)
"feather, wing; winged creature"
"wing, pinion, feather; leaf, petal (as the plumage of a tree)"
Kar?iptar (Kar?ift) "black-winged"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ék?wos "horse", "fast animal" OE eoh "horse" aí?a- "horse"[ae] equus "horse" híppos "horse"; Myc i-qo "horse" ( < *ïkk?os)[104] á?va- "horse"; Mittani-Aryan au- "horse" Av aspa-, OPers asa- "horse"; Ossetian yäfs "horse" < *yék?wos

NPers asp "horse"

OCS jastr?b? "hawk" (literally "a fast bird") OPrus kaiwi "mare", Lith a?va "mare OIr ech; MW ebawl "horse" < PBryth *ep-?los "donkey" A yuk, B yakwe "horse" Luwian ásùwa "horse"; Lycian esbe "horse"
*gus "cattle"[i][105] cow (< OE c?) Old Saxon k?, OHG chuo "cow" b?s (bovis) "cattle";[af] Umbrian acc. bum "cow" bo?s, Dor bõs (bo(w)ós) "cattle, cow" gáus (g?s)[i] "cow" Av g?u? (g?u?)[i] "cow" NPers g?v "cow" Croatian gòvedo "cattle" < PSlav *gov?do; OCS gu-m?no "threshing floor" Latvian gùovs "cow", Lith karv? "cow", galvijas "a cattle" OIr bó (bóu/báu)[ag] "cow";
Boand [ah]
< Proto-Celtic *bowo-wind? "white cow (or) cow-finder" [ai]
> Boyne[aj][106]
OW buch "cow" < *boukk?, bu-gail "cowherd" < *g?ou-k?olyos
kov "cow" ka "ox" A ko "cow", B keu "cow" HierLuv wawa-, Lycian wawa-, uwa- "cow"
*pé?u "livestock" [107][108] fee; fief; feud (< OE feoh "livestock, property, money"); faihu "property, possessions, wealth, riches, money" pec? "cattle, domestic animals"; pec?nia "money" [ak] pá?u, pa?ú "livestock" Lith p?kus "cattle"
(See also *hwyó·m)
"bird" (> aviary, aviation, etc.);
"bird-catcher; fowler; eavesdropper";
LL avicellus, aucellus
"little bird" > Fre oiseau;
avispex, later, auspex
"augur (from watching the flight of birds)" (> auspices, auspicious)
"eagle; omen";
"large bird, bird of prey; omen; bird used in augury";
"augur (from the flight of birds)";
"place for watching bird flight; omen"

Av v "bird"
*H?ówi- "sheep " ewe (< OE ?ow "sheep", ?owu "ewe") awistr "sheepfold"; OHG ouwi, ou "sheep" ovis "sheep" ó(w)is "sheep" ávi- "sheep" Wakhi yobc "ewe" < PIran *?vi-?i- Bulg ovèn "ram", OCS ov?-ca "ewe" OPrus awwins "ram", Lith avis "female sheep" avinas "ram" OIr ?i "sheep"; W ewig "deer" hov-iw "shepherd" B eye "sheep", ?(u)w "ewe" Luvian h?wa/i-, Lycian ?awa- "sheep"
*H?rtk?os "bear"[113] ursus "bear" árktos "bear" k?a- "bear" YAv ar?a, Ossetian ars "bear" , NPers xers "bear" Lith urgzti "to growl" MIr art, W arth "bear" ar? "bear" arí "bear" ?artaqqas (name of a beast of prey)
*k?won- "hound, dog"[114] hound (< OE hund "dog") hunds "dog" canis "dog" kú?n (kunós) "dog"; Myc ku-na-ke-ta-i, Att/Ion kunegétes "huntsman" (litt. "those who guide dogs")[115] ?van(?unas) "dog" Av sp? (acc. sp?n?m, pl. gen. snam), MPers sak, Kurdish se, seg, Wakhi ?a? "dog" Bulg kùte "dog", OCS suka "bitch (female dog)" OPrus sunnis "dog", Lith ?uo, ?unis (acc pl.) "dog", Latv suns "dog", Ltg su?s "dog" OIr cú (con), W ci "dog" ?un "dog" possibly qen (disputed, possible Latin loan) AB ku "dog" (acc. A ko?, B kwe?) Hittite kuwa? (nom.), kuna? (gen.); HierLuv suwanni "dog";[116] Lyd kan- "dog"
*muH?s- "mouse" mouse, Scot moose (< OE m?s) ON mús "mouse" m?s "mouse" m?s "mouse" m- "mouse" OPers mu? "mouse" (? not in Pokorny; Pokorny has NPers m "mouse") Kurdish mi?k "mouse" OCS my "mouse" mukn "mouse" mi "mouse"
*uks?n "ox, bull"[117][118] ox (< OE oxa) auhsa "ox" uk?án "bull, ox" ux?an "bull" MW ych; MidIr oss "stag, cow"; MBret ouhen B okso "draft-ox"
*táwros "bull" taurus, Osc taurom (acc.) taûros stawra- "bull" OSl tur? Lith taüras; OPr tauris "bison" Gaul tarvos (taruos) "bull"; OIr tarb tarok
*suHs- "pig" sow (< OE s?) ON sýr "sow" s?s "pig" h?s, s?s "pig" s?-kara- "pig"; Hindi s?var "pig" Av h? (gen. sg.) "pig" , NPers xuk "pig" Bulg svinjà "swine, sow" Latvian suv?ns, siv?ns "piglet" OIr socc sáil "sea pig"; W hwch "sow, swine" khos "pig" thi "pig" B suwo "pig"
*wl?k?os "wolf" wolf (< OE wulf) wulfs (wulfis) "wolf" lupus "wolf" lúkos "wolf" vka- "wolf" Av v?hrka- "wolf" , NPers gorg "wolf" Bulg vlk "wolf", OCS vl?k? "wolf" OPrus wilks "wolf", Lith vilkas "wolf" OIr olc (uilc) "evil" aghves "fox" ujk < OAlb ulk "wolf" B walkwe "wolf" ulippana "wolf"
*wl(o)p "fox" vulpes "fox" al?p?x "fox" lopá "fox, jackal" Av urupis "dog", raopi- "fox, jackal" Lith lãp? "fox"; Lapskojis "fox's leg" (river name); vilpisÿs "wild cat"; Latv lapsa "fox" Bre louarn "fox" (< PCel *lo?ernos) a?u?s "fox" Tosk dhelpër, Gheg dhelpen "fox" (< *dzelpina < *welpina)[119] ulipzas (ú-li-ip-za-a?) "wolf";[120] Luwian ú-li-ip-ni-e? (nom. sg.), wa-li-ip-ni (dat.-loc. sg.) "fox"[120]
*ans- "goose" goose (< OE g?s), gander (< OE ganra) OHG gans "goose" (h)?nser "goose" kn, Doric khn "goose" ha?sá-"goose" Av z "goose" (? not in Pokorny); Sogdian z'? "kind of bird" , NPers ?az "goose" Bulg gska "goose", OCS g?s? "goose" OPrus zansi "goose", Lith sis "goose" OIr g?iss "swan" W gwydd "goose" gatë "heron"
*H?enH?-t(i)- "duck" Scot ennet "duck" (< OE ened) OHG enita "duck" ?nas "duck" nessa, netta "duck" ?tí- "waterfowl" Ossetic acc "Wild duck" , NPers ordak "duck" , NPers ?u "swan" Russ. utka "duck" OPrus ants "duck", Lith antis "duck" W hwyad(en) "duck" baht "duck" rosë "duck"
*H?elHn "deer" élaphos "deer"; Hom ellós "young of the deer" OSl jeleni "deer"; Russ oleni "red deer" Lith élnis "red deer"; Lith éln? "hind" < *H?elHniHx "hind, cow-elk" NWel elain "hind" < *H?elHniHx "hind, cow-elk"

OIr elit "doe"[121]

e?n "hind" B yal, ylem "gazelle"[122]

B ylake "young gazelle"[123]

aliya(n)- "red deer"[124]
*H?eis "hedgehog" OE igil "hedgehog" (< Proto-Germanic *igilaz) ON ígull "sea-urchin" MycGr e-ki-no;[125] ekhînos "hedgehog" Oss wyzyn "hedgehog" OSl jez? "hedgehog"; Rus e? "hedgehog" Lith es "hedgehog"[al] ozni "hedgehog" esh, eshk "porcupine, hedgehog"
*b?éb?rus "beaver" beaver (< OE beofer) OHG bibar "beaver"; OIc biorr "beaver" f?ber "beaver" bab?rú "mongoose" Av ba?ra- "beaver" Ukr bober "beaver";[126] Rus bobr "beaver" Lith bebrùs "beaver"; Pruss bebrus "beaver" Gaul bebru- ; OIr Bibar
*H?er-on "eagle" erne "a sea eagle" < OE earn "eagle" ara "eagle"; OHG arn "eagle" (Avernus "entrance to the underworld" (< AncGrk áornos "birdless"))[am] órnis "bird"; Myc o-ni-ti-ja-pi "decorated with birds(?)" OSl or?l? "eagle"; Rus orël "eagle" Lith ?ras, ?ras, er?lis "eagle"; Latv ?rglis, OPrus arelie "eagle" MBret erer, MW eryr, MIr irar "eagle" (< *eriro) OArm oror "gull", MArm urur "kite" orr "eagle, falcon" (rare) Hitt ?aran- "eagle"; CLuw ?arrani(a/i) "a type of (oracular) bird"; Pala [?a-]a-ra-na-a? "eagle"[127]
*h?éngis; *h?ógis "snake", "serpent" OHG unc "snake"; engiring "maggot" (diminutive of angar "large larva") anguis "snake, serpent, dragon"; anguilla "eel" óp?is "serpent, snake"; énkhelus "eel"[an] áhi "snake, serpent; name of Vrtra" Av a?i "snake", Persian ya?nij "grass snake" (archaic); Azhi Dah?ka[ao] OEstSl u "snake", Rus u? "grass snake"; Pol w?gorz "eel" OPrus angis "snake", angurgis "eel"; Lith angis "viper", ungurys "eel"; Latv odze, odzs (dialectal) "viper, adder"; OArm awj "snake", i?, iw? "viper" B auk "snake" Illuyanka "mythical snake foe"
*h?ey?- "goat"[132] aíx "goat" e?a "a kind of sheep"
(a v?ddhi-derivative of *h?éwis)
ey (obsolete) "egg"
(< OE ) (> Cockney "cock-egg");
(< ON egg)
"egg" (> ovum, ovary, oval, ovoid, ovulate, etc.)
"egg, seed"
*h?eg?nós "lamb"[136] yean "to give birth to" (< OE ?anian) agnus "lamb" amnós "lamb" OCS agn? "lamb"

Food and farming

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*?r?h?-nó- "grain"[137]
(See also *g?reh?-)
corn (< OE corn "grain") kaúrn "corn" gr?num "grain" =>
[note 15]
dh?nya- "grain, cereal" OCS zr?no "grain" OPrus zirni "grain", Lith ?irnis "pea", girna "millstone" OIr gr?n, W grawn "grain" c?orean "wheat, grain, corn" grurëTosk grun, gruni Gheg "grain"
"to grow"
(See also *?r?h?-nó-)
(< OE gr?wan);
(< OE gr?ne);
grey, gray
(< OE gr);
(< OE græs);
groom (young boy, servant)
(< ME grome)
"to green, grow; plant"
"grass, turf; herb";
"gray, tawny";
"grass; weed; herb";
Fre gourmet (< ME grome)
"gourmet" (similarly gourmand)
"I gnaw, eat";
"gourmand, voracious eater";
gast?r < grastér
"belly, stomach; appetite" (> gastro-, gastronomy, etc.);
"smell of a goat";
"ulcer" (> gangrene)
"(s/he) eats, swallows, devours";
"swallowed, devoured";
"swallowing, mouthful; food, nourishment"
OCS gr?n? "green"
*h?é?ro- "field" acre (< OE æcer "field") akrs "field" ager (agr?) "field" =>
[note 16]
agrós "field" ájra-"meadow" art "soil" arë "field"
*H?erH?- "to plow" OE erian "to plow" arjan "to plow" ar? (ar?re) "to plow", ar?trum "plow" aró? "I plow" < *H?erH?-oH?, árotron "plow" hala- "plow" OCS orj? (orati) "to plow", ralo < *ar(?)dhlom "plow" OPrus artun "to plow", Lith arti "to plow" MIr airim "I plow", W arddu "to plow" < *arj-; MIr arathar, W aradr "plow" < *ar?trom < *H?erH?-trom ara-wr "plow" arë "arable land" *H?r?H?-uer- AB ?re "plow"
*H?mel?- "to milk" milk (< OE meolc, mioluc) miluks (miluks) "milk" mulge? (mulg?re) "to milk" =>
[note 17]
amélg? "I milk" mr?ti, mrjati, mr?játi "(he) wipes, cleans" Av mar?zaiti, m?r?zaiti "(he) grazes (barely touches)" Russ. CS m?lzu (ml?sti) "to milk", Pol mleko "milk" OPrus milztun "to milk", Lith mel?ti "to milk" W blith "milk, dairy produce; full of milk", MIr bligim "I milk" < *mligim, melg "milk" miel, mil "I milk" A malke B malk-wer "milk"
*melH?- "to grind"[141][142] meal (< OE melu);
malm (< OE mealm)
malan "to grind" mol? (molere) "I grind";
"millstone; mill; ground meal, flour" =>
[note 18];
"I immolate, sacrifice (lit. sprinkling flour on animals to be sacrificed)" =>
[note 19];
"hammer, mallet" =>
[note 20];
múll? "I grind";
malthakós, malakós "soft, tender; gentle; mild";
melín? "millet"
mrti, mr?nati "(he) grinds" Av mr?ta- "tanned soft" OCS melj? (ml?t?) "to grind";
"chalk; fine ground substance"
OPrus maltun "to grind", Lith malti "to grind" OIr melim "I grind"; W malu "grind" ma? "sieve" ma?-em "I grind, crush" mjell "flour" A malywët "you press"; B melye "they trample" mallai "grinds"
"to ferment, become sour"
OE hwaþerian "to roar, foam, surge" ?aÞ? "froth, foam, scum" c?seus
"cheese" (> cheese)
"it boils"
OCS kvas? "leaven; sour drink"
*g?réh?w? "quern, millstone" a[147][108] quern (< OE cwerne) *qairnus grvan "stone, rock, stone for pressing out the Soma juice" OCS ?r?ny "millstone" Bret breo, breou, W breuan "quern"[148]
*meli-t, *mel-nés "honey" mildew (< OE mele-d?aw "honeydew") miliþ "honey" mel (mellis) "honey" (>
méli (mélit-) "honey"; Att mélitta "bee"; Myc me-ri, me-ri-to "honey"[149] milinda "honey-bee" OIr mil, W mêl "honey" me?r "honey" mjal, mjaltë "honey" milit "honey"; CLuw ma-al-li "honey";[150] Pala malit- "honey"
*méd?u "honey", "mead" mead (< OE medu) midus "mead" m?dus "a type of mead"[151] mét?u "wine" mád?u "sweet drink, honey" Proto-Iranian mádu "honey, wine" OCS med? "honey"; Bulg med "honey" OPrus meddu "honey", Lith medus "honey", midus "a honey beverage";[152] Ltg mads "honey" OIr mid "mead"; W medd "mead" B mit "honey"[153] CLuw maddu- "wine" (originally "sweet drink")
*tuh?-ró-s "cheese"[136] butter (< Gk. boút?ros "cow cheese") t?rós "cheese"
*séh?ls "salt"[154][155] salt (< OE sealt) salt "salt" s?l (salis) "salt" =>
[note 21]
háls (halós) "salt" sal-ilá- "salty" OCS sol? "salt";
OCS slad?k? "sweet";
Russ sólod "malt"
OPrus sals "salt", saldus "sweet OIr salann, W halen "salt" a? "salt" ngjel-bëtë, ngjel-mëtë "salty", njel-m "to be salty" A s?le, B salyiye "salt"
*seH?- "to sow (seed)", *séH?mn? "seed" sow (< OE s?wan), seed (< OE s?d "that which is sown") saian "to sow"; OHG s?mo "seed" ser? (serere) "to sow" < *si-sH?-oH?, s?men "seed" =>
[note 22]
sasá- "corn, herb, grass", sasyá- "corn, grain, fruit, crop of corn", sra- "Saatpflug" (seed plow?) OCS s?j? (s?jati) "to sow", s?m? "seeds" OPrus situn "to sow", simen "seed", Lith s?ti "to sow", sekla "seed", semenis "linseed" OIr s?l, W hil "seed" < *seH?-lo- sermn "seed" isw?i "(he) sows"
*yugóm "yoke"
(See also *yewg-)
yoke (< OE ?eoc) juk "yoke" iugum "yoke" zugón "yoke" yugá·m "yoke" Av yaoj-, yuj- "to harness" OCS igo "yoke" OPrus jugtun "yoke", Lith jungas "yoke" W iau "yoke" luc "yoke" A yokäm "door" yugan "yoke"
*yéwos "cereal, grain; spelt, barley"[156][157] Epic zei "einkorn wheat"; Cretan deaí "barley" yáva "grain, cereal; barley" Av yauua- "cereal"; Pers jow "barley, grain"; Oss jäv "corn, grain" Rus ovín "barn, granary";[ap] Pol jewnia, jownia (dialectal) "granary" Lith jãvas "a type of cereal"; java? (pl.) "cereals"; Latv javs, java "infused (with fermentation)" Ir eorna "barley" B yap "dressed barley" e(u)wa(n) "cereal (a kind of barley)"
*m?ms "meat"[159][108] mimz "flesh" membrum "limb, member" < m?ms-rom "flesh" =>
[note 23]
ms, m?msá- "meat" OCS m?so "meat"
*h?éb?l "apple"[107][108] apple (< OE appel) apel (Osc Abella "town name") OCS abl?·ko "apple" Lith obuolys "apple", OPr wobalne "apple"; Latv ?bols "apple (fruit)", ?bele "apple tree" Gaul Aballo "place name"; OIr aball, W afall, OBr aball(en) "apple tree"

Bodily functions and states

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H?enH?- "to breathe" OE ?þian "breathe hard" < PGerm *anþ?janã *uz-anan "to expire", ON anda "to breathe" anima "breath" ánemos "wind"; Anemoi "(deified) winds" ániti "(he) breathes" Av ntya, parntya (gen.) "breathing in and out" OCS vonja "smell" < *H?en-yeH?[160] OIr an?l "breath" < *H?enH-tlo- ; W anadl "breath" ho?m "wind", anjn "person" Gheg âj Tosk ?nj "I swell" AB ?ñm- "spirit", B añiye "breath", B an?sk- "breathe in"
*swep- "to sleep", *swepnos "dream (n.)" archaic sweven "dream, vision" (< OE swefn); NoEng sweb "to swoon" (< OE swebban "to put to sleep, lull") ON sofa "sleep (v.)"; Svafnir[161] "Sleep-Bringer (a name of Odin)" somnus "sleep (n.)"; s?pi?[162] (v.) "make asleep" húpnos "sleep (n.)" svápna- "sleep, dream (n.)" Av x?afna- "sleep (n.)" NPers xwãb- "sleep" OCS s?pati[162] "sleep (v.)", s?n? "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" OPrus supnas "dream", Lith sapnas "dream" OIr s?an, W hun "sleep (n.)" k?nem "I sleep", k?un "sleep (n.)" gjumë "sleep (n.)" TA ?pä?, TB ?pane "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" sup-, suppariya- "to sleep"
*b?ewd?- "to be awake, be aware"[163] bid (< OE b?odan);
bede (< OE b?den);
bode (< OE bodian)
anabiudan punthánomai "I learn" bódhati "(s/he) is awake";
bodháyati "(s/he) awakens, arouses"; buddhá- "awake"
OCS bljusti "to watch";
buditi "to wake (someone) up";
bdr? "alert, cheerful";
*sweid- "sweat" sweat (< OE sw?tan "to sweat") ON sveiti s?dor "sweat (n.)" (e)?dos "sweat (n.)" sv?da- "sweat (n.)" Av x?a?da- "sweat (n.)" Latvian sviêdri (pl.) "sweat (n.)" W chwys "sweat (n.)" < *swidso- k?irtn "sweat (n.)" dirsë, djersë "sweat (n.)" < *swí-dr?xty- B sy?-lñe "sweating" < *swid-yé-
*H?ed- "to eat" eat (< OE etan) itan "to eat" ed? (?sse) "to eat", ?st "(he) eats" éd? "I eat", Homeric athematic infinitive édmenai "to eat" ádmi "I eat", átti "(he) eats" Av subj. aiti "(he) should eat" OCS jam? "I eat" < *Hd-mi, jast? "(he) eats" OPrus istun "to eat", ?sti, Lith "to eat", ?dmi "I eat" OIr ci-ni estar "although he doesn't eat"; W ys "eats" < *H?ed-ti utem "I eat" < *?d- ha "to eat" ?dmi "I eat"
*peH?- "to drink" potable (< OF potable)

imbibe (< Lat. bibere "to drink" via OF imbiber)

bib? (bibere) "to drink", p?tus "drink (n.)"; p?·culo- < p?·clo- < *p?·tlo- "beaker" [aq]
(Compare Skt p?·tra-)
pn?, pépomai "I drink" pti, píbati "(he) drinks"; p?·tra- "cup, vessel" [aq] Av vispo-pitay- "alltränkend" giving water/drinks to all OCS pij? (piti) "to drink", Proto-Slavic p?vo "drink, beer, beverage" OPrus putun "to drink", puja "a party", Lith puota "party" OIr ibid "drinks" < *pibeti; W yfwn "we drink" ?mpem "I drink" p? "I drink" p?si "he swallows"
*?ews- "to test, to taste" choose (< OE osan) Goth kiusan "to prove, to test", kausjan "taste"; OHG kiosan "choose" gustus "taste" geúomai "taste" ju?ate, jo?ati "enjoys" Av zao?- "be pleased" OCS (v?)ku?ati "to offer a meal, to give for tasting" OIr do-goa "choose" desha "I loved"; dashje "liking, taste, preference" (< PAlb *d?usnja) kuku?(-zi) "taste"
"to beget, give birth, produce"
(< OE cynn "kind, sort, family, generation") (> kindred);
kind (< OE (?e)cynd "generation, nature, race, kind");
(< OE cyning);
OE cennan "produce"
-kunds "born";
knoþs "race, people";
OHG kind "child";
Ger könig, Dut koning "king"
(< PGmc *kuningaz = *kunj? "kin" + *-ingaz "from, belonging to")
(> OCS k?n?dz? "prince";
Lith kùnigas "priest";
Fin, Est kuningas "king" (esp. in chess))
"I am born, begotten; grow, spring forth";
"I beget, bear, bring forth, engender" =>
[note 24];
"born, arisen, made" =>
[note 25];
"being born, arising; emerging" =>
[note 26];
"created; imparted by birth" =>
[note 27];
n?t?vit?s "birth" =>
[note 28];
"nature, quality, essence" =>
[note 29];
"birth; race, class; nation, folk" =>
[note 30];
"relating to birth, natal" =>
[note 31];
genus (generis)
"birth, origin; kind; species; (grammar) gender" =>
[note 32];
g?ns (gentis)
"tribe; folk, family; Roman clan" =>
[note 33];
"huge, vast; extraordinary";
"begotten, engendered" =>
[note 34];
"inborn trait, innate character; talent, wits" (> genius);
"natural, indigenous; freeborn" =>
[note 35];
"innate quality, nature, disposition; natural capacity; talent" =>
[note 36];
indigenus = indu (inside) + genus
"native, indigenous" (> indigenous);
"product, fruit; progeny";
germen (germinis)
"shoot, sprout; germ, origin, seed; fetus" =>
[note 37];
"begetter, father, sire";
"begetter, mother";
"birthmark, mole" (> Lat Gnaeus);
"relation to birth, generation; productive" =>
[note 38]
"I am born; I beget";
"I come into being; become";
"offspring; seed" (> gonad);
"birth; race, descent; generation; offspring" (> genealogy, etc.);
"offspring, descendant, family; nation, gender";
génna, génn?
"descent, lineage; origin, offspring";
"origin, source, manner of birth" =>
[note 39];
"fruit, product; race, descent; begetting; seed";
genét?s, genét?r
"begetter, ancestor; father"
jánati "(she) gives birth";
"is born; becomes";
já-, -ja-
"born; born of, begotten from", e.g., dvi·já- "twice-born";
"child, offspring; creature";
"kinsman, relative";
"mother, birth-giver";
"people, person, race";
"begetting, birth";
"race, class, genus";
jánman, janmá-
"birth, life";
jániman "generation, birth, origin";
janit "begetter, father, parent";
jánitr? "begetter, mother";
"people, folk, generation";
"birth, form of existence fixed at birth, position assigned by birth, rank, lineage, caste"
Av z?z?nti, z?zan?nti "they give birth" OCS z?t? "son-in-law" OPrus gamintun "to give birth", gimdyti "to give birth" OIr -gainethar "who is born" < *?n?-ye-tro;[160] W geni "to be born" cnanim "I am born, bear" dhëndër, dhândër "son-in-law, bridegroom" < *?enH-tr-[as] AB kän- "to come to pass (of a wish), be realized"
*sewh?- or *sewh?-
"to bear, beget, give birth"
(See also *suHnú-)
"(she) begets";
"born, brought forth";
"birth, production"
Av hun?hi "give birth, beget" OIr suth "produce, offspring; milk" ?unnai "fills"
*H?eug-, H?weg- "to grow, increase"[170] eke (< OE ?acian "to increase"); wax (of the moon) (< OE weaxan "to grow") aukan, auknan "to increase (intr.)", wahsjan "to grow" < orig. caus. *H?wog-s-éy-onom auge? (aug?re) "to increase (tr.)" =>
[note 40];
auctor "grower - promoter, producer, author etc" =>
[note 41];
augmentum "growth, increase" =>
[note 42];
augur < augos "aggrandizement" =>
[note 43];
augustus "majestic, venerable" =>
[note 44];
auxilium "help, aid; remedy" =>
[note 45]
a(w)éks? "I increase (intr.)", aúks?, auksán? "I increase (tr.)" úk?ati "(he) becomes stronger", vak?áyati "(he) causes to grow"; ójas, ?jmán "strength, vitality, power";[171] ugrá- "immense, strong, hard"; Av ux?yeiti "(he) grows", vax?aiti "(he) causes to grow" OCS jug? "south" (the direction to where the Sun rises) OPrus augtwei "to grow", Lith augti " to grow" OIr f?r, W gwêr "fat" < *weg- a?em "I grow, become big" A oksi? "(he) grows"; A ok?u, ? auk?u "grown"
*we?- "fresh, strong; lively, awake"[172] wake (< OE wacian); watch (< OE wæan) gawaknan "wake up, arouse" vege? (veg?re) "be alert, awake, smart"; vigor "id"; vigil "awake, watching" vja- "strength, energy, vigour, spirit"; vájra- "hard; mace; thunderbolt; diamond"; v?jáyati "(s/he) impels"
*g?iH?wo- "alive", *g?iH?wo-teH? "life" quick (< OE cwicu "alive") qius "alive" v?vus "alive"; v?ta "life" bíos, bíotos "life", zoo "animal" j?vá-, j?vaka- "alive", j?vita·m, j?vtus, j?vathas "life" Av gay?, acc. ?y?tum "life", -?y?iti- "life-"; Av ?va-, OPers va- "alive" OCS ?iv? "alive", ?it?, ?ivot? "life" OPrus giws "alive", giwata "life", Lith gyvas "alive", gyvat? "snake" Gaul biuo-, bio-,[173][at]
OIr biu, beo, W byw "alive"; OIr bethu (bethad), W bywyd "life" < Proto-Celtic *bivo-t?ts
keam "I live" < *g?i-y?-ye-mi[160] B ?ai- "to live" < *gweiH?-?
"to grow old, mature"
(See also *?r?h?-nó-, *g?reh?-)
(< OE ?eorl, ?iorl "free man")
Karl (< PGmc "free man") (> Slav korl? "king")[au] gér?n, gérontos
"old; elder" (> geronto-);
"old woman";
"gift of honor";
"honorable, majestic, respectable";
Graia > Graikós > Graeco-, Greek
járati, jryati
"grows old; wears out; is consumed, digested";
"old, worn out; digested";
"old, infirm; decayed";
jar, jarás, jariman
"old age"
OCS z?r?ti "to ripen"
*mer- "to die" murder (< OE morþor < *mr?-tro-m) maúrþr "murder" morior (mor?) "to die" < *mr?-y?r, mortalis "mortal" brotós (< *mrotós), mortós "mortal" marati, márat?, mriyát? "(he) dies", m?tá- "dead", márta-, mortal Av mer?- "to die", miryeite "dies"; OPers martiya- "man" OCS m?r?, mr?ti "to die" Lith mitu (mi?ti) "to die", merd?ti "to die slowly" OIr marb, W marw "dead" < *mr?-wós me?anim "I die", mard "human" mert "died"
"bald, naked"
"bald, hairless" > Calvin;
"skull, scalp"
"to cough"[182][183]
whoost "cough"
(< OE hw?stan)
"(s/he) coughs"
OCS kaljati "to cough"
*perd- "fart"[184][185] fart (< OE feortan) pérdomai párdate "(s/he) farts" Russian perdét? "to fart"

Mental functions and states

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*k?leu-(s)- "to hear" listen (< OE hlystan), loud (< OE hl?d) hliuma "hearing, ears (in pl.)" clue? (clu?re) "to be named" ékluon "I heard" ?róti "(he) hears" < *k?l?-neu-; ?rúti "that which is heard" Av surunaoiti "(he) hears" < *k?lu-n- OCS sly?ati "to hear" OPrus klausytun "to hear", Lith klausyti "to listen" OIr ro-clui-nethar "hears"; W clywed "to hear";
Gaul cluiou "I hear"[186]
lsem "I hear" Old Tosk kluaj (standard quaj) "to call, to name" < *k?lu(H)-eH?- A klyo?-, B klyau?- "to hear"
*weid- "to see, find; to know" wit (OE wit "intelligence", witan "to know" < PIE perfect tense) witan "to know" vide? (vid?re) "to see" é(w)ide "he saw"

perf. o?da "I know (lit. I have seen)"

vindáti "(he) finds", ávidat "found"

vetti, v?date, vidáti "(he) knows", perf. véda "I know"

Av vaiti, vnasti "(he) finds" OCS vi?d? (vid?ti) "to see" OPrus widatun "to see", Lith veidas "face" W gweld "to see" gtanem "I find"
*woid- "to know" Av perf. vaa "I know", v?dar? "they know" OCS v?m? (v?d?ti) "to know" OPrus waistun "to know", Lith vaistas "medicine", vyda "he sees, knows" OIr find, W gwn "(I) know" gitem "I know" B ?we "learned" < PToch *wäwen- < *wid-wo-
*?énH?-, *?néH?-sk?-, *?n?-né-H?- "to recognize, know" can (< OE cann "I know, he knows"), know (< OE cn?wan < *?n?H?-yo-nom), Scot ken "to know" (< OE cennan "to cause to know" < PGerm *kann-jan) kunnan "to know" < *?n?-n-H?-onom, kann "I know" (g)n?sc? ((g)n?scere) "to recognize", n?v? "I know" gign?sk? (aorist égn?n) "I recognize" j?nmi "I know" < *janmi < *?n?-nH?-mi Av zan?-?, zan?n < *?n?-ne-H?-ti; OPers a-d?n? (impf.) "he knew" < *?n?-ne-H?-mi, x?n?s?tiy (subj.) "he should know" < *?neH?-sk?e-eti OCS znaj? (znati) "to know" < *?neH?-yoH? OPrus zinatun "to recognize, know", Lith ?inoti "to know"[187][188] OIr itar-gninim, asa-gninaim "I am wise"; W adnabod "(I) know" ?anaem, aorist caneay "I recognize" njoh "I know" < *?n?H?-sk?oH? A kn?-, e.g. kn?nma? "knowing" < *?neH?-, kñas-ä?t "you have become acquainted" < *?n?H?-s-
*n?- + *?neH?-tos "not" + "to know" uncouth (< OE unc?þ "unknown, strange") unkunþs "unknown" ign?tus, ign?r?ntem "unknown, ignorant" agn?s (agnõtos) "unknown" < *n?- + *?néH?-ts ajñ?ta- "unknown" OPrus nezinatun "not to know", Lith ne?inoti " not to know" OIr ingnad "foreign" an-can-awt? "ignorant, unknown" A ?-knats, B a-kn?tsa "ignorant"
"to love; desire, covet, want; admire, praise"[189][190]
(< OE lufu);
lief "dear, beloved"
(< OE l?of);
lofe "praise, exalt; offer"
(< OE lofian, lof)
"it is pleasing, agreeable"
"(s/he) desires greatly; longs for, covets; is perplexed";
"(s/he) causes to desire, attract, allure; confound, bewilder";
"perplexity, confusion; impatience, eager desire, longing; covetousness";
"greedy, desirous of, longing after; covetous"
OCS ljubiti "to love";
ljub? "sweet, pleasant";
ljuby "love";
Russ ljubímyj "favorite"
*men- "to think"[191][192] mind (< OE (?e)mynd "memory" < *mn?t-ís); OE munan "to think";
munan "to think"; muns (pl. muneis) "thought" < *mn?-is; gamunds (gamundáis) "remembrance" < *ko(m)-mn?t-ís memin? "I remember" =>
[note 46];
"I recollect, remember" =>
[note 47]
m?ns (mentis) "mind" < *mn?t-is;
"mindful, remembering" =>
[note 48]
"devised, contrived; invented";
"I remind, warn";
"a divine omen; portent" =>
[note 49];
mémona "I think of"; maínomai "I go mad";
"I remind, recall";
"I am mindful, remember; woo, court";
"self-willed, unbidden; self-moving, automatic";
"mind; desire; anger";
Mént?r "mentor";
"I learn; know, understand; notices";
"something that is learned, lesson; learning, knowledge" =>
[note 50];
mányate "(he) thinks"; mántra- "thought, the instrument of thought"[193];
"thought intention; opinion, notion; perception, judgement";
"thinker, adviser";
"wisdom, intelligence" (See mazd?);
"minister, councilor, counselor" > mandarin
Av mainyeite "(he) thinks";
mazd? "wisdom, intelligence";
OPers mainy?hay "I think"
OCS m?n?ti "to mean";
OPrus mintun "to guess", minisna "memory", mints "riddle", mentitun "to lie", Lith mintis " thought", minti "to guess", min?ti "to mention" OIr do-moiniur "I believe, I mean" mendoj "I think" A mnu "thought"; B mañu "demand (n.)" memm?i "says"
*sek?- "to see, to say" see (< OE s?on); say (< OE sec?gan < PGerm *sag(w)jan < *sok?éyonom) saí?an "to see"; OHG sagen "say" < *sok- ?nseque "declare!" énnepe "tell!" ?acate "(he) says" OCS so?iti "to announce" Lith sakyti "to say", sekti "to tell a story, to follow" OIr insce "I talk"; OIr rosc "eye" < *pro-sk?o-; OW hepp "(he) said" sheh "(he) sees" A ?otre, B ?otri "sign" sakuw?i- "to see"
*wek?- "to say" OE w?ma "noise" < *w?k?-m?(n) OHG giwahanen "mention" < PGerm *gawahnjan (denom. built on *wok?-no-) voc? (voc?re) "to call", v?x (v?cis) "voice" e?pon (aor.) "spoke" < *e-we-ik?-om < *e-we-uk?-om, (w)épos "word" vákti, vívakti "(he) says", v?k "voice", vácas- "word" Av va?- "speak, say", v?x? "voice", va?ah "word" OCS vik?ti "to call, to scream" OPrus enwack?mai "we call" OIr foccul "word", W gwaethl "fight" < * wok?-tlo-m go?em "I call" A wak, B wek "voice" ?uek-, ?uk- to swear to"
*b?eh?- "to speak, say"[194] ban (< PGmc *bannan? "to proclaim, order, summon") f?ma "fame"; f?s "divine law; will of god, destiny";
for (f?r?) "I speak, talk, say";
f?tus "word, saying; oracle, prophecy; fate";
fateor (fat?r?, fassus sum) "I confess, admit, acknowledge";
f?bula "discourse, narrative; tale, fable";
Sp hablar, Pt falar "to speak"
ph?n? "voice"; ph?m? "prophetic voice; rumor; reputation"; ph?mí "I speak, say"; phásis "utterance, statement, expression" bh? "speech, language"; bhati "(s/he) speaks" bajka "fable";[av] OCS balii "physician, (healer, enchanter)"
*prek?-, *pr?-sk?- < *pr?k?-sk?- "to ask" Scot frain "to ask" (< OE fre?nan) fraíhnan "to ask"; OHG forsc?n "to ask, to research" precor (prec?r?) "to pray", posc? (poscere) "to demand, ask" pr?ccháti "(he) asks" Av p?r?saiti "(he) asks, desires" < *pr?-sk?-; OPers aor.? aparsam "(he) asked" OCS prositi "to pray" OPrus prasitun "to ask", Lith pra?yti "to ask" OIr imm-chom-arc "mutual questions, greetings"; NIr arco, W archaf "I ask" harc?anem "I ask" A prak-, B prek- "to ask"
*kelh?-, (s)kel-dh-
"to call, cry, summon"[195][196]
(< OE halian);
(< ON skald)
"I call, announce solemnly; call out";
"a council, meeting" =>
[note 51];
"the armed forces; fleet; group or class" > class;
"the Calends" > calendar;
"I cry out, clamor, shout, yell" =>
[note 52];
"clear, bright; renouwned, famous; loud, distinct" =>
[note 53]
"I call, hail; summon, invite"
klándati, krándati
"(s/he) laments weeps; cries; sounds";
u?a?kala-, u?akala-
"rooster, lit, dawn-call"
OCS klakol? "bell";
Russ skulít? "to whine, whisper"
*b?eyh?- "to fear, be afraid"[197] bive, bever "to shake, tremble" (< OE bifian) foedus "foul, filthy, unseemly; vile" bháyate "(s/he) is afraid";
bh?, bh?ti, bhayá- "fear"
OCS bojati "to fear, be afraid"
*H?neH?mn? or *H?nomn?- "name" name (< OE nama) nam? (acc. pl. namna) "name" n?men "name" ónoma "name" nma(n)(instrumental sg. nmn?) "name" Av n?ma "name" OCS im? "name" < Proto-Slavic *inmen < *n?men OPrus emnes, emmens "name" < *enmen- OIr ainmm n-, OW anu "name";
Gaul anuan < anman "name"[198]
anun "name" Gheg emën, Tosk emër "name" < *enmen- A ñem, B ñom "name" l?man- "name"

General conditions and states

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
"to be sharp; to sting"
(< OE sticca);
(< OE sti?e);
(< OE þistel)
"I stimulate, incite, rouse" > instigate;
stilus (later spelled stylus [aw])
"pointed instrument, spike" =>
[note 54]
"I tattoo; mark";
"marking; spot, mark";
"mark, tattoo; spot, stain"
"become sharp; energize";
"sharp ede of a knife; light, brilliance, glow; splendor; fiery power";
"sharp; hot, fiery, pungent; acute, keen";
"sharp, pointed; pungent, scorching, acrid"
Per tez "sharp"

Natural features

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H?ster- "star"
(See also: *h?eHs-)
star (< OE steorra) staírn? "star" st?lla "star" ast?r "star"[ax] st? inst. pl. stbhis, nom. pl. t?ra-, fem. nom. sg. tar? "star" Av acc. str?m (ablauting)[ay] "star" MIr ser, W seren, Breton sterenn "star"; Celtic Sirona (< *Tsirona) "astral", "stellar" ast? "star"; Ast?ik "deity of love, fertility and skylight" pl. A ?reñ, B ?ciriñ "stars" ?asterza "star"
*dy?us, déiwos[ii] "sky, day, god" Tues-day (< OE T?wes-dæ? lit. "day of T?w"[az]) ON t?var "gods", Týr "T?w" (the war god) Iuppiter (Iovis), Old Latin Di?-piter (Diovis) "Jupiter"; di?s "day", deus, d?vus "god"[ba] Zdeús (Di(w)ós)[ii] "Zeus" d(i)y?ús (divás, dy?s)[ii] "heaven", d?vás "god", dev "goddess" Av da?va- "demon" (OCS d?n? (d?ne) "day" < *din-is), Ukr. dyvo and Russ. divo "miracle" OPrus deina "day", deiws "god", Lith diena "day", dievas "god" OIr d?e, W dydd "day"; OIr dia (d?), OW duiu- "God" tiw (tu?n?ean) "day" (gdhinj "I make day"(? mache Tag) < *-di-n-yoH?) ?iu? "Hittite sky- or sun-god"[203][bb]
*seH?wol-, *sH?un- "sun" sun (< OE sunne) sauil, sunn? "sun" s?l "sun" Homeric h?élios "sun" < *s?wélios;[bc] Helios "deity of the sun" súvar (súra-) "sun, light, heavens", s?ra-, s?rya "sun" Av hvar? (h?r?) "sun, light, heavens", Hvare-khshaeta "deity of the radiant sun" OCS sl?n?ce "sun" < *sulnika-, Russ. po-solon' "sunwise" OPrus sauli "sun", sawaiti "week", Lith saul? "sun", savait? "week" OIr s?il "eye"; W haul "sun" ylli "star" < *s?lo- or *s?li-
*meH?ns- "moon, month" moon (< OE m?na), month (< OE m?naþ) m?na "moon", m?noþs "month" m?nsis "month" Att m?n, Ion meis, Dor m?s "month", m?n? "moon" ms "moon"; msa- "month" Av m (mh?) "moon"; NPers m?h "moon, month" OCS m?s?c? "moon, month" < *m?s-n?-ko- OPrus miniks "moon", mins "month", Lith m?nulis "moon", m?nesis "month" OIr m? (m?s) "month" < *m?ns;; W mis "month" amis "month" muai "month" A mañ B meñe "month"; A mañ ñkät B me? "moon"
*d?eom- "earth"
(See also *demon-)
humus "earth" k?tn (k?t?onós) "earth", k?amaí "on the earth"[bd] ks (acc. km, gen. jmá-) "earth" Av z (acc. z?m, gen. z?m?) "earth"; Kurdish zevî "farmland", NPers zamin "ground, soil", zamindar "land owner" OCS zem?, zemlja "earth"; Russ Chernozem "black soil" OPrus zemê "earth", semmai "on the earth" (adverb); Lith ?em? " earth" OIr d? "place"; Welsh dyn "man" dhe "earth" A tka? (tkanis), B ke? "earth" t?kan (tagn?s) "earth"
*wódr? (udéns) pl. *wéd?r (udnés) "water" water (< OE wæter) wat? (watins) "water" Umbrian utur "water", Latin unda "wave" húd?r (húdatos) "water"; Hydra (litt.) "water-animal" udaká- (loc. udán(i), pl. udá), udra "water"; samudra "ocean" (litt. "gathering of waters") Av ao?a- "spring", vai?i- "stream" OCS voda "water", Russ. vedro "bucket"; Russ vódka "little water" OPrus undan "water", Lith vanduo "water" OIr u(i)sce "water" < *udeskyo-; Eng. Whisky < uisce beatha "water of life" get "river" ujë "water" A wär, B war "water" w?tar (wetenas) "water"
*doru, *dreu- "wood, tree" tree (< OE tr?o) triu "tree, wood" dóru, drûs "tree, wood" dru, dr?s, drú- "tree, wood" Av d?ru- "tree, wood" OCS dr?vo "tree" OPrus drawê "hole in a tree, hollow tree", Lith drev? "hole in a tree", dirva "soil" OIr daur "oak", W derwen "oak" tram "firm" dru "tree" AB or "wood" taru "tree"
*H?weH?n?to- "wind", *H?weH?- "to blow" wind (< OE wind); OE w?wan "to blow" winds "wind"; waian "to blow" ventus "wind" áenta (acc.) "wind", á?si "(he) blows" vta- (v?nt-)[206] "wind", v?ti "(he) blows", V?yu "lord of winds"; nir·va- "blow-out, extinction"[207] Av v?t? "wind", v?iti "(he) blows", Vayu-Vata "a pair of deities: Vayu/Wind and Vata/Air" OCS v?j? (v?jet?) "to blow" OPrus witra "wind"; Lith v?jas "wind", v?tra "heavy wind", V?jopatis "god of winds" W gwynt "wind" A want, B yente "wind" wanz[208] "wind"
*sneig- "to snow" snow (< OE sn?w < *snoig?hos, sn?wan "to snow" < *sneig?honom) snáiws "snow" nix (nivis) "snow", ningu? (ninguere) "to snow" níp?a (acc.) "snow", neíp?ei "it snows" sneha- "snow" Av snaa- "to snow"; Shughni nij "snow" < *snaiga- OCS sn?g? "snow" OPrus snaigs "snow", Lith snigti "to snow" OIr snecht(a)e, W nyf "snow"; OIr snigid "it rains"
*h?n?g?nís "fire" < *h?eng?- "to burn";[209]
*h?óng?l? "charcoal"
ignis "fire" agní "fire";
á?g?ra "charcoal"
OCS ogn? "fire";
?gl? "coal"
*péH?wr?, pH?unés "bonfire"[be] fire (< OE f?r < *fuïr[be]) f?n (funins)[be] "fire"; OHG fuïr[be] (two syllables) < *puwéri Umbrian pir "fire" < *p?r, acc. purom-e "into the fire" < *pur- p?r (purós) "fire" p?ru (p?ru) "sun, fire" NPers fer "oven, furnace" Czech pý? "glowing ash" OPrus pannu "fire" hur "fire" A por, B puwar, puw?r, pw?r "fire" paur "fire"
*d?uh?mós "smoke" < *d?ewh?- "to smoke"[210] f?mus "smoke" dh?má- "smoke; mist, fog" OCS dym? "smoke"
"to become dry; burn, glow; hearth; ashes"[211][212][213]
(See also: *H?ster-)
(< OE æsce);
"ash; cinder"
"I am dry; dried up, withered";
"dry, parched, withered, arid" > arid;
"altar; sanctuary, refuge";
"roasted, baked; dried"
"I dry";
"ashes, dust"
*germ- "warm" ?warm (< OE wearm); OE ?ierwan "to prepare, cook" < PGerm *garwjan ?warmjan "to warm" formus "warm" t?ermós "warm" g?armá- "heat" Av gar?ma- "hot, heat"; OPers Garma-pada-, name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, orig. (?) "entrance of the heat" Russ. ?ar "heat", goret' "to burn" < *ger OPrus garmê "heat, glowing", Lith ?arijos "cinders", r?ti "to glow" OIr gorn "fire" < *gor-nos ?erm "warm" Gheg zjarm "fire, heat" A ?ärme "heat (of summer)"
*h?ews- "to burn";[214][215] ember (< OE ?myr?e) ?r? "I burn, consume, inflame";
ustus "burnt, inflamed";
bustum < amb-bustum "a burial mound, tomb";
comb?r? "I burn up, cremate, scald" > combust
heú? "I singe" ó?ati "(s/he) burns, burns down; punishes";
"warm, hot"
*gel- "to be cold, to freeze" cold (< OE ceald) kalds "cold (of the weather)" gelus "ice", gelidus "icy" gelandros MBulg goloti "ice" Lith gelmenis, gelumà "great cold"
*leuk- "light, brightness" light (< OE l?oht) liuhaþ (liuhadis) "light" l?ce? (l?c?re) "to shine", l?x "light" leukós "bright, shining, white" rócate "(he) shines", roká- "light", loka- "world, place" Av rao?ant- "shining", rao?ah "light"; OPers rau?ah "light" OCS lu?a "ray, flash" < *louky? OPrus lauk "bright", lauksna "star", laukas "field", Lith laukas "outside, field" OIr luchair "shine"; W llachar "bright", llug "shimmer" loys "light" AB lyuk/luk- "to shine" luk(k)- "to shine"
*b?el- "to shine"[216] balefire (< OE b?lf?r) ON bál "fire" fulge? "I flash, glitter";
flagr? "I burn, blaze";
flamma "flame, fire"
phlég? "I scorch, kindle";
phlégma "flame, inflammation"; phalós "white"
bhrája- "fire, shining";
bh?la- "splendor"
OCS b?l? "white" Lith baltas, Latv balts "fair, white"
*temH- "(to be) dark"
*témHos "darkness"
OHG demar "twilight" tenebrae "darkness" (< *temebrai < *temasro) támas "darkness, gloom", támisr? "dark night" Av ta?ra "darkness", t?mah OCS t?m?n? "darkness", t?ma', Rus temnotá "darkness" Lith tamsa "dark, darkness", ti?sras "a darker shade of red"; Latv tum?s, tim?s "dark", tùmsa "darkness"[217] OIr temel "darkness" (< PCel *temeslos); OW timuil "dark, darkness" B tamãsse "dark"
*néb?-os "cloud; mist"[218] OE nifol "dark [misty]" ON Niflheimr "home of mists" nebula "fog, cloud" nép?os "cloud"; nep?él? "mass of clouds; name of a nymph" náb?as "mist; sky, cloud"; nábsa "celestial, heavenly; appearing in the sky" nabah- "heavens" (litt. "nimbuses, clouds")[219] OCS nebo "heaven, sky"; Pol niebo "sky"; Cz nebesa "skies"; Rus "heaven" Lith debesis "cloud" OIr nem "sky"; OBret nem, MBret neff "sky" n?pi?- "sky, heaven"; CLuw tappa?- "heaven"; HierLuw tipas- "heaven"
*srew-, *srew-mo, *sru-to "to flow, stream" (in river names)[bf] stream (< OE str?am) ON straumr "a stream" rheûma "flow" srutá- "flow", srava "a flow of, a waterfall" (< *srówos) YAv ?raotah- "stream" (< OIA srótas-); OPer rauta?- "river" OCS struja "stream", o-strov? "island";[bg] Rus strumen? "brook"; Pol strumie? "brook, river" Lith sraumuõ "brook, stream"; Latv str?va "current"; Lith sraujà, Latv strauja "stream";[222] Lith sra?tas "flow, torrent" OIr sruaimm, Ir sruth "stream, river"; MW ffrwd "brook, stream"; OBret frut "stream" OArm a?u "brook; canal" (< srutis-) rrymë "stream, current; flow (of water)"
*d?enh?- "to set in motion, to flow";[223]
*déh?nu "river goddess"
f?ns < PItal *ðonts "spring, fountain; fresh water; source" dhánvati "it runs, flows, causes to run or flow";[224]
dhána- "competition, contest; prize";
dnu "fluid, drop, dew"
Dnieper < OOss d?nu apara "the far river"[225] Danube < PCelt *D?nowyos
*mori- "lake?, sea?"[bh] OE mere "lake" marei "sea" mare "sea" OCS morje "sea" Lith mårè "sea" OIr muir "sea"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*per- "through, across, beyond" far (< OE feorr) faírra "far"; faír- "around; (intensifier)" per "through" perí, pér "forward" pári "forward" Av pairi, OPers pariy "forward" OCS pr?- "forward" OPrus pro-, pra- "trough, across", Latvian p?ri "across", Lith per "across", pra- "to start and finish doing something", pro- "through" OIr ir-, W er "forward" he?u "far" për, pej, pe "forward" par?, Lycian pri "forth"
*upér(i) "over, above" over (< OE ofer) ufar "over, above, beyond" super "over" (influenced by sub "under") hupér "over" upári "over, above, beyond" Av 'upairi, OPers "over, above, beyond" OCS po "upon, at" OPrus uppin "cloud", OIr for, W gor, gwar "over, on" ver "up" i ver "up" epër "over, above"
*H?ents "forehead", *H?entí, *H?entá "in front of" and (< OE and) and "along, throughout, towards, in, on, among"; OHG enti "previously" < PGerm *andiaz ante "in front of" antí "instead of" anti "opposite to it" Kurdish ênî "front, forehead" Lith añt "on" antai "there" OIr étan "forehead" < *antono- ?nd "instead of" A ?nt, B ?nte "surface, forehead" nz, ?anti "in front"
*en "in" in (< OE in) in "in, into, towards" in "in" en "in" án-?ka- "face" < ?*eni-Hk? Av ainika "face" < ?*eni-Hk? OCS on-, v?n-, v? "in" OPrus en "in", Lith ? "in" OIr in- "in"; W yn "in" i "in" inj "until" AB y-, yn-, B in- "in" an-dan "inside"
*apó "away" of, off (< OE of) af "from, of, by" (ab-u "from ...?") ab "away" apó "from" ápa "away" Av apa, OPers apa "away" OCS ot, "from, apart of" Lith apa?ià "bottom" < *apoty? prapë "back" < *per-apë ?pa "behind, back" (or ? < *epi)
*de?s- "the right (side)" Gothic taihswa "right side" dexter dexiós; Myc de-ki-si-wo dák?ina "right, south" Av da?ina "right, south"; MPer da?n "right hand, right side" OCS desn? "right (side)" Lith dinas Gaul Dexsiva (Dexsiua)
*mar?-, *mer?-
"edge; boundary, border"
(< OE mearc);
(< OF mark?n)
marg? (marginis)
"border, edge" > margin
"limit, mark, boundary";
"way, road, path"
*b?ud?m?n "bottom"[229] butt (< OE bytt);
bottom, botham (< OE bodan, botm)
fundus "bottom, ground, foundation; farm, estate" puthm?n "bottom (cup, jar, sea)" budhná "bottom, ground, base, depth" Gaul bona "base, bottom, village"
(found in several placenames: Bonna > Bonn;
Windo-bona "white village" > Vienna;
Bononia > Boulogne(-sur-Mer))[230]

Basic adjectives

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*b?er- "great, tall; hill, elevation"[231] baurgs, OHG burg "fortress, citadel";
OHG Burgunt (a female personal name)[232]
b?hát, b?hánt- "tall, elevated"[232];
bráhman "lit. growth, expansion, development
> outpouring of the heart
> prayer, sacred word, mantra"; brahmán "worshiper"[233][234]
Av bar?zah- "height", Har? B?r?zait? "a mythical mountain" (litt. "High Watchpost") MIr brí, MW bre, MBre bre, Gaul -briga "elevation, hill"; Gaul Brigantes (ethnonym); Celt Brigantia (name of a goddess),[232] Ir Brigid (goddess) < PCelt *Brigant? "The High One" barjr "high" A pärk- "to elevate"; B pärkare "long" parku? "tall"
*weh?-, *weh?ros
OE w?r "true" Ger wahr
Dut waar
"true" (> very,[bi] verify, verity, etc.)
OCS v?ra "faith, belief"
*med?yo- "mid, middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) midjis "middle" medius "middle" més(s)os "middle" mád?ya- "middle" Av mai?ya- "middle" OCS me?du "between", Russ. me?a "boundary" OPrus meddin "forest" (between villages), Lith medis, Latv me?s "tree" OIr mid- "middle" < *med?u-; MW mei- "middle" < *med?yo- m "middle" mes, mjet "in between, middle"
*me?- "big" much (< OE myc?el "big, many") mikils "big" magnus "big" mégas "big" máha-, mahnt- "big" Av mazant- "big" OPrus mazs "smaller", Lith ma?as "small" OIr mochtae, MIr mag-, maige "big" mec "big" madh "big" A mak, B mak? "much" mekkis "big"
*dlong?os, *dl?h?g?ós "long";[238] long (< OE long, lang);
tulgus "holding long; firm, steadfast";
longus "long" dolikhós "long, protracted";
d?rghá- "long" OCS dl?g? "long";
*g?erH?- "heavy" kaúrus "heavy" gr?vis "heavy" barús "heavy" gurú- "heavy" Av gouru- "heavy-", NPers gir?n "heavy" < *gr?na- (influenced by *fr?na "full") OCS gromada "big size, huge", gruz "a load, something heavy", OPrus garrin "tree", Lith geras "good" MIr bair "heavy (?)", W bryw "strong" zor "brute force; great effort" A kra-marts "heavy (?)", B kr?-mär "burden" < *g?roH?-mVr-
*H?le(n)g-, *H?ln?g-ro-, *H?ln?g-u-[bj] "light (in weight)" light (< OE l?oht) leihts "light" < *H?leng-tos; OHG lungar "fast" < *H?ln?g-ros levis "light" < *H?leg-us elakús "small" < *H?ln?g-us, elap?rós "light, quick" < *H?ln?g-ros lag?ú-, rag?ú- "quick, light, small" Av ragu-, fem. r?v? "fast", superl. r?nji?ta- "fastest" OCS l?g?k? "light" OPrus langus "light", langsta "window", lankewingis "flexible", linktwei "to bend", Lith lengvas "light", lankstus "flexible", langas "window", lenkti "to bend" OIr laigiu, laugu, MW llei "smaller" lehtë "light-weight" B lankutse "light"
*H?reud?-, *H?roud?-os, *H?rud?-rós[bj] "red" red (< OE r?ad < *H?roud?-os) rauþs (raudis) "red" < *H?roud?-os ruber "red" < *H?rud?-rós; Umb rufru "red" Myc e-ru-ta-ra, e-ru-to-ro;[239] erut?rós "red" < *H?rud?-rós; Erytheia "name of a nymph" (litt. "the red one"); rud?irá- "red" < *H?rud?-rós mixed with *H?rud?-i-; r?hita- "red"; l?há- "reddish" < *H?roud?-os Av raoi?ita- "red" OCS rud? "red"; Czech rudá "red";[bk] Pol rudy "red-haired"[241] Lith ra?donas "red", rudas "brown" OIr rúad, W rhudd "red", rhwd "rust";[242] Gaul Roud- (in personal names)[243] A rtär, B ratre "red" < *H?rud?-rós
*g?el-, elH?- "green, yellow"[244] gold; yellow (< OE geolu); yolk (< OE ?eoloca) gulþ "gold" helvus "honey-yellow"; gilvus "pale yellow (of horses)"[245][bl] k?l?rós "pale green"[bm] Skt híra?ya- "gold"; hári- "yellow" Av zaranyam "gold"; zári "yellow" OCS zelen? "green"; Rus zóloto "gold"; Latv zèlts "gold"; Lith geltas "yellow"; ?el?vas "golden"; ?alias "green" MWel gell "yellow"
*h?er?- "shining, bright"

*h?rn?tóm "white metal (silver)"[249]

argentum "silver (metal)"; Fal arcentelom "a small silver coin" Myc a-ku-ro,[250] árguros "silver"; argós "white, bright"[bn] Skt rajatá- "silver; silver-coloured"; árjuna- "white, clear, silvery" [252] Av ?r?zat?m "silver" Celtib arkato[bezom] "silver [mine]"; Ir Airget[lám] "silver[-hand] (title of Nuada)"; OIr argat, OW argant "silver" arcat' "silver" A ?rkyant "silver"; A ?rki-, B ?rkwi "white" ?arki? "white, bright"
*alyos, *anyos "other"; *anteros "second" else (< OE elles); other (< OE ?þer) aljis, anþar "other" alius "other" állos "other" anyá-, ántara- "other" Av anya-, ainya-, OPers aniya- "other"; Ossetian ändär "other"; East Iranian hal-ci "whoever" Old Sorbian wutory "other" < PSlav *?tor? OPrus antars "second", Lith antras "second" OIr aile, W ail "other";
Gaul allos "other, second"[253]
ayl "other" A ?lya-k?, B alye-k? "another" Lydian a?a- "other"
*néwo- "new" new (< OE n?we) niujis "new" novus "new" né(w)os "new" náva- "new" Av nava- "new" OCS nov? "new" OPrus nawas "new", Lith naujas "new" OIr n?ë, W newydd "new" nor "new" < *nowero- A ñu, B ñune "new" newa- "new"
*H?yuHn?- "young" young (< OE ?eong < *H?yuHn?k?ós) juggs "young" juvenis "young" yúvan- (ynas) "young" Av yvan-, yavan- (y?n?) "youth, young man" OCS jun? "young" Lith Jaunas "young" OIr ?ac "young", W ieuanc "young" < *H?yuHn?k?ós
*sen- "old" sineigs "old (person)" senex "old" hénos "former, from a former period" sánas "old" Av hana- "old" OCS sedyi "grey-headed" OPrus sentwei "to get old", Lith senas "old" OIr sen "old", Old Welsh hen "old" hin "old"
*nog?- "naked" naked (< OE nacod "naked") naqaþs "naked" nudus "naked" gumnós "naked" nagnás "naked" NPers loxt "naked" OCS nag? "naked" OPrus nags "naked", Lith nuogas "naked" OIr nocht "naked"; W noeth "naked, bare" nekumant- "naked, bare"
*b?osós "bare, barefoot"[254] bare (< OE bær) OCS bos? "barefooted, unshod"
*n?mr?tós "immortal"[255] ámbrotos "immortal, divine" amta- "immortal"
*h?e?- "sharp"[256] edge (< OE e) ace? (ac?re) "I am sour";
acidus "sour";
ac?tum "vinegar";
acus "needle, pin";
astus "craft, guile", ast?tus "shrewd, astute"
akmé "point, edge"; oxús "sharp, pointed; quick; clever" Persian r "pickle, marinade" OCS ost?n? "sharp point"
*bel- "strong"[257] d?bilis[bo] "feeble, weak" ? "better" bála- "force, strength, power" Russ bolój "big, large, great"

Positive qualities

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
"good, excellent"
(Germanic names, e.g., Wisigoth-
"the Visigoths")
"excellent, good; beneficient; goods, property"
Av voh? "good" OCS vesel? "merry, joyful, happy" Gaul Vesu- (in personal names: Vesuavus, Segovesus, Bellovesus) Luw w?su- "good"; Pal wa?u "well"[262]
"good, well" (when used prefixally), e.g.,
"well-bearing" (> "euphoria");
"good grace";
"bringing good news"
"good" (used prefixally), e.g.,
"good morning" (See also bhs);
"inquiry as to welfare, lit. good question"
OCS s?- "good" (used prefixally), e.g., s?-st?n? "happy, lit. good part"; s?drav?je "health", Russ zdoróv'je;
s?r?sti "to meet, encounter"
"being, existing, real, true"
(See also *H?es-)
(< OE s?þ "truth");
(< OE s?þian "to prove the validity of, to confirm as true");
soothsayer (originally "truth-teller")
(< PGmc sanþaz + sagjan? "truth + say");
sin (implying "truly guilty")
(< OE synn);
OE s?þle "truly, really", later "amen"
"true, truthful, correct"
"guilty, criminal" (compare sin);
"innocent"; [bp]
"dangerous, serious, critical"
"being, essence, reality" (also used in compounds, e.g., sad·guru);
"essence, existence, spirit; creature";
"true,real, genuine; sincere, honest, valid";
"good, virtuous, faithful wife" (> suttee)

Construction, fabrication

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*h?éyos "copper, bronze"[118] ore (< OE ?r) aes "copper, bronze, brass; money, fee" áyas "metal, iron"
*d?wer- "door, doorway, gate" door (< OE dor, duru) daúr, daúr? "door" for?s (pl.) "door" t?ur? "door" dvr, dvras (pl.) "door" Av dvar?m (acc.) "gate, court"; OPers duvaray? "at the gate" NPers dar "door" OCS dv?ri "door" OPrus dwarris "gate, goal",dwars "estate", Lith durys "door", dvaras "estate", vartai "gate", Latg durovys "door", vuorti "gate" OIr dorus "door" < Proto-Celtic *dworestu-, W dôr "door" < *d?ureH? du?n "door" derë "door" B twere "doors" an-durza "within"
h?(e)nh?t- "doorpost"[269] antae "anteroom" t? "doorpost"
*domo-, *domu- "house", "home" timber (< OE timber "house, building material") timrjan "to build, erect" domus (dom?s) "house" dómos "house" dámas "house" Av d?m, d?mi "in the house"; d?mna-, nm?na- "house" < *dm-na- OCS dom? "house" OPrus dimstis "porch",

Lith dimstis "entryway"

MIr dom-liacc "house of stones" tun "house" dhomë "room" ?A tem-, B tam- "be born"
*g?erd?-, *g?ord?-os- "enclosure, fence" yard (< OE ?eard "enclosure"); garden (< AngNor gardin < Frank *gardo) gards "yard, court"; ON garðr "fence, enclosed space" hortus "garden" k?órtos "feeding place for animals" g?há "house" Av g?ra "daeva cave" OCS grad? "fortification; city" Latv gãrds; Lith gar?das "fold, pen" OIr gort "standing crop", W garth "cliff; enclosure" OArm gerdastan "the body of servants and captives; estate" (either a borrowing from Iranian or inherited) gardh "fence, enclosure, barricade"
*k?ek?lo- "wheel"
(See also *k?el-)
wheel (< OE hw?ol, hweogol < PGerm *hweg(w)ulaz < *k?ek?lós) ON hj?l, hv?l "wheel" < PGerm *hweh(w)ulaz < *k?ék?los kúklos "circle", (pl.) "wheels" cakrá- "wheel" Av ?axra- "wheel" OCS kolo "wheel" OPrus kellin "wheel", Lith kaklas "neck" W cylch "circle" A kukäl, B kokale "wagon" kugullas "donut"[270]
*Hrót-h?-os "wheel", "wagon" OHG Rad "wheel" rota "wheel", "wagon" rátha "chariot, car" Av ra?a "wagon", "chariot" Lith rãtai "wagon" (pl.), rãtas "wheel" (sg.) OIr roth "wheel", "circle" rreth "ring, hoop, tyre (for carriages)" (< *Hróth?ikos)
*néh?us "vessel, boat" OE n?wend "shipmaster, sailor" ON naust "boathouse"; OIc n?r "ship" n?vis "ship" naûs "ship";

Myc na-u-do-mo "shipbuilders"[271]

naú, n?va "ship" Pers nâv "boat, ship" (archaic) OIr , nau "boat" OArm naw "ship, boat"
*h?wh?neh? "wool" wool (< OE wull) wulla "wool" l?na "wool" lênos "wool, fleece (pl.)", Dor lânos r "wool, woolen thread" Av var?n? "wool" OCS vl?na "wool", OESlav v?lna "wool" Latv vil?na, Lith vìlna "wool", OPrus wilna "skirt (made of wool)" OIr olann, MBret gloan, glan, OW gulan "wool" OArm ge?mn "fleece, wool" ?ulana? "wool"
*s(y)uH- "to sew" sew (< OE s?owan) siujan "to sew" su? (suere) "to sew"; s?t?ra "thread, suture"[272] hum?n "sinew" svyati "(he) sews", sy?tá- "sewn"; stra- "thread, string"[273] OCS ?ij? (?iti) "to sew" OPrus ?utun "to sew", Lith si?ti "to sew", Latg ?yut "to sew" sum(m)anza(n), ?uel (?), ?uil (?) "thread"
*teks- "to fashion, construct" OE þeox "spear" OHG dehsa, dehsala "hatchet" tex? (texere) "to weave" tékt?n "carpenter", tíkt? "I give birth" tak?ati, t?i "(he) fashions" Av ta?aiti "(he) cuts out, manufactures"; OPers us-ta?an? "stairway" < "*construction"; MPers t?an "to do carpentry" OCS te (tesati) "to hew", OPrus tesatun "to hew", Lith ta?yti "to hew" OIr t?l "axe" < *t?kslo- takkeszi "puts together"
*web?- "to weave" weave (< OE wefan), web (<P.Gmc. *wabjan) OHG weban "to weave"; ON vefa hup?aín? "I weave" ub?nti "ties together"; na-v?bhi- "spider" (litt. "wool-weaver") Av ubda?na- "made of cloth"; NPers b?fad "(he) weaves" viti "weave" Lith vyti "to twist" W gwau "knit, weave" venj "I weave" < *web?ny? A wpantär (them. pres.),[274][275]

B w?p- "to weave"

w?pta- "wove"[276]
*wer?- "to work" work (< OE weorc, wyrc?an) waúrkjan "to work" urge? (urg?re) "to push, drive" (w)érgon "work", érd?, hrézd? "I work" < *wér?-yoH?, *wré?-yoH? varcas "activity" (? not in Pokorny) Av var?za- "work, activity", v?r?zyeiti "(he) works"; NPers varz, barz "field work, husbandry" vriti "to act, to do" OPrus wargs "bad, evil, malicious, vicious", wargtwei "to torment oneself, to suffer", Lith vargas "the state of going through bad/unlucky events" MW gwreith "deed" < *wre?-tu- gorc "work " rregj "to clean" A wärk-, B w?rk- "to shear"
*wes- "to clothe, wear clothes" wear (< OE werian) wasjan "to clothe" vestis "clothing" héstai "gets dressed" váste "(he) gets dressed" Av vaste, va?haiti "(he) gets dressed" veshch "thing, cloth", veshchi "cloth items" Serbian ve? "underwear" OPrus westi "corset", wesseli "wedding", Lith vestuv?s "wedding", vesti "to lead" W gwisg "clothing" z-genum "I put on (clothes)" < *wes-nu- vesh "dress"
veshje "clothing"
B wastsi, wästsi "clothing" wassezzi "(he) clothes"

Self-motion, rest

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H?es- "to be", *H?es-ti "is", *H?és-mi "am"
Cf. Indo-European copula
(See also *h?sónts)
is (< OE is), am ist "is" sum (esse) "I am (to be)"; est "it is" estí "is,"; Dorian Greek entí "(they) are" <- *H?s-enti ásti "is"; ásmi "am" Av asti "is"; Persian hast "is" OCS jest? "is" OPrus ast "is", ?st "almost", Lith esti "is" OIr is "is"; Old Welsh hint "(they) are" <- *H?s-enti em "I am" është "is" B ste "is" ?szi "is"
*b?uH?- "to become"
Cf. Indo-European copula
be (< OE b?on); OE b?an "to dwell" bauan "to dwell" fu? "I was" p?úomai "I become", ép "became" b?ávati "become, is", ábt "became, was" Av bavaiti, OPers bavatiy "(he) becomes" OCS byti "to become, be" OPrus butwei "to be", Lith b?ti "to be" Gaul biiete "be! (imperative)";[277][bq]
OIr buith "being", W bod "to be"
busanim "sprout up" buj, bûj "I dwell, stay overnight" < *bunj?
*sed-, *si-zd- "to sit" sit (< OE sittan < *sed-yo-nom) sitan "to sit" sede? (sed?re) "to sit", s?d? "I sit down" < *si-zd-oH? hézdomai "I sit" < *sed-yo-, hizd? "I set" < *si-zd-oH? sátsi "(he) sits", aor. ásadat "sat"; sdati "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; Upani?ad lit. "sit-down-beside" < upa: 'by, beside', ni: 'down', sad: 'sit' Av ni-?a?hasti "(he) sits down", opt. hazdy?-t "(he) should sit", hi?aiti "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; OPers caus. niya-d-ayam "I set" OCS sd? (s?d?ti) "to sit" OPrus sistwei "to sit down", Lith sed?ti "to be sitting", s?stis "to sit down" OIr sa(i)did "sits"; Br hezañ "to stop" nstim "I sit" (< *ni-zdy?), hecanim (< *sed-s-an-y?) "I sit on, I ride" shëtis "to walk"
*leg?- "to lie down" lie (< OE lic?gan) ligan "to lie down" lectus "bed" lék?omai "I lie down" le?yati "(he) lies down" NPers ley "lie down" OCS le (le?ati) "to lie down" OPrus laztwei "to lie down" OIr laigid "lies down" lagje "city quarter" A läk- "to lie", B ly?alyñe "(act of) lying down" lagari "(he) lies down"
"to lie down; settle, bed, cozy, familiar"
home (< OE h?m "village, home" < *k?oi-mos);
hewe "domestic, servant"
(< OE h?wa "family member")
háims (háimáis) "village, town" < *k?oi-mis;
c?vis "city dweller, citizen" < *k?ei-wis =>
[note 55];
"cradle; nest";
(Roman goddess who protects infants in the cradle)
"I put in motion; act, move, stir; rouse" =>
[note 56]
"I lie (idle, sick, dead, etc.)";
"I go" (Homeric);
"I move, set in motion, remove; inflect (grammar); meddle; stir on" (> kinetic, cinema, etc.);
"bed, place of rest; lair; lodging";
"I put to bed, cause to rest"
t? (older ?áy?) "(he) lies", r? "they lie";
"dear, precious";
"favorable, happy, fortunate; auspicious" (later applied to the god Rudra, first as ?iva-rudra, then simply ?iva; also spelled Shiva)
Av sa?te "(he) lies", s?ire "they lie" OCS s?mija "family";
s?m? "household member"
OPrus seimi "family", kaims "village", Lith ?eima "family", kaimas "village";
sieva "wife"
OIr cóim, cóem, OW cum "dear" sirem "I love" < *k?eiro- kitta, kittari "lies"; Luwian ziyari "lies"
"to settle, live; cultivate"
"I let, permit, allow; set down";
"permitted, allowed; laid, set down; placed" =>
[note 57];
"I leave off, cease, desist" (> desinence);
p?n? < po + sin?
"I place, put, lay; set up" =>
[note 58]
"I found, build, establish; populate; produce";
"well-built, nice place";
"a founding, settling; creature";
"tame, docile, obidient";
"colony, foundation"
"(s/he) abides, stays, dwells; remains";
"abode, habitation, dwelling; the earth"
*steH?- "to stand (i.e. be standing)" stand (< OE standan) standan "to stand"; OHG st?n, st?n "to stand" st? (st?re) "to stand", sist? (sistere) "to cause to stand" Doric híst?mi "I stand" sth?- / tíhati "(he) stands" Av hi?taiti "(he) stands"; OPers impf. a-i?tata "(he) stood" OCS staj? (stati) "to stand up" OPrus stalitwei "to stand", Lith stov?ti "to stand" OIr tair-(?)issiur "I stand"; W sefyll "to stand" stanam "I build; gain" mbështet, pshtet "I support" B stäm- "to stand", ste "is", "stare" "(they) are" istanta- "to stay, delay"
*H?ei- "to go" yede (< OE ?ode "went") iddja "went" e? (?re) "to go" e?mi "I (will) go" éti "(he) goes", yánti "(they) go" Av a?iti "(he) goes", yeinti "(they) go"; OPers aitiy "goes" OCS jiditi "to move away, to arrive", jidene "coming" OPrus eitwei "to go", Lith eiti "to walk" W wyf "I am"; OIr ethaid "goes" < *it-?t- i?anem (aorist ) "I climb down" < *i-gh- iki "to leave; flee" *H?(e)i-K- A y? "he went", B yatsi "to go" < *y?- ?t "go!"
*g?em- "to come"[288] come (< OE cuman) qiman "to come"; OSax cuman [an liudi] "to come (to people) [to be born]" veni? (ven?re) "to come"[br] baín? "I go" gámati "(he) goes", aor. ágan, gan "(he) went" Av ?amaiti "goes"; OAv inj. uz-n "(he) goes", pl. g?m?n "they go" OPrus gimtwei "to be born", Lith gimti "to be born", Latv dzimt "to bear (a son)" ekn (< *h?e-g?em-t) "(he) came" A käm-, kum-, B käm-, kam-, ?em "to come" Luw zammantis "newborn child" (?)
"to move swiftly, to move upright, to rise (as if to fight)"[289][290]
iube? "I authorize, legitimate; bid, command, order";
iussus "order, command, decree, ordinance"
euthús "straight, direct";
eîthar "at once, immediately, forthwith";
husmn? "battle, conflict, combat"
"to fight, battle; wage war";
"to engage in battle; to overcome in war, to be a match for; to lead to war, to cause to fight";
"battle, fight, war";
"fighter, warrior, soldier";
"hero, warrior"
OCS oimin? "warrior";
Pol judzi? "to incite, instigate"
"to spread out; fly (spread wings)"
(See also *péth?r?)
(< OE fæþm)
"I ask, beg, request; aim; attack, thrust at";
"I am open; accessible, attainable; increase, extend" (> patent);
"I spread, open out, extend; unfold, expand" (> expand);
passus < *pat-s-tus
"spread out; step, pace" (> pass);
"attack, assault; rapid motion";
"impudent, wanton; petulant" > petulant;
"broad flat dish, saucer";
"favorable, well-disposed" (> propitious)
"I fly; rush, dart; make haste";
"I fall, throw self down";
"I spread out, open";
"fall; misfortune, calamity; ruin" (>
"falling; (grammar) case, inflection";
"capable of inflexion";
pétalon "leaf (plant, flower or tree)" >
"(s/he) flies; descends, falls";
"(s/he) causes to fly, throws; causes to fall; pours, spills"
"to walk, step; stumble, fall"
(See also *p?ds)
(< OE feter);
OE fæt "step; stride; pace, gait
"I hinder, impede, obstruct" (>
"I unfetter; remove impediments; prepare" (> expedite);
pecco < *ped-co
"I sin, transgress; offend" =>
[note 59];
"fetter, shackle; snare";
pessum < *ped·tum
"to the lowest part; to the bottom; in ruin";
"worst, lowest" (>
"worse" (>
"town" (step > ground > town)
"ground, earth";
"open country, plain, field; female genitals";
"oar blade, oar";
"steering paddle";
pezós < *peós
"on foot, walking; on land, infantry";
"base" =>
[note 60]
"(s/he) moves, goes; falls";
"(s/he) causes to fall, drops";
"step, stride, pace; footstep, vestige; plot of ground; a fourth"
padati, pasti
"to fall";
"on foot, pedestrian";
"fall; downfall, disaster";
"ground, floor"
*sek?- "to follow" OE sec?g "follower, companion, man" ON seggr "hero" sequor (sequ?) "to follow" =>
[note 61]
hépomai "I follow" sácate "(he) follows" Av ha?ait?, ha?aiti "(he) follows" ?agati "to walk, stride, step";
Russ ?ag "step"
OPrus sektwei "to shallow [To breathe lightly]", Lith sekti "to follow" OIr sechithir "follows"
"to go, climb, march"
(< OE ster);
(< OE st?gan);
(< OE sti?el, stigol)
Ger steigen "to ascend, climb, rise" vest?g?
"I follow a track, search" (>
"footprint, track; trace, mark; sole of foot" (> "vestige")
"a row (of soldiers); a line of poetry" > Russ stix "verse, a line of poetry; poem (plu)";
"row, course, file";
"one of a row, one of a series; element" > stoichio- (> stoichiometry, etc);
"pillar of brick; target"
"(s/he) steps, steps up, mounts"
OCS stign?ti "to attain; reach";
"to turn, rotate"
(< OE -weard "facing, turned toward");
worth (obsolete meaning "to become", compare German werden)
(< OE weorþ);
(< OE wyrd, wurd "fate, destiny");
OE weorþung "an evaluation, appreciation"
Ger werden
"to become, to get; to turn; to be, happen";
"sausage, wurst" (< PGmc "something twisted")
"I turn, revolve; turn around, reverse, retreat" =>
[note 62];
vertex, vortex "whirlpool";
vert?g? "giddiness";
pr?sus, prorsus < proversus
"forwards, towards" > prose;[bs]
re- < PIE *wret-, metathesis of *wert-
"re-" (> re- (again, repetition, etc))
"(it) turns, rotates; moves, advances; occurs";
"a turning; conduct, behavior, intercourse";
"(it) turns" (transitive, causative);
"track; way, course, path"
OCS vr?t?ti "to turn";
"to return";
"gate, door";
"turn, rotor, wheel";
vr?m? < *vertmen "hour; time" (Compare Skt vártman)
*b?eg?- "to run, flee"[303] phobé? "I put to flight, terrify, alarm; threaten"; phóbos "fear, terror; fright, panic; flight, retreat" bh?jáyati "(s/he) causes to flee" OCS b?gati, bati "to flee, run, escape";
*b?ewg- "to flee"[304] fugi? "I flee"; fuga "flight, escape" pheúg? "I flee"; phug? "flight, escape"

Object motion

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*b?er- "to carry" bear (< OE beran);
burden, burthen (< OE byrþen)
baíran "to carry" fer? (ferre) "to carry"; lucifer "light-bearing, light-bringing" p?er? "I carry"; khristóphoros "Christ-bearing" b?arati "(he) carries" Av baraiti "(he) carries"; OPers barantiy "they carry" NPers bordan "to carry" Kurdish birin "to carry, to take" OCS ber? (b?rati) "to carry" Lith berti "to pour non liquid" OIr biru "I carry"; W beru "to flow" berem "I carry" bie "I carry"
*we- "to convey" weigh (< OE wegan "carry"); way (< OE we?); wain "wagon" (< OE wæ?n)[bt] ga-wigan "to move, shake" veh? (vehere) "to convey" Pamphylian wek?ét? "he should bring"; Cypriot éwekse "brought there" váhati "(he) drives"; vahana- (< vah) "divine mount or vehicle of Hindu deities" (lit. "a carrying") Av vazaiti "(he) leads, carries" OCS vez? (vesti) "to drive" OPrus weztun "to ride", Lith ve?ti "to drive" OIr f?n, W gwain (type of wagon) < *we-no-; W arwain "to lead" vjedh "I steal" Hier Luw wa-zi/a- "drive"
*yew-, *yewg-
"to join, yoke, tie together"
(See also yugóm)
ON eykr
draft animal;
ON eyki
vehicle, cart
"I yoke, join" =>
[note 63];
"nearly; near, close to";
coniunx, coniux
"spouse, partner (husband or wife)"
"I yoke, saddle; join, link together";
"band, bond, that which is used for joining; bridge of boats";
"pair, two things, persons or animals seen as a pair"
"(s/he) yokes, harnesses, joins";
"yoking, act of joining; yoke, team, vehicle; employment, use, performance; remedy, cure; means, device, way, manner, method; trick, fraud; undertaking; connection, relation; fitness, suitability; application, concentration, union, yoga";[307]
"fastening or tying instrument; rope, thong, halter";
"pair, couple; Gemini (zodiac sign); junction, confluence";
"union, alliance";
"a vehicle, chariot; draft animal";
yuj (root noun)
"a yoke-fellow, companion, associate; pair, couple; the A?vins"
*H?e?- "to lead, drive" ON aka "to drive" ag? (agere) "to drive, do" ág? "I lead" ájati "(he) drives" Av azaiti "(he) drives" Kurdish ajotin "to drive" ehati "to drive" OIr ad-aig "compels"; OW agit, hegit "goes" acem "I lead" A ak-, B ?k- "go, lead"
*h?e?s- "axis, axle" < *H?e?-[118][308] OE eax axis "axle" ák?a- "axle" Russian os? "axis, axle"
*d?eH?-, d?H- "to place, put" do (< OE d?n) deds "deed" faci? (facere) "to do" < *d?H-k-yoH?; con-ditus "built" (orig. "put together"), ab-ditus "removed" (orig. "put away") < Proto-Italic *-?atos < *d?H-tos títmi "I put" < *d?í-d?eH?-mi dádti "(he) puts" < *d?é-d?eH?-ti Av daiti "(he) puts"; OPers impf. adad? "(he) established" OCS d?ti "to lay" OPrus ditun "to put", Lith d?ti "to put" Gaulish dede "he put (pt.)"; W dodi "to place, to put";OIr -tarti "he gives" < Proto-Celtic *to-ro-ad-d?t < *-d?eH?-t dnel "to put"; ed "he put (past)" dhatë "place, location" < *d?H-teH? A t?-, täs-, tas-, B tes- "to lay" < *d?eH?-s- d?i "puts"
"to put, place, locate; be set, firm"
(< OE steall);
stell (non-standard) "to place, set up"
(< OE stellan)
Ger stellen
"to put, place, position"
locus < *stlocus
"place, spot, location" =>
[note 64];
stultus, stolidus
"foolish, stupid";
"shoot, branch" >
stolon (botany);
stolus < AG stólos
"navigation; fleet equipment"
"I send; make ready, prepare; summon";
"expedition; army, fleet";
"one sent forth; messenger, envoy" >
epistol? < epistéll?
"message, letter; commission; will" =>
[note 65];
"block of stone, buttress; boundary post" >
stele, stela
"place, ground, location"
OCS st?lati "to spread"
*deH?-, d?H- "to give" d? (dare) "to give";
dator "giver, donor";
d?num "gift"
díd?mi "I give" dád?ti "(he) gives";
d?t? "giver, donor";
d?nam "gift, giving"
Av dad?iti "(he) gives"; OPers impv. dad?tuv "let him give" NPers dãdan "to give" OCS dam? "I will give" OPrus datun "to give", Lith duoti "to give" OIr d?n, W dawn "gift" tam "I give" dhashë "I gave" < *dH-sm? d?i "takes"
*kap- "to grab"[312][313] have (< OE habban), heave (< OE hebban);
haban "to have", hafjan "to lift" capi? (capere) "to take" kápt? "I snatch, swallow";
"cup" > Lat caucus
kapa "two handfuls" NPers ?asp?dan, ?aps?dan, cafs?dan "to grasp, seize" Ukrainian khapaty "to grab" OPrus kaps "grave", Lith kapas "grave", kapt "expression to indicate grabbing. OIr cacht "female slave", W caeth "slave, captive" < *kap-tos "taken" kap "I grasp, grab", kam "I have"
*g?ab?- "to seize, take" give (< OE ?iefan) giban "to give" habe? (hab?re) "to have" gáb?astis "forearm, hand" OPers grab "to seize"; Kurdish girtin "to take, to seize Russ. xvatát? "to snatch, suffice" OPrus gabtun "to catch", Lith gauti " to get" OIr gaibid "takes"; W gafael "to take hold, to grip"
*gen- "to strike, kill" bane (< OE bana "murderer") banja "blow, wound, ulcer" d?-fend? (d?fendere) "to ward off, defend", of-fend? (offendere) "to bump, offend" t?eín? "I kill" < *gen-yoH?, épep?non "I killed" < redup. + *gn-om hánti "(he) strikes, kills" < *gen-ti, g?nánti "they strike, kill"; v?tra·han "V?tra-killer, a name of Indra" Av ?ainti "(he) strikes, kills", ni-?ne (mid.) "I strike down"; OPers impf. ajanam "I struck down" OCS ?en? (g?nati) "drive (animals to pasture)", nj? (ti) "reap" OPrus gintun "to defend", Lith ginti " to defend", ganyti "to drive animals to pasture" OIr gonim "I wound, kill"; W gwanu "to stab" ?nem "I strike" < *gen-oH?, ?n?em "I destroy" < *gen-yoH? gjanj "I hunt" < *gen-yoH? B käsk- "to scatter to destruction" < *gn?-sk- ku?nzi "kills" < *gen-ti
*b?eyd- "to split, cleave"[314] bit (< OE bite);bite (< OE bitan); bait (< ON beita) 'find? "I split";
fissus < fid·tus "split";
fissi? "splitting, fission"
bhid-, bhinátti "(s/he) splits, breaks";
bhedati "(s/he) splits"; bhinná < bhid·ná "split, cloven"
*der- "to tear, crack; split, separate"[315] tear (< OE teran);
turd (< OE tord)
*taurþs "destruction, a teardown" dér? "to skin, flay";
dérma "skin, hide"
d?ti "(s/he) tears, rends, rips; splits open, bursts" OCS d?rati "to tear, flay"
*b?reg- "to break"[316] break (< OE brecan);
breech, breeches (< OE br)
frango "I break, shatter";
fr?ctus "broken";
fragilis "breakable"
"to cut off, sever"[317][318][bu]
saw (tool) (< OE sagu);
sax "slate hammer" (< OE seax);
seax (directly borrowed from OE seax);
zax (< OE seax)
sec?, sectum "I cut, cut off; cleave; castrate; wound; hurt" =>
[note 66];
segmen, segmentum "piece; a cutting, cut; slice; segment";
signum "sign, mark, signal; seal, signet; emblem, etc";
sexus "division; sex; gender";
saxum "stone, rock"
> Saxon
OCS sti "to cut, to mow"
Pol sieka? "to cut"
"to cut"[319][320]
(See also: *sek-)
(< OE scieran);
(< OE s?earu);
shard, sherd
(< OE s?eard );
(< OE s?r?ad);
(< ON skrapa);
(< ON skrapa);
(< OE s?ort);
< PGmc *skirmiz
"fur, hide"
> Yid shirem "umbrella";
Italian schermo "screen";
Russ ?írma
"screen, shield";
(< OE s?yrte);
(< ON skyrta);
(< PGmc *skardaz
"gap, cut");
(< OE scoru)
"short; broken";
"skin, hide, leather";
car?, carnis "flesh, meat, pulp" =>
[note 67];
"dinner, supper ('portion')";
cortex "bark of a tree, cork"
> cork;
"a skin, hide; harlot";
scrautum "a quiver made of hide";
scr?ta "rubbish, broken trash" > Lat scr?tor
"I search, examine thoroughly" =>
[note 68];
"a rough sharp stone; anxiety, uneasiness";
"a small sharp or pointed stone; anxiety, uneasiness, doubt" =>
[note 69]
keír? "I shear, shave, cut hair; ravage; destroy; cut short, lessen";
kormós "trunk of a tree; log of timber";
kérma "fragment; coin; cash"
kartati, kátti, k?ntáte "(s/he) cuts";
"skin; hide, pelt";
k?tí "knife, dagger"
OCS skora "bast, skin";
kora "bark";
OCS xrabr? "brave"
"to split, dissect, divide"[321][322]
(See also: *sek-, *(s)ker-)
(< OE sadan);
sheath, sheathe
(< OE saþ);
"a piece of wood, firewood" (< OE sd);
shite, shit
(< OE stan)
sci? "I can, know, understand, have knowledge" > science;
scind?, scissus "I cut, tear, rend; tear off; destroy"
skhíz? "I split, cleave" > schizophrenia;
skhísma "split, divided; division" > schism;
skhísis "cleaving, parting, division; vulva"
chítti "split, division";
?chid-, chinatti "(s/he) splits, cuts off, divides"[323]
OCS c?diti "to strain, filter";
?istiti "to clean, purify";
?tedr? "generous";
?tit? "shield"
*h?er- "to move, to stir; to rise, spring; quarrel, fight"[324][325] orior "I rise, get up";
ori?ns "rising" > orient;
origo "act, event or process of coming into existence; source" > origin
órn?mi "I set upon, awaken, raise, excite, stir up";
oûros "fair wind";
éris "strife, quarrel; rivalry"
oti "to attack, rise";
?tí "quarrel, strife; attack"
OCS rat? "war, battle"
*h?reyH- "to move, set in motion; flow, stream (of water); pour, rain; churn"[324][325] ride (< OE r?dan);
raid (< OE r?d);
run (< OE iernan);
-rith "small stream (found in surnames and placenames)"(< OE r?þ)
r?vus "stream" > rival (lit. "using the same stream as another"), derive;
irr?to "to irritate"
riti "to make flow, release";
r?tí "motion, course; current; custom, rite";
rétas "flow, gush, current, stream; seed, sperm"
OCS rin?ti "to push, shove" Gau r?da "chariot";
Gau r?nos "river, waterway" > Lat Rh?nus > Rhine
"to let go, send, release"
(< OE ?solcen < ?seolcan "to be slow; weak, slothful")
"(it) lets go, discharges, emits";
"causes to let loose, creates";
"let go, discharged, abandoned";
"letting go, emission; production, procreation; creation, creation of the world";
"pouring, rush";
"arrow, spear"
*k?el-, k?elh?-
"to turn"
(See also *k?ek?lo-)
halse "neck, throat"
(< OE heals)
"I till, cultivate (land); inhabit";
"tilled, cultivated" =>
[note 70];
"farmer; colonist, inhabitant";
"inhabitant; tiller, cultivator; worshipper";
"colony, settlement; possession" =>
[note 71];
"distaff; spun thread";
"neck , throat (one that turns)" =>
[note 72];
"sojourner, tenant, lodger"[bv]
"in motion, go; become";
"pivot, hinge; axis, pole star" > pole;
"back, backwards; again, once more" =>
[note 73];
"completion, maturity; fulfilment; result, product" > teleology, etc.;
"excellent perfection";
"bring about, complete, fulfill; perform, accomplish";
"far off, far away" =>
[note 74];
"long ago";
"old, aged; ancient" > paleolithic, etc.
"it moves, walks, stirs; travels";
cara?a-, calana-
"motion; action; behavior, conduct"
OCS kolog? "Yule (lit. turn)";
"circulation, whirlpool; wheel and axle";
Bul kolovóz
"rut, wheel track";
"a type of (round) bread"
*welH-, *wel-
"to turn, to wind, roll"
(< OE wielwan);
well (up) (gush)
(< OE wellan, willan);
well (water source, where the water 'wells up')
(< OE wielle);
wall (to boil, spring)
(< OE weallan);
wall (rampart)
(< Lat vallum "wall, rampart");
(< OE wealcan);
(< OE walu "ridge, bank")
"to roll";
Ger Walz (< walzen "to dance")
"the waltz";
"I roll, tumble" =>
[note 75]
"roll, scroll, book; turn; fold" > volume;
"valley; hollow" =>
[note 76];
"wall, rampart";
"space between walls" > interval;
"a worm, caterpillar";
"knock-kneed, unstraight";
"folding door" > valve;
"I wrap, enfold; crawl";
"anything twisted" =>
[note 77];
"round, smooth stone; cylindrical bow, dial"
valati, valate
"(it) turns, turns to; moves to; covers";
"cover, envelope; womb, vulva";
OCS vl?na "wave";
"undulation, swell; turmoil, agitation";
Russ valít?
"to knock down, kill; cut, fell";
"roller, billow; rampart; shaft"
Lith vilnìs "wave"
*weyp- or *weyb-
"to shake, tremble, agitate; sway, swing; turn, wind"
(< OE w?pian);
(< OE wippen);
weave ("to wander")
(< ON veifa "wave, flag");
OE wifer "arrow, missile; sword";
(< OE swifan + el);
waive < waif ("ownerless, homeless")
(< ON veif)[bw];
(< OF wimpil "head scarf");
(< AF wimble "drill")>
"to wind around, wrap";
"to bind, muzzle"
"I shake, agitate; tremble; glimmer" > veer, vibrate, etc.
vip-, vépate
"it trembles, shakes, shivers, vibrates, quivers";
"excited, stirred; inspired"
Lith vi?pti "to make a face, gape";
"to grimace, bend";
"to swing, turn around"
*leik?-, *li-ne-k?- "to leave behind" OE l?on "to lend" lei?an "to lend" linqu? (linquere) "to leave behind" leíp?, limpán? "I leave behind" ri?ákti "(he) leaves behind", 3rd. pl. riñcanti "they leave behind" Av -irinaxti "(he) frees"; NPers r?xtan "to pour out" OBulg ot?-l?k? "something left over", li?iti "to rob" < *leik?-s-, Ukr lyshyty "to leave behind"[343] OPrus palaistun "to leave behind", Lith likti "to stay" OIr l?icid "(he) leaves behind, releases" lk?anem "I leave behind" Alb Lej leave
"to dig, till (soil)";
"to dig, to root"[344][345]
(See also *Hrew-, *Hrewp-)
rock (as in 'to move, sway') (< OE roccian);
rag (< ON r?ggr)
runc? "I weed, clear of weeds, weed out";
ru? "I dig out";
rutrum "shovel"
luñcati "(s/he) plucks, pulls out, tears off; peels" OCS ryti "to dig";
OCS rylo "spade, snouts"
"to break, tear up"[344][345]
(See also *Hrew-, *Hrewk-)
reave, reeve, reve, bereave (< OE (be)r?ofan) rump? "I break, burst, tear, rend; split" > rout, ruption, abrupt, etc rópa- "disturbing, confusing; fissure";
lopa- "breaking, injury, destruction"
*h?reh?- "to row"[118][346] rudder (< OE r?þor) r?mus "oar" erét?s "(in the plural) oars" áritra- "propelling, driving"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dyés "yesterday" yesterday (< OE ?eostra) gistra- "tomorrow (?)" heri "yesterday" k?t?és "yesterday" hyás "yesterday" < *g?yés Av zy?, Old Persian diya(ka) "yesterday" OIr in-d?, W ddoe "yesterday" dje "yesterday"
*nok?ts (nek?ts) "night" night (< OE neaht, niht < *nok?tis) nahts (nahts) "night" < *nok?ts nox (noctis) "night" núks (núktos) "night" nák (instr. pl. nákt?s) "night" Proto-Iranian *náxts, Kurdish nixte "rainy, cloudy (lack of sunlight)" OCS no?t? "night" OPrus nakts "night", Lith naktis "night" OIr i-nnocht, OW henoid "on this night" natë "night" A n[a]ktim "nightly", B nekciye "in the evening" nekuz (gen. sg.) "of evening", nekuzzi "it becomes dark"
*wek(?)speros "evening" vesper "evening" hésperos "of the evening; western"[bx] OCS ve?er? "evening"; Rus Zorya Vechernyaya "deity of the evening star" Latv vakars, Lith vãkaras "evening"; Vakarine "goddess of the evening star" OIr ucher "evening" OArm gi?er "night; darkness"
*H?eus?s "dawn", *H?eus-tero- "east", *H?euso- "gold" eastern (< OE ?asterne) ON austr "east" aur?ra "dawn" (< *aus?sa, by rhot), aurum "gold" Doric s "dawn"; Aeolic aú?s, w?s "dawn" us (u?ásas), acc. usam "dawn" Av u (u?a?h?), acc. u?h?m "dawn" OCS (j)utro "morning" OPrus austra "dawn", auss "gold"; Lith au?ra "dawn", auksas "gold"; Latv ausma, ausmina "dawn" OIr f?ir "sunrise", W gwawr "dawn" < *w?sri- ?os-ki "gold" ?A wäs "gold"
"to arise, begin"
(< OE beginnan)
"to begin"
"new, fresh, young" > recent
"new, recent; fresh, unused; unusual" > Cenozoic
kany, kaníy?
"maiden, virgin; daughter";
"young, youthful"
OCS nati "to begin";
"beginning, end";
"young animal"
*yem-, eim- "winter" ON gói "winter month" hiems "winter" k?e?ma "winter" híma- "winter", hemantá- "in winter" Av zy (acc. zy?m, gen. zim?) "winter" OCS zima "winter" OPrus zeima "winter", Lith ?iema "winter" Gaul Giamonios "winter month";[by][351][352]

OIr gam "winter", gem-adaig "winter night"; OW gaem "winter"

jme? "winter", jiwn "snow" Gheg dimën, Tosk dimër(ë) "winter" ? A ?ärme "winter"; ? B ?impriye "winter".[bz] gimmanza "winter", gimi "in winter"
*semh?- "summer" summer (< Old English sumor) OHG sumar, OIc sumar "summer" sám? "season; year" Av ham- "summer"; Pers hâmin "summer"; Khot-Saka ham?ñarva "summer season" Gaul Samon(ios) "summer month";

OIr sam "summer"; OW ham, OBret ham "summer"

OArm am "year", ama?n "summer" A ?me "summer"; B ?m?ye "summer" (adj.), yw?r?-?mañe "midsummer"[355]
*wés-r?, wes-n-és "spring" ON vár "spring" v?r "spring" (w)éar "spring" vasan-tá- "spring" Av va?ri "in spring"; OPers ra-v?hara- OCS vesna "spring" OPrus wassara "spring", Lith vasara "summer", pavasaris "spring", v?su "cool" OIr errach "spring"< *ferrach < *wesr-?ko-; OW guiannuin "in spring" < *wes-n?t-eino- garun "spring"< *wesr-
*wet- "year", *per-ut- "last year" wether "castrated male sheep" (< OE weþer), OHG widar "male sheep", MHG vert "last year" <- *per-ut-, ON fjorð "last year" <- *per-ut- vetus (veteris) "old" (per?re) "to die" (w)étos "year", pérusi "last year" vatsá-, vatsará- "year", par-út "last year" Sogdian wt?nyy (read wat(u)?an?) "old" OCS vet?ch? "old" OLith v?tu?as "old" MIr feis, Cornish guis "sow" < *wet-si- heru "last year" < *peruti vit (pl. vjet) "year" witt- "year"
*h?et- "to go, year"[356] annus < atnus "year" átati "(it) goes, walks, wanders"; hyana- "yearly"
*yeH?r- "year" year (< OE ar) j?r "year" h?rnus "this year's" < *h?y?r- h?ra "time, year" < *yoH?r- Av y?r? "year" Russ. CH jara "spring" OLith Jór? "spring festival" W iâr "hen", MIr eir-?n "fowl"
*h?óyu "long time, lifetime" age (< Lat. aetat-) aevum aeternum, aeternitas "lifetime" ?yus "life, age" (as in the word ?yur·veda, "knowledge of (long) life") Gaul aiu- "eternity, longevity"[357]

Ideas and rituals

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ew- "to pour, libate, invoke"[255] god (< OE god < PIE. utós "invoked, libated") fund? "I pour" hotrá "libation"; hot? "priest, offerer of libations"; juhóti "to worship, sacrifice, present an oblation"; hóma "oblation, a Vedic ritual"
*h?ya?- "to sacrifice, worship"[255] ieient? "to eat breakfast" hágios "devoted to the gods, holy, pious" yájati "(s/he) worships"; yajña "worship, devotion, prayer"; yájus "religious reverence, worship, sacrifice";
*?réd·d?h?eti "to believe" < *?red- "heart" + *d?h?eti "place"[255]
(See also *k?erd-)
creed, credo < Lat cr?d? cr?d? "I believe, I trust in, I confide in" ?raddh "faith, trust, confidence, loyalty", ?rad-dadti "(he) trusts, believes" Av zrazd?- "to believe" < *srazd?[ca] Old Irish cretim, W credaf "I believe"
*h?weg- "to promise, vow; praise"[358][359] vove?, v?tum "I vow, promise; dedicate, devote; wish for" eúkhomai "I pray, vow, wish for; profess";
eûkhos "prayer, object of prayer; boast; vow"
óhate "(s/he) says";
ukthá "saying; sentence, verse; eulogy"
Av ux?a "word"
*?wen-, *?wen-tos "holy"[255][360] Av spta "holy"[361] OCS sv?t? "holy" Lith ?veñtas "holy"
sanci? "I render, appoint as sacred; devote, consecrate, dedicate";
s?nctus "sacred, made inviolable; venerable, blessed, saintly";
sacer "sacred, holy, dedicated, consecrated; devoted"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*g?ed?- "to unite, join, suit"[364] good (< OE g?d);
gather (< OE gaderian);
together (< OE togædere)
god? "suitable time, holiday, feast, right time, time, term, year"; [cb]
OCS godina "hour; time";
*b?ed- "to improve, make better"[365] better (< OE betera);
batten (< ON batna "to grow better, improve, recover");
boot[cc] (< OE b?t "help, relief, advantage, remedy")
bhadrá- "blessed, auspicious, fortunate, prosperous, happy; good, gracious, friendly, kind; excellent, fair, lovely, pleasant, dear"
*h?el- "to grow, nourish"[366] old (< OE eald, ald); alderman (< OE ealdorman) aljan "to cause to grow fat, fatten" *ole? (*ol?re) "I grow";
al? (alere) "I foster, I nourish; I raise";
alimentum "food, nourishment; obligation to one's parents";
alumnus "nourished, fostered";
alim?nia "food, nourishment";
altus "high, tall";
indol?s "innate, inborn; talent";
adolesc?ns "growing up";
adultus "grown-up, matured"
*h?erd?- "to increase, grow; upright, high"[367][368] arbor (< OLat arb?s < PIta *arð?s) "tree (high plant)";
arduus "lofty, high, steep, elevated; arduous"
orthós "straight, upright, erect; straight forward" ?rdhvá "rising, raised, erected; upright, high, above";
ddhi "growth, increase; prosperity; elevation"
*b?eh?g- "to divide, distribute, allot"[369] baksheesh (< Pers bax?idan "to give, grant, bestow") éphagon "I ate, devoured (took my share)" > -phagy, (o)esophagus bhak?á- "food, drink, delight"; bhájati "to distribute, divide, allot, chooe, serve"
"to share, divide"[370][371]
time (< OE t?ma);
tide (< OE t?d)
daíomai "I divide, share; host (a feast)";
dêmos "district, country, land; the common people; free citizens, sovereign people; deme";
daís "feast, banquet";
daitrós "one who carves and portions out meat at table";
daím?n "god, goddess; departed soul; demon"
d?tí "brightness, time";
dti, dyáti "(s/he) cuts, clips, mows, separates, divides";
d?trá- "allotted share"
"to sacrifice, lose"[370][371]
tap "hit lightly" (< OE tappen);
tip "touch quietly, bump quietly" (< OE tippen)
daps "a sacrificial or solemn feast, religious banquet; meal";
damnum < dapnum "damage, injury; (financial) loss; fine"
dápt? "I eat, devour; consume, corrode";
dapán? "cost, expenditure; extravagance"
d?payati "(s/he) divides"
"to split, divide"[372][373]
tell, teller (< OE tellen);
tale (< OE talu);
talk (< OE tealcian)
dol? "I hew, chop into shape; fashion, devise";
dole? "I hurt, suffer; I grieve for, lament";
dolor "pain, ache, hurt; anguish, grief, sorrow"
dalati "it bursts";
d?layati "(s/he) splits, cracks";
dala- "deal, portion, piece, half";
OCS del?ti, odol?ti "to overcome, defeat";
Russ dólja "share, fate"
"part, watershed"
deal (< OE d?l);
dole (< OE d?l)
OCS d?liti "to divide";
OCS d?l? "part"
*b?eh?- "to shine, glow"[374] fave? "I favor";
favor "id";
faustus "favorable, fortunate";
fautor "patron, protector, promoter"
phaín? "I shine, appear, bring to light" bhs "light"; bh?nú "light, ray, sun"
*b?ewg- "to enjoy, benefit"[375] fungor "I perform, execute, discharge; finish, complete, end" > fungible, defunct;
f?ncti? "performance, execution (of a task)" > function
bhuj-, bhunákti "(s/he) enjoys; consumes, eats, drinks; uses, utilizes"
*b?ruHg- "to make use of, have enjoyment of"[376] brook (< OE br?can) "(old meaning) to use, enjoy";
Ger brauchen "to need, require"
fruor "I enjoy, derive pleasure from";
fr?ctus "enjoyment, delight, satisfaction; produce, product, fruit; profit, yield, outcome" =>
[note 78];
fr?mentum "corn, grain";
fr?x, fr?g?s "fruits of the earth, produce" > frugal
*dey?- "to point out";[377] toe (< OE t?);
token (< OE t?cn);
teach (< OE tan)
d?c? "I say, utter; mention, talk";
digitus "finger, toe, digit"
dík? "custom, manner, fashion; law, order, right; judgement, justice";
"specimen, sample; pattern"
di?áti "(s/he) points out, shows;teaches, informs; orders, commands, bids";
de?á- "point, region, spot, part; province, country"
*h?ey?- "to own, obtain, come in possession of";
*h?eh?óy?e- "to possess, own"[378][379]
(< OE ?gen);
(< OE ?gan);
OE ?ga "owner";
ought, aught (< OE ?ht)
, e "(s/he) owns, possesses, is master of; rules";
á- "owning";
ná-, vara- "owner, master; ruler; epithets of the god ?iva"
"to hold, overpower"[380][381]
OE si?e "victory" < PGmc segaz (In personal names, e.g., Sigmund, Siegfried, etc.) sigis "victory";
sigislaun "prize, spoils"
sev?rus "severe, serious, strict, stern, stringent, austere, harsh, grave" ékh? "I have, possess; hold, am able" =>
[note 79];
ískh? "I hold back, restrain; stay; hold fast, maintain";
iskhs "strength, power, might";
héxis "possession, act of having; a certain state, condition" =>
[note 80];
skhêma "form, shape, figure; appearance, show; bearing, look, air; stateliness, dignity; fashion, manner; character, persona; state, nature; species, kind; dance; sketch, outline, plan, scheme" =>
[note 81];
okhurós "firm, lasting, stout";
skhol? "leisure, free time; rest; philosophy; place where lectures are given" =>
[note 82];
Hékt?r lit. "conqueror";
skhétlios "able to hold out, steadfast, unflinching"
sáhate "(s/he) overcomes, vanquishes, conquers, prevails; is able, capable; bears, endures";
sáhas "strength, power, force";
sh?[cd] "conqueror"
Gaul Sego- (in personal and tribal names) "victory"[382]
*h?erb?- "to change status, ownership";
*h?órb?os "servant, worker, slave; orphan"[383][384]
erf "heritage, inheritance" (< OE erfe); Ger arbeit "work" orbus "orphaned, parentless" orphanós "orphan; childless; bereft" árbha- "orphan; child; small" OCS rab? "servant, slave" (< *?rb?);[385]
Czech orbota "hard work, slavery" > robot;
Pol robi? "to make, to do"
*Hrew- "to tear out, dig out, open, acquire"[344][345]
(See also *Hrewp-, *Hrewk-)
rudis "rough, raw, uncultivated; unrefined, unskilled" =>
[note 83]
róman "hair, body hair" OCS runo "fleece"


  1. ^ maternal, maternity, matron, matrimony, matrix, matriculate, material, matter, madeira, alma mater, etc.
  2. ^ paternal, paternity, patron, patronize, pattern, patrimony, patriot, expatriate, patrician, perpetrate, compadre, etc.
  3. ^ fraternal, fraternity, fraternize, friar[b], confrere
  4. ^ human, , humanity, ad hominem, exhume, etc
  5. ^ virile, virtue, triumvir(ate), etc.[m]
  6. ^ regal, regalia, regicide, royal, etc.
  7. ^ corps, corpse, corporal, corporation, incorporate, etc.
  8. ^ cap, cape, chapeau, capital, chapter, capitulate, decapitate, per capita, kaput, etc.
  9. ^ language, lingo etc.
  10. ^ ocular, binoculars, etc.
  11. ^ core, cordial, record, accord, discord, concord, accordion, misericordia, courage, etc.
  12. ^ cruel, crude
  13. ^ tripod, podium, etc.
  14. ^ manual, manufacture, manuscript, manipulate, manifest, maintain, manage, manumission, emancipate, mandate, demand, commend, countermand, mandatory, masturbate etc.
  15. ^ grain, granary, granule, granite, pomegranate, etc.
  16. ^ agrarian, agriculture, pilgrim, peregrinate, etc.
  17. ^ promulgate, emulsion, etc.
  18. ^ molar (tooth)
  19. ^ immolate
  20. ^ maul, mallet, malleable
  21. ^ saline, salsa, sauce, salad, sausage (salchicha, saucisse), salami, salary
  22. ^ semen, seminar, seminary, seminal, disseminate, inseminate, season, sative, etc.
  23. ^ member, membrane
  24. ^ progeny, progenitor
  25. ^ nee [ar]
  26. ^ nascent
  27. ^ native, nativity, etc.
  28. ^ Spa Navidad "Christmas"
  29. ^ nature, natural, etc.
  30. ^ nation, national, etc.
  31. ^ Natalia, Natalie, Natasha, Noël, etc.
  32. ^ general, generic, generate, generous, congenital, degenerate, gender, genre, etc.
  33. ^ gent, gentle, gentleman, gentile, genteel, etc.
  34. ^ genitive, primogeniture, etc.
  35. ^ ingenuous, ingenu, ingenue
  36. ^ ingenious, engine, engineer, gin (instrument, as in cotton gin), etc.
  37. ^ germ, germinate, germane, etc., but not German
  38. ^ genitals, genitalia
  39. ^ genesis, genes, genetic, etc.
  40. ^ auction, etc.
  41. ^ author, etc.
  42. ^ augment, etc.
  43. ^ augury, inaugurate, etc.
  44. ^ August, etc.
  45. ^ auxiliary, etc.
  46. ^ memento
  47. ^ reminisce
  48. ^ memory
  49. ^ monster
  50. ^ mathematics
  51. ^ council, conciliate, etc.
  52. ^ clamor, claim, exclamation, etc.
  53. ^ clear, clarify, etc.
  54. ^ stylus, style (originally same meaning as stylus: a particular form of writing > style)
  55. ^ civic, city, citizen, etc.
  56. ^ cite, incite, excite, Incit?tus (Caligula's horse), resuscitate, solicit, etc.
  57. ^ site, situation, etc.
  58. ^ expose, exponent, depose, deponent, oppose, opponent, proponent, posit, position, positive, post, etc.
  59. ^
    impeccable, impeach
  60. ^ podium, pew
  61. ^ sequence, second, segue, etc.
  62. ^ vert-, verse, versus, version, invert, convert, inverse, reverse, controversy, anniversary etc.
  63. ^ join, joinder, joint, junction, juncture, conjugal, conjugate, conjunct, adjunct, injunction, rejoin, rejoinder, jostle, joust, adjust, etc.
  64. ^ local, locate, locality, locomotion, allocate, etc.
  65. ^ epistle, pistle, epistolary, etc.
  66. ^ sect (or possibly from Lat. sequi, "follow"), -sect, sectile, section, sector, dissect, insect, intersect, resect, transect, etc.
  67. ^ carnal, carnage, carnation, carnival, carrion, caruncle, carnivorous, charnel, charcuterie, incarnate, etc., Spa carne
  68. ^ scrutiny, scrutinize, inscrutable, etc.
  69. ^ scruple, scrupulous, etc.
  70. ^ cult, culture, cultivate, incult, etc.
  71. ^ colony, colonial, etc.
  72. ^ collar, accolade, decollate, etc
  73. ^ palindrome, palimpsest, palinode
  74. ^ telegraph, television, etc.
  75. ^ evolve, revolve, involve, involucrum, convolve, devolve, voluble etc.;
  76. ^ vale, valley
  77. ^ helix, helical, helicopter
  78. ^ fruit, fructose
  79. ^ eunuch (lit. bed-keeper)
  80. ^ hectic
  81. ^ scheme, schematic
  82. ^ school, scholar, scholastic
  83. ^ rude, rudimentary, erudite


  1. ^ Reflexes of the stem in daughter languages also refer to deified beings and deities within their respective mythologies/religions: Old English M?draniht ('Night of the Mothers'); Celtic and Germanic Matres and Matronae (Latin for 'Mothers and Matrons'); Latvian M?te ('Mother'); Gaulish Dea Matrona ('Divine Mother Goddess'); Sanskrit Matrikas ('Divine Mothers').
  2. ^ e.g., black friar
  3. ^ Phralipe, or Pralipe, "brotherhood", name of several Gypsy/Romany organizations, including a music band and a literary magazine.
  4. ^ k?oyr < *swes?r; k?e? < *swesros; k?or-k? < *swes?res.
  5. ^ Varias García (2017) pointed out that a tablet from Mycene uses "tu-ka-te", whereas tablets from Knossos, Pylos and Thebes use "ko-wa" (*korwa, later koré 'maiden, girl').[21]
  6. ^ Although this word is attested in Hittite, it is considered a loanword from Luwian. While scholarship recognizes the likelihood of its being the reflex of the root in Anatolian, its appearance in Hittite and Luwian would indicate a different meaning, however.[25][26]
  7. ^ The root could also be found in Anatolian languages with later attestation: Isaurian personal name Touatris; Pisidian name Dotari.[27]
  8. ^ Other interpretations are "son of the yew" or "son of the boar".[32]
  9. ^ The word is attested in Plate III of the Botorrita plaques. Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel interprets "-SUNOS" as the remnant of the root in the Celtic branch.[33][34]
  10. ^ This is the other possible attestation of the root in the Celtic branch.[35]
  11. ^ cf. divide
  12. ^ bridegome in Middle English, subsequently influenced by groom (archaically "servant, man").
  13. ^ But not virus
  14. ^ These reflexes are suggested by Belarusian scholar Siarhiej Sanko.[49]
  15. ^ See also Thr goni "woman".[50]
  16. ^ See also Phry knaiko, knaikan "woman".[51]
  17. ^ h?m- < *?m- (with h- after hum- "you (pl.)") < *asm- < *n?sm-.
  18. ^ a b OE ?ow (acc., dat.) and ?ow-ic? (acc., with the same -c? ending visible in 1st. sg. acc. m?c? "me", also modern German mich "me"), likewise Old High German iuwih "you (acc./dat. pl.)" (modern euch), appear to have the same origin as izw- in Gothic izwis "you (acc./dat. pl)", with unexplained loss of -z-. izwis appears to come from stem izw- plus originally genitive -is, where izw- comes ultimately from PIE *us-we with the loss of u- also visible in Avestan and Celtic, followed by the addition of a prothetic i-. (Ringe, 2006)
  19. ^ Cf. Latin ne-que, Gothic ni-h, Hittite ni-kku, Lydian ni-k "and not, nor".
  20. ^ All suggested etymologies of një "one" are highly speculative, at best. This etymology is one of two given by E. Hamp in Indo-European Numerals (Jadranka Gvozdanovi?, ed., 1992), pp. 903-904; the other is simply from PIE *eni- (or H?en-), a PIE deictic particle visible in Sanskrit anyá- "the other", OCS on? "that one", Lithuanian anàs "that one". Michiel de Vaan, in a review of Demiraj's Sistemi i numerimit, suggests PIE *H?en-io-no- > pre-Proto-Albanian *ë?án > Proto-Albanian *?â > një. M. Huld (Basic Albanian Etymologies, p. 101) attempts to derive një from PIE *sm-iH?, feminine of *sem "one" and reflected in Ancient Greek mía; this etymology is also tentatively suggested in Don Ringe et al. "IE and Computational Cladistics", p. 75 (Transactions of the Philological Society 100, 2002).
  21. ^ For example, qñnã-tba "twelve" (litt. "ten" plus "two").[60]
  22. ^ See also: Umb peturpursus "quadruped".
  23. ^ Cf. Thr ketri- "four".[63]
  24. ^ See also: Osc pomp- "five".[65]
  25. ^ See also Phry pinke "five".[66]
  26. ^ Built upon osm? "eighth" < *H?ok?t-mo-.
  27. ^ With nasalization after *sept "seven".
  28. ^ There is the possibility that Lycian sñta could mean either "ten" or "(one) hundred".[70][71]
  29. ^ But not kephal?!
  30. ^ Possible Anatolian reflex of the root, as posited by a recent publication.[94]
  31. ^ Only in *aí?atundi "bramble", literally "horse-tooth".
  32. ^ Expected form is *v?s, not *b?s; evidently this is a borrowing from Oscan or Umbrian.
  33. ^ bóu, báu are archaic genitives; later báo, bó.
  34. ^ Celtic river-goddess
  35. ^ In the latter case, a direct parallel to Skt. go·vinda- "cow-finder"
  36. ^ River in Ireland
  37. ^ whence Eng. pecunious, impecunious
  38. ^ Cf. also Phry ? or ? (ezi) "hedgehog".
  39. ^ In ancient Roman tradition, the Avernus was a lake where birds died as they flew near it.
  40. ^ See also Illyrian tribal name Enchele "eel-people".
  41. ^ The name migrated to Eastern Europe,[128] assumed the form "azhdaja" and the meaning "dragon", "dragoness"[129] or "water snake"[130] in Balkanic and Slavic languages.[131]
  42. ^ See also Ovinnik 'a spirit of the barn'.[158]
  43. ^ a b Lit. drinking implement
  44. ^ Via French né, née
  45. ^ Cf. Sanskrit janitár-, Greek genet?r, genét?r, Latin genitor "procreator".
  46. ^ Seen in many personal or tribal names: Biuitoni, Biuonia, Dago-bius, etc
  47. ^ This borrowing is found in almost every Slavic language and is said to be "without doubt the most famous Germanic loanword in Slavic" (Pronk-Tiethoff (2013))
  48. ^ all Slavic languages
  49. ^ Under the misguided influence of Greek stûlos "pillar"
  50. ^ Cf. Asteria (litt.) "starry one"; Astraeus "god of dusk" (litt. "starry"); Astraea "star-maiden"; Cretan king Asterion "starry".
  51. ^ acc. str?m, gen. st?r?, pl. nom. staras-?a, st?r?, acc. stru?, gen. strm, dat. st?r?by?.
  52. ^ T?w < *deiwos was the Germanic god of war, but originally was a sky-god and head of the gods, like Zeus.
  53. ^ *deiwos > Lat. deus; gen. *deiw? > Lat. d?v?. From each stem a full declension was formed.
  54. ^ According to linguist Vitaly Shevoroshkin, the noun exists in other Anatolian languages: Lycian ziw-; Lydian civ-; Luwian Tiwa-; Palaic Tija-.[204]
  55. ^ Other dialectal variants are Cretan awélios or ?bélios; Doric ?élios.
  56. ^ Seen in chamomile (from khamaim?lon "earth-apple") and chameleon (from khamailé?n "earth-lion").[205]
  57. ^ a b c d It is unclear how the original PIE forms produced the attested daughter-language forms. After the loss of laryngeals, original *péH?wr?, pH?unés would regularly produce *p?wr?, punés. It is possible that this form was considered too strange-looking, with the result that the u vowel was borrowed from the second stem into the first, yielding *púwr?, punés. This compressed to *p?r, punés, and this stem set, or its regularized version *p?r, purés, might form the basis of the Umbrian, Greek and Armenian forms. For Germanic, however, something else must be at work. Ringe (2006) suggests that the following sequence of events produced Gothic f?n: Collective péH?w?r -> pH?u?r (cf. Tocharian B puwar) > pu?r > Proto-Germanic fuw?r > fw?r > f?r -> f?n (using -n- from the oblique stem), where -> indicates a change due to analogy, while > indicates a regular sound change. His explanation of funins and fuïr is very tentative and complicated. Pokorny's suggestion for Germanic is rather different. He derives f?n from *fw?n, with no further derivation, but probably different from Ringe's. fuïr comes from *puweri, a locative that could be formed from a nominative *púwr? or possibly from a stem *pur-. It suffices to say that the processes involved are not well understood.
  58. ^ Cf. Thracian river name Struma and river-god Strymon; Illyrian toponyms Stravianae and Strevintia; Lith. (dial.) river name Straujà; Old Prussian place-names Strewe, Stromyke and Strowange.[220] Stravianae (or Stravijanu) is tentatively located by scholars near the modern day city of Na?ice, in east Croatia.[221]
  59. ^ The literal meaning is "place between the rivers".
  60. ^ Scholarly opinion seems to agree that the word must have referred to a large body of water.
  61. ^ Replaced OE s?r, compare Ger sehr
  62. ^ a b *H?le(n)g- and *H?reud?- are both roots that form Caland-type adjectives. These roots are notable in that they form zero-stem adjectives with certain characteristic suffixes, especially -ro- and -u-, along with -i- in compounds. Other examples are *H?er?- "white" (cf. Greek argós < *argrós "white", Sanskrit ?jrá- "brilliant", Tocharian B ?rkwi "white", Greek argi-kéraunos "with bright lightning") and *d?eub- "deep" (cf. Lithuanian dubùs "hollow" < *d?ub-u-, Tocharian B tapre "high" < *dhub-ro-).
  63. ^ Etymon rudá appears in idiomatic expressions denoting "anger".[240]
  64. ^ Latin etymons galbus ("yellow") and galbinus ("greenish-yellow") are also suggested to derive from this root.[246]
  65. ^ See also: Phr glouros "gold".[247][248]
  66. ^ Cf. also Thrac arzas "white".[251]
  67. ^ contested
  68. ^ Not cognate
  69. ^ ibetis uciu andecari biiete - 'drink from here and be nice' - Limé (Aisne) inscrpition
  70. ^ See also Umbrian benust (Latin uenerit) and Oscan kúm-bened (Latin conuentio).
  71. ^ Now compare 'prose' and 'verse'
  72. ^ wagon is a loan-word from Dutch.
  73. ^ Some of these words might instead derive from *sek?- "to follow"
  74. ^ Not related to Spanish alquilar
  75. ^ Probably
  76. ^ See also Hesperus "evening star"; Hesperides "daughters of the evening; nymphs of the west".
  77. ^ Attested in the Coligny calendar, written in Gaulish language.
  78. ^ Douglas Q. Adams reads the words as "winter, wintry", although there are other interpretations.[353][354]
  79. ^ Influenced by z?r?d "heart".
  80. ^ Range of meanings across the different Slavic languages
  81. ^ as in 'to boot', 'bootless'
  82. ^ exact cognate of Hékt?r

Tabular notes

  1. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Singular Plural
    Language Nom Acc Gen Dat Nom Acc Gen
    PIE gus gm g?ous g?ówei gwes gs g?ow?m
    Sanskrit gáus gm g?s gáv? gvas gs gáv?m
    Avestan g?u? g?m g?u? gave gv? g gav?m
  2. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl
    PIE d(i)y?us dy?um dy?u diw-és, -ós diwéi dyéwi and dy?u ?
    Greek Zdeús Zd?n Zde? Di(w)ós Di(w)í
    Sanskrit d(i)y?ús dym ? divás, dy?s div? dyáví, diví dyú-bhis


  1. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1993-1994.
  2. ^ Pokorny, pp. 700-701.
  3. ^ a b Dnghu, p. 2394.
  4. ^ a b Pokorny, p. 829.
  5. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 210.
  6. ^ Dnghu, pp. 485-486.
  7. ^ Pokorny, pp. 163-164.
  8. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 214.
  9. ^ Y?suke, Sumi (2018). New Express Romani (Gypsy). p. 142.
  10. ^ Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies. pp. 195, 204. ISBN 978-0-8108-5468-0.
  11. ^ Zair, Nicholas. The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Celtic. Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill. 2012. p. 110. ISBN 978-90-04-22539-8
  12. ^ Campbell, George L. with King, Gareth. Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. 2013. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-415-62191-5
  13. ^ Dnghu, p. 3027.
  14. ^ Pokorny, p. 1051.
  15. ^ Witczak, Krzysztof Tomasz. "Gaulish SUIOREBE 'with two sisters'". In: Lingua Posnaniensis. LVII (2). 2015. pp. 59-62. DOI: 10.1515/linpo-2015-0011
  16. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin. "The accentuation of the PIE word for 'daughter'". In: Accent Matters. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill|Rodopi, 2011. pp. 235-243. doi:
  17. ^ Dnghu, pp. 757-758.
  18. ^ Pokorny, p. 277.
  19. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 213.
  20. ^ García, Carlos Varias. "De synonymia Mycenaea: términos griegos equivalentes de distintos reinos micénicos". In: Conuentus Classicorum: temas y formas del Mundo Clásico. Coord. por Jesús de la Villa, Emma Falque Rey, José Francisco González Castro, María José Muñoz Jiménez, Vol. 1, 2017. pp. 382-383. ISBN 978-84-697-8214-9
  21. ^ García, Carlos Varias. "De synonymia Mycenaea: términos griegos equivalentes de distintos reinos micénicos". In: Conuentus Classicorum: temas y formas del Mundo Clásico. Coord. por Jesús de la Villa, Emma Falque Rey, José Francisco González Castro, María José Muñoz Jiménez, Vol. 1, 2017. p. 388. ISBN 978-84-697-8214-9
  22. ^ Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia de. "Celtic 'son', 'daughter', other descendants, and *sunus in Early Celtic". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 118, 2013 (2013): 259-298, doi:
  23. ^ Stifter, David (2006). "Contributions to Celtiberian Etymology II". In: Palaeohispanica: revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua, 6. p. 238. ISSN 1578-5386
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  25. ^ Milanova, Veronika. "Chapter 13: MUNUS/fduttarii?ata/i- and Some Other Indo-European Maidens". In: Hrozný and Hittite: The First Hundred Years. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019. pp. 277-294. doi:
  26. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston, 2008. pp. 1042-1044.
  27. ^ Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European kinship terms in *-2TER." (2001). In: Grammaticvs: studia linguistica Adolfo Erharto quinque et septuagenario oblata. ?ef?ík, Ond?ej (editor); Vykyp?l, Bohumil (editor). Vyd. 1. V Brn?: Masarykova univerzita, 2001. p. 25.
  28. ^ a b Dnghu, p. 2642.
  29. ^ a b Pokorny, pp. 913-914.
  30. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 211.
  31. ^ a b Monier Williams, p. 1240.
  32. ^ Schrijver, P. C. H. (2015). "The meaning of Celtic *eburos". In: Oudaer, Guillaume, Hily, Gael, Le Bihan, Herve (eds.). Mélanges en l'honneur de Pierre-Yves Lambert. pp. 65-76. ISBN 978-2-917681-27-5
  33. ^ Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia de. "Celtic 'son', 'daughter', other descendants, and *sunus in Early Celtic". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 118, 2013 (2013): 259-298. doi:
  34. ^ de Bernardo Stempel Patrizia (2013). "«El Tercer Bronce De Botorrita, Veinte Años Después»". In: Palaeohispanica: Revista Sobre Lenguas Y Culturas De La Hispania Antigua. n.º 13 (julio). p. 645.
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  36. ^ Monier Williams, p. 632.
  37. ^ Fortson, §13.7
  38. ^ a b Beekes, p. 38.
  39. ^ Dnghu, p. 1175.
  40. ^ Pokorny, pp. 369-370.
  41. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 207.
  42. ^ Monier Williams, p. 419.
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  46. ^ Dnghu, p. 1370
  47. ^ Pokorny, p. 505
  48. ^ a b Derksen, p. 346.
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  50. ^ Dimitrov, Peter A. (2009). "The Thracian Inscriptions". Thracian Language and Greek and Thracian Epigraphy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4438-1325-9.
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  • Pokorny, Julius (1959). Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch.
  • Dnghu. Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary. (A revised edition of Julius Pokorny's Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, CCA-GNU)
  • Beekes, Robert (1995). Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. ISBN 1-55619-504-4.
  • Mallory, James; Adams, DQ. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (2006 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-928791-0.
  • Kölligan, Daniel. "124. The lexicon of Proto-Indo-European". In: Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. Volume 3. Edited by Jared Klein, Brian Joseph and Matthias Fritz. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 2018. pp. 2229-2279.
  • Delamarre, Xavier. Le Vocabulaire Indo-Européen. Paris: Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. 1984. ISBN 2-7200-1028-6
  • Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental. Errance. ISBN 9782877723695.
  • Kloekhorst, Alwin. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston, 2008.
  • Matasovic, Ranko. Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. 2009. ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (1960). A Sanskrit-English. Oxford: Oxford Clarendon.

Further reading

On numerals:

  • Bjørn, Rasmus. "Nouns and Foreign Numerals: Anatolian 'Four' and the Development of the PIE Decimal System". In: Dispersals and Diversification. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019. pp. 54-76. doi:
  • Bomhard, Allan R. "Some thoughts on the Proto-Indo-European cardinal numbers". In: In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory: Essays in the four fields of anthropology. In honor of Harold Crane Fleming. Edited by John D. Bengtson. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2008. pp. 213-221.
  • Prósper, Blanca María. "The Indo-european ordinal numerals 'fourth' and 'fifth' and the reconstruction of the Celtic and Italic numeral systems". In: Die Sprache Vol. 51, Nº. 1, 2014-2015, pp. 1-50. ISSN 0376-401X
  • de Vaan, Michiel. "Proto-Indo-European *sm and *si 'one'". In: The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill|Rodopi, 2019. pp. 203-218. doi:

On nature and the passage of time:

  • Huld, Martin E. "Proto- and Post-Indo-European Designations for 'sun'." Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99, no. 2 (1986): 194-202.
  • Maciuszak, Kinga (2002). "The Names of Seasons of the Year in Iranian Languages". In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 7: 67-78.

On animals:

  • G?siorowski, Piotr. "Gruit grus: The Indo-European names of the crane". In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia Vol. 18. Issue 1. 2013. pp. 51-68. DOI: 10.4467/20843836SE.13.003.0940
  • Hammer, Niels. "Eurasian Cranes, Demoiselle Cranes, PIE *ger- and Onomatopoetics". In: The Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES), Vol. 43, nº. 1-2, 2015. pp. 81-99. ISSN 0092-2323
  • Huld, Martin E. (2014). "Armenian ag?aw and an Indo-European Word for 'Crow, Raven'. In: JIES 42 (3-4): 294-301.

On kinship and family:

  • Bla?ek, Václav. "Indo-European *suHnu- 'son' and his relatives". In: Indogermanistik und Linguistik im Dialog. Akten der XIII. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft von 21. bis 27. September 2008 in Salzburg, hrg. Thomas Krisch & Thomas Lindner. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2011. pp. 79-89. ISBN 978-3-89500-681-4
  • Cooper, Brian. "The Lexicology and Etymology of Russian Family Relationships". In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia Vol. 14. Issue 1. Kraków: 2009. pp. 153-176. ISBN 978-83-233-2758-5
  • Friedrich, Paul. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship." Ethnology 5, no. 1 (1966): 1-36. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi:10.2307/3772899.
  • Galton, Herbert. "The Indo-European Kinship Terminology." Zeitschrift Für Ethnologie 82, no. 1 (1957): 121-38. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  • Hettrich, Heinrich. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology in Linguistics and Anthropology." Anthropological Linguistics 27, no. 4 (1985): 453-80. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  • Heltoft, Lars. "The Malt stone as evidence for a morphological archaism: Reconstructing the Proto-Nordic and Proto-Germanic systems of kinship terms". In: NOWELE - North-Western European Language Evolution, Volume 73, Issue 1, Apr 2020, p. 4 - 20 ISSN 0108-8416. [DOI:]
  • Humphreys, S. C. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship and Society: Kin Terms". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies. Washington Vol. 45, Ed. 3/4, (2017): 373-425. ISSN 0092-2323
  • Kullanda, Sergey. "Indo-European "Kinship Terms" Revisited." Current Anthropology 43, no. 1 (2002): 89-111. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi:10.1086/324127.
  • Milanova, Veronika. "Brothers and Many Others: The Concept 'Offspring' and its Semantic Extensions in Indo-European Languages". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES). Vol. 48/Numbers 1 & 2 (Spring/Summer 2020): 189-217.
  • Pârvulescu, Adrian. "Blood and IE. Kinship Terminology". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 94, no. 1 (1989): 67-88.
  • Rau, Jeremy. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology: *ph?tr-ou?-/ph?tr?-u?- and Its Derivatives." Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 124 (2011): 1-25.
  • Starke, Frank. "Die Vertretungen Von Uridg. *dHUgh?tér- "Tochter" in Den Luwischen Sprachen Und Ihre Stammbildung". In: Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 100, no. 2 (1987): 243-69. Accessed March 8, 2021.

On agriculture and produce:

  • Bla?ek, Václav. "On Indo-European 'barley'". In: Simmelkjaer Sandgaard Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte; Olander, Thomas; Olsen, Birgit Anette. Etymology and the European Lexicon. Proceedings of the 14th Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft (17-22 September 2012, Copenhagen). Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, 2016. pp. 53-68. ISBN 978-3-95490-202-6
  • Hyllested, Adam. "Did Proto-Indo-European Have a Word for Wheat? Hittite ?eppit(t)- Revisited and the Rise of Post-PIE Cereal Terminology". In: Dispersals and Diversification. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019. pp. 130-143. doi:
  • Miki?, Aleksandar. "A note on some Proto-Indo-European roots related to grain legumes", Indogermanische Forschungen 116, 2011 (2011): 60-71, doi:
  • Miki?, Aleksandar. "Palaeolinguistics and Ancient Eurasian Pulse Crops." Current Science 108, no. 1 (2015): 45-50.
  • Romain Garnier, Laurent Sagart, Benoît Sagot. "Milk and the Indo-Europeans". In: Martine Robeets; Alexander Savalyev. Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017. pp. 291-311. ISBN 978-90-272-1255-9. ff10.1075/z.215.13garff. ffhal-01667476f

On colors:

  • Shields, Kenneth. "Indo-European Basic Colour Terms." Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne De Linguistique 24, no. 2 (1979): 142-46. doi:10.1017/S0008413100023409.

On verbs related to action and motion:

  • Verkerk, Annemarie (2015). "Where do all the motion verbs come from? The speed of development of manner verbs and path verbs in Indo-European". In: Diachronica, 32(1): 69-104. doi:10.1075/dia.32.1.03ver.

On bodily functions:

External links

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