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International Recognition of the State of Palestine
Wikimedia list article
State of Palestine
Countries that have recognised the State of Palestine
Countries that have not recognised the State of Palestine
In February 1989 at the United Nations Security Council, the PLO representative acknowledged that 94 states had recognised the new Palestinian state. It subsequently attempted to gain membership as a state in several agencies connected to the United Nations, but its efforts were thwarted by U.S. threats to withhold funding from any organisation that admitted Palestine.[failed verification] For example, in April of the same year, the PLO applied for membership as a state in the World Health Organization, an application that failed to produce a result after the U.S. informed the organisation that it would withdraw funding if Palestine were admitted. In May, a group of OIC members submitted to UNESCO an application for membership on behalf of Palestine, and listed a total of 91 states that had recognised the State of Palestine.
In June 1989, the PLO submitted to the government of Switzerland letters of accession to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. However, Switzerland, as the depositary state, determined that because the question of Palestinian statehood had not been settled within the international community, it was therefore incapable of determining whether the letter constituted a valid instrument of accession.
Due to the [uncertainty] within the international community as to the existence or the non-existence of a State of Palestine and as long as the issue has not been settled in an appropriate framework, the Swiss Government, in its capacity as depositary of the Geneva Conventions and their additional Protocols, is not in a position to decide whether this communication can be considered as an instrument of accession in the sense of the relevant provisions of the Conventions and their additional Protocols.
Consequently, in November 1989, the Arab League proposed a General Assembly resolution to formally recognise the PLO as the government of an independent Palestinian state. The draft, however, was abandoned when the U.S. again threatened to cut off its financing for the United Nations should the vote go ahead. The Arab states agreed not to press the resolution, but demanded that the U.S. promise not to threaten the United Nations with financial sanctions again.
Many of the early statements of recognition of the State of Palestine were termed ambiguously. In addition, hesitation from others did not necessarily mean that these nations did not regard Palestine as a state. This has seemingly resulted in confusion regarding the number of states that have officially recognized the state declared in 1988. Numbers reported in the past are often conflicting, with figures as high as 130 being seen frequently. In July 2011, in an interview with Haaretz, Palestinian ambassador to the United Nations, Riyad Mansour claimed that 122 states had so far extended formal recognition. At the end of the month, the PLO published a paper on why the world's governments should recognize the State of Palestine and listed the 122 countries that had already done so. By the end of September the same year, Mansour claimed the figure had reached 139.
Between the end of the Six-Day War and the Oslo Accords, no Israeli government proposed a Palestinian state. During Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's government of 1996-1999, he accused the two previous governments of Rabin and Peres of bringing closer to realisation what he claimed to be the "danger" of a Palestinian state, and stated that his main policy goal was to ensure that the Palestinian Authority didn't evolve beyond an autonomy.
In November 2001, Ariel Sharon was the first Israeli Prime Minister to proclaim that a Palestinian state was the solution to the conflict and the goal of his administration. The government headed by Ehud Olmert repeated the same objective. Following the inauguration of the present Netanyahu government in 2009, the government again claimed that a Palestinian state posed a danger for Israel. The government position changed, however, following pressure from the Obama administration, and on 14 June 2009, Netanyahu for the first time made a speech in which he supported the notion of a demilitarized and territorially reduced Palestinian state. This position met some criticism for its lack of commitment on the territories to be ceded to the Palestinian state in the future.
The Israeli government has accepted in general the idea that a Palestinian state is to be established, but has refused to accept the 1967 borders. Israeli military experts have argued that the 1967 borders are strategically indefensible. It also opposes the Palestinian plan of approaching the UN General Assembly on the matter of statehood, as it claims it does not honor the Oslo Accords agreement in which both sides agreed not to pursue unilateral moves.
Palestine in the United Nations
On 14 October 1974, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was recognized by the UN General Assembly as the representative of the Palestinian people and granted the right to participate in the deliberations of the General Assembly on the question of Palestine in plenary meetings.
On 22 November 1974, the PLO was granted non-state observer status, allowing the PLO to participate in all Assembly sessions, as well as in other UN platforms.
On 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents".
Application for UN membership, 2011
After a two-year impasse in negotiations with Israel, the Palestinian Authority began a diplomatic campaign to gain recognition for the State of Palestine on the borders prior to the Six-Day War, with East Jerusalem as its capital. The efforts, which began in late 2009, gained widespread attention in September 2011, when President Mahmoud Abbas submitted an application to the United Nations to accept Palestine as a member state. This would have constituted collective recognition of the State of Palestine, which would have allowed its government to pursue legal claims against other states in international courts.
In order for a state to gain membership in the General Assembly, its application must have the support of two-thirds of member states with a prior recommendation for admission from the Security Council. This requires the absence of a veto from any of the Security Council's five permanent members. At the prospect of a veto from the United States, Palestinian leaders signalled that they might opt instead for a more limited upgrade to "non-member state" status, which requires only a simple majority in the General Assembly but provides the Palestinians with the recognition they desired.
The campaign, dubbed "Palestine 194", was supported by the Arab League in May, and was officially confirmed by the PLO on 26 June. The decision was labelled by the Israeli government as a unilateral step, while the Palestinian government countered that it was essential to overcoming the current impasse. Several other countries--such as Germany and Canada--also denounced the decision and called for a prompt return to negotiations. However, many others--such as Norway and Russia--endorsed the plan, as did Secretary-GeneralBan Ki-moon, who stated: "UN members are entitled whether to vote for or against the Palestinian statehood recognition at the UN."
Israel took steps to counter the initiative, and Germany, Italy, Canada and the U.S. announced publicly that they would vote against the resolution. Israeli and U.S. diplomats began a campaign pressuring many countries to oppose or abstain from the vote. However, because of the "automatic majority" enjoyed by the Palestinians in the General Assembly, the Netanyahu administration stated that it did not expect to prevent a resolution from passing should it go ahead. In August, Haaretz quoted the Israeli ambassador to the United Nations, Ron Prosor, as stating that Israel would be unable to block a resolution at the General Assembly by September. "The maximum that we can hope to gain is for a group of states who will abstain or be absent during the vote", wrote Prosor. "Only a few countries will vote against the Palestinian initiative."
Instead, the Israeli government focused on obtaining a "moral majority" of major democratic powers, in an attempt to diminish the weight of the vote. Considerable weight was placed on the position of the European Union, which had not yet been announced. EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton stated that it was likely to depend on the wording of the resolution. At the end of August, Israel's defence minister Ehud Barak said that "it is very important that all the players come up with a text that will emphasize the quick return to negotiations, without an effort to impose pre-conditions on the sides."
Efforts from both Israel and the U.S. also focused on pressuring the Palestinian leadership to abandon its plans and return to negotiations. In the U.S., Congress passed a bill denouncing the initiative and calling on the Obama administration to veto any resolution that would recognize a Palestinian state declared outside of an agreement negotiated by the two parties. A similar bill was passed in the Senate, which also threatened a withdrawal of aid to the West Bank. In late August, another congressional bill was introduced which proposes to block U.S. government funding for United Nations entities that support Palestinian membership in the UN. Several top U.S. officials, including ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice and consul-general in Jerusalem Daniel Rubinstein, made similar threats. In the same month, it was reported that the Israeli Ministry of Finance was withholding its monthly payments to the PNA. Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman warned that if Palestine took unilateral action, Israel would consider the Oslo Accords null and void, and would break off relations with the PA.
On 11 July 2011, the Quartet met to discuss a return to negotiations, but the meeting produced no result.PresidentMahmoud Abbas claimed that he would suspend the bid and return to negotiations if the Israelis agreed to the 1967 borders and ceased the expansion of settlements in the West Bank.
The PNA's campaign saw an increasing level of support in grass-roots activism. Avaaz began an online petition urging all United Nations members to endorse the bid to admit Palestine; it reportedly attained 500,000 e-signatures in its first four days.OneVoice Palestine launched a domestic campaign in partnership with local news agencies, with the aim of getting the involvement and support of Palestinian citizens. Overseas, campaigns were launched in several nations, calling on their governments to vote "yes" in the resolution. On 7 September, a group of Palestinian activists under the banner "Palestine: State No. 194" staged a demonstration outside the United Nations' office in Ramallah. During the demonstration, they submitted to the office a letter addressed to Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, urging him to "exert all possible efforts toward the achievement of the Palestinian people's just demands". The following day, Ban told reporters: "I support ... the statehood of Palestinians; an independent, sovereign state of Palestine. It has been long overdue", but he also stated that "recognition of a state is something to be determined by the member states."
Other United Nations organs had previously expressed readiness to see a Palestinian state. In April 2011, the UN's co-ordinator for the Middle East peace process issued a report on the Palestinian Authority's state-building progress, describing "aspects of its administration as sufficient for an independent state". It echoed a similar assessment published the week prior by the International Monetary Fund. The World Bank released a report in September 2010 that found the Palestinian Authority "well-positioned to establish a state" at any point in the near future. However, the report highlighted that, unless private-sector growth in the Palestinian economy was stimulated, a Palestinian state would remain donor dependent.
Non-member observer state status
UN observer state status voting results:
During September 2012, Palestine decided to pursue an upgrade in status from "observer entity" to "non-member observer state". On 27 November of the same year, it was announced that the appeal had been made officially and would be put to a vote in the General Assembly on 29 November, where the status upgrade was expected to be supported by a majority of states. In addition to granting Palestine "non-member observer state status", the draft resolution "expresses the hope that the Security Council will consider favorably the application submitted on 23 September 2011 by the State of Palestine for admission to full membership in the United Nations, endorses the two state solution based on the pre-1967 borders, and stresses the need for an immediate resumption of negotiations between the two parties."
The vote was an important benchmark for the partially recognized State of Palestine and its citizens, while it was a diplomatic setback for Israel and the United States. Status as an observer state in the UN allows the State of Palestine to join treaties and specialized UN agencies, the Law of the Seas treaty, and the International Criminal Court. It permits Palestine to pursue legal rights over its territorial waters and air space as a sovereign state recognized by the UN, and allows the Palestinian people the right to sue for sovereignty over their territory in the International Court of Justice and to bring "crimes against humanity" and war-crimes charges, including that of unlawfully occupying the territory of State of Palestine, against Israel in the International Criminal Court.
The UN has, after the resolution was passed, permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as "The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations", seen by many as a reflection of the UN's de facto position of recognizing the State of Palestine's sovereignty under international law, and Palestine started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports. The Palestinian authorities also instructed its diplomats to officially represent the "State of Palestine", as opposed to the "Palestine National Authority". Additionally, on 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of "State of Palestine" shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents", recognizing the "State of Palestine" as the official name of the Palestinian nation.
On Thursday 26 September 2013 at the United Nations, Mahmoud Abbas was given the right to sit in the General Assembly's beige chair which is reserved for heads of state waiting to take the podium and address the General Assembly.
UN member states
Of the 193 member states of the United Nations, 138 (71.5%) have recognised the State of Palestine as of 31 July 2019. The list below is based on the list maintained by the Palestine Liberation Organization during the campaign for United Nations recognition in 2011, and maintained by the Permanent Observer Mission to the UN.
Some states, marked with an asterisk (*) below, expressly recognized the State of Palestine on the borders of 4 June 1967 (i.e., the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem), which constituted Arab territory prior to the Six-Day War.
Recognition extended by both Democratic Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic, prior to Yemeni unification. In a joint letter to the UN Secretary-General sent just prior to unification, the Ministers of Foreign affairs of North and South Yemen stated that "All treaties and agreements concluded between either the Yemen Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and other States and international organizations in accordance with international law which are in force on 22 May 1990 will remain in effect, and international relations existing on 22 May 1990 between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic and other States will continue."
In January 2011, the Cypriot government reaffirmed its recognition of the Palestinian state in 1988. The government also added that any modifications to the borders from 1967 onwards would not be acknoweldged until both countries reached a consensus.
Recognition extended as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus is the legal successor of the Byelorussian SSR and in the Constitution it states, "Laws, decrees and other acts which were applied in the territory of the Republic of Belarus prior to the entry into force of the present Constitution shall apply in the particular parts thereof that are not contrary to the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus."
On 28 January 2011, Paraguay's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a written reaffirmation of its government's recognition of the State of Palestine. The statement noted that the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two governments in 2005 had implied mutual recognition.
Date given is that of first official recognition. In Palestine's application to UNESCO in May 1989, Lebanon was listed as having recognised the State of Palestine, but without a date. The list was submitted without objection from Lebanon, but later sources have shown that official recognition was not accorded until 2008. At that time, the Lebanese cabinet approved the establishment of full diplomatic relations with the State of Palestine, but did not set a date for when this was to occur. On 11 August 2011, the cabinet agreed to implement its earlier decision and Abbas formally inaugurated his government's embassy in Beirut on 16 August.
In January 2011, Andorra co-sponsored a draft resolution guaranteeing the Palestinian people's right to self-determination. In September, it argued for a proposed resolution to give the State of Palestine observer status in the United Nations.
On 20 June 2011, Fatah representative Nabil Shaath met with Foreign Minister Eduard Nalbandyan to enlist the support of Armenia in the upcoming resolution. Afterwards, Shaath announced that he had been informed by a number of countries that they would recognize Palestine in the following weeks, and that he expected Armenia to be the first of these. However, the Armenian government did not release any statement regarding the meeting. The situation in Palestine is seen as analogous by the Armenian government to the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, and that any recognition of a Palestinian state by Armenia would set a precedent for the right to self-determination in that region. On similar situations, President Serzh Sargsyan previously stated, "Having the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Armenia can not recognize another entity in the same situation as long as it has not recognized the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic".
Australian policy calls for a two-state solution, but it has not supported calls toward Palestinian statehood in the past, insisting instead on a negotiated settlement. In regards to a resolution to admit Palestine as a UN non-member observer state, a division in positions emerged: Former Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd recommended abstaining from the vote, whilst former Prime Minister Julia Gillard declared strong support for Israel. In response, Gillard noted: "There isn't a resolution available for people to read or respond to. If such a resolution does hit the deck, then in deciding how Australia will vote, we will bring our very long-standing principles about questions in the Middle East. That is, we are long-standing supporters of a two-state solution." In 2014, Australia voted against a United Nations Security Council draft resolution proposing the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Gaza and The West Bank by 2017. In April 2021, the Australian Labor Party (Rudd and Gillard's party) passed an amendment to its policy platform recognising Palestine as a state.
Austria conferred full diplomatic status on the PLO representation in Vienna on 13 December 1978, under then-chancellor Bruno Kreisky. In June 2011, Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger said that Austria "had not yet made up its mind whether to support a UN recognition of a Palestinian state", adding that he preferred to wait for a joint EU approach to the issue. "We will decide at the last moment because it might still give [the two parties] the opportunity to bring the Middle East peace process back on track." Spindelegger also suggested that the EU draft its own version of the resolution.
In Annex II of the State of Palestine's UNESCO application, Austria was initially listed as having extended recognition on 14 December 1988. However, the submitting states (Algeria, Indonesia, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal and Yemen) later requested that Austria be removed from the list.
The Bahamas has not publicized an official position of its own regarding the State of Palestine. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, which supports a two-state solution along internationally recognized borders.
On the issue of Palestinian statehood, Belgium supports the declarations of the European Union. Prime Minister Yves Leterme called for the creation of a European consensus before September, and the Senate urged the government on 15 July 2011 to recognize a Palestinian state with the pre-1967 borders. The parties of the new centre right government agreed to recognize Palestine. The Chamber of Representatives has already adopted a resolution in favour on 5 February 2015. The left-wing opposition called for an unconditional recognition of Palestine.
Cameroon officially supports a two-state solution. Although a member of the OIC, President Paul Biya has developed strong ties with Israel since the mid-1980s. This perceived friendship has soured the country's traditionally close ties with Arab states, many of whom have withdrawn longstanding economic development assistance and pressed Biya to support Palestinian interests. Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu asked Biya to oppose the United Nations resolution that would admit Palestine as a member state.
Canada supports the creation of a sovereign Palestinian state, but only as part of a "comprehensive, just and lasting peace settlement". The Harper government (2006-2015) was regarded as a staunch supporter of Israel. In July 2011, the spokesman for Foreign Minister John Baird stated, "Our government's long-standing position has not changed. The only solution to this conflict is one negotiated between and agreed to by the two parties. ... One of the states must be a Jewish state and recognized as such, while the Palestinian state is to be a non-militarized one".
Croatia formalized relations with the PLO on 31 March 2011. Former Croatian Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor stated in 2011 that her government supported the co-existence of Israel and Palestine as two independent states, however Croatia abstained during voting on upgrading Palestine to non-member observer state status in the United Nations and on admission of Palestine to UNESCO. Former Croatian Foreign Minister Vesna Pusi? stated on 24 October 2014 that "Croatia will most likely recognize Palestine soon". The Croatian government tends to favour Israel over Palestine as a commitment to the United States, to whom Croatia is aligned, and the central quarters of the European Union of which Croatia has been a member since 2013. Croatia believes that if it were to recognize Palestine, this would frustrate its position with the EU and ties to the US, and also because the situation in the Middle East is complicated it feels there is no guarantee that there would be peace and further existence of the Jewish state if Israel eventually decides to withdraw from the occupied territories.
Danish Foreign Minister Lene Espersen met Abbas on 9 March 2011 to persuade him to return to negotiating with Israel. Espersen also extended Danish support to Palestinian national development. During the campaign for the 2011 elections, the largest opposition party argued that Denmark should recognize the State of Palestine. Foreign Minister Lene Espersen, however, warned that such a unilateral decision could have "more negative than beneficial" consequences, and stressed the need to co-ordinate policy with the EU.
President Isaias Afewerki has stated that his government does not recognize Palestine. In October 2010, he stated, "Israel needs a government, we must respect this. The Palestinians also need to have a dignified life, but it can not be the West Bank or Gaza. A two-state solution will not work. It's just to fool people. Israelis and Palestinians living in the same nation will never happen for many reasons. One option that may work is a Transjordan. Israel may be left in peace and the Palestinian and Jordanian peoples are brought together and can create their own nation". In his address to the UN General Assembly in 2011, Afewerki stated that "Eritrea reaffirms its long-standing support to the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and an independent, sovereign state. It also upholds the right of Israel to live in peace and security within internationally recognized boundaries." On 29 November 2012, Eritrea voted in favour of a resolution to make Palestine non-member observer state at the UN.
During a meeting with Riyad al-Malki in June 2010, Minister Urmas Paet said the country approved an agreement between the two countries and a Palestine independence. Officials stated that the government would not adopt a position regarding the United Nations bid until the final wording of the resolution was published.
According to President Nicolas Sarkozy, "France supports the solution of two nation states living side-by-side in peace and security, within safe and recognized borders." In May 2011, Sarkozy said that if peace talks with Israel had not resumed by September, he would recognize the State of Palestine as part of its bid at the United Nations. This echoed statements made in March by Nabil Shaath, who claimed to have received a promise from France that it would recognize in September a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders. According to Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu, however, Sarkozy had said that France's support would require the Palestinians to recognize Israel as the state of the Jewish people. This was confirmed in July, when Foreign Minister Alain Juppé stated that any solution to the conflict would require the recognition of "the nation-state of Israel for the Jewish people, and the nation-state of Palestine for the Palestinian people." This broke with the European Union's traditional position, which adamantly opposes any mention of Israel as a Jewish state. Sarkozy later turned around on this policy, reportedly saying that the idea of a Jewish state was "silly". In August, Sarkozy stressed the importance of a united EU position on the September initiative, and proposed a compromise where the State of Palestine would be given observer status instead of full membership. The proposal, which was to prevent a split among members of the EU, included a promise from Paris and other members that they would vote for the resolution. In October 2014, France's foreign minister said France would recognize a Palestinian state even if peace talks with Israel fails. On 2 December 2014 the French National Assembly approved a non-binding motion calling on the government to recognise Palestine.
In April 2011, Chancellor Angela Merkel labelled the Palestinian bid for recognition a "unilateral step", and stated unequivocally that Germany will not recognize a Palestinian state without its prior acceptance by Israel. "Unilateral recognitions therefore definitely do not contribute to achieving this aim ... This is our stance now and it will be our stance in September. There needs to be mutual recognition, otherwise it is not a two-state solution". She also reaffirmed her government's commitment to see an agreement reached as soon as possible. "We want a two-state solution. We want to recognize a Palestinian state. Let us ensure that negotiations begin. It is urgent".
President Karolos Papoulias has stated that Greece ultimately supports the creation of a Palestinian state alongside Israel. Under previous governments, Greece garnered a reputation as a staunch supporter of the Palestinian cause. Within the wider Arab-Israeli conflict, Andreas Papandreou maintained a stronger stand against Israel than any other government in the European Community. Diplomatic relations were founded with the PLO in 1981, while relations with Israel were maintained only at the consular level until Greece's formal recognition of Israel in 1990 under Mitsotakis. Since the formation of current foreign policy under George Papandreou, Greece has seen a rapid improvement in relations with Israel, leading the media to mark the conclusion of Greece's pro-Palestinian era. However, in December 2015, Greece's parliament voted in favour of a motion requesting that the government recognize Palestine.
In January 2011, Ireland accorded the Palestinian delegation in Dublin diplomatic status. A few months later, their Foreign Affairs Minister stated that Ireland would "lead the charge" in recognizing Palestinian statehood, but that it would not come until the PNA was in full and sole control over its territories. In October 2014, the Upper House of the Irish Parliament unanimously passed a motion calling on the Government to recognize the State of Palestine. In December 2014, the Lower House of Ireland's Parliament followed suit. On May 26, 2021, Ireland announced that it recognizes Israel's "de facto annexation" of Palestine
In May 2011, at an event in Rome celebrating Israel's independence, then Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi pledged his country's support to Israel. In June, he reiterated Italy's position against unilateral actions on either side of the conflict, stressing that "peace can only be reached with a common initiative through negotiations". This position was shared by parliamentarians, who drafted a letter to the United Nations stating that "a premature, unilateral declaration of Palestinian statehood would [...] undermine rather than resolve the Israeli-Palestinian peace process". Nevertheless, at the same time, Italy upgraded the diplomatic status of the Palestinian delegation in Rome to a mission, similarly to what other EU countries were doing, giving the head of the delegation ambassadorial status. Moreover, on 31 October 2011, Italy did not oppose Palestine's UNESCO membership bid and, on 29 November 2012, Italy voted in favour of UN Resolution 67/19, giving Palestine a non-member observer state status at the United Nations. Italy's opposition to unilateral actions was reiterated on 21 December 2017, when it voted in favour of a UN draft resolution calling on all countries to comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem, following the decision by the U.S. to move its embassy to Israel from Tel Aviv to the city.
Like other members of the Caribbean Community, Jamaica supports a two-state solution. In 2010, Prime Minister Bruce Golding expressed hope for "a just, lasting and comprehensive peace in the Middle East that guarantees the security of Israel and the unquestioned recognition of a Palestinian state."
Japan supports a two-state solution to the conflict, and supports the establishment of a Palestinian state. In October 2007, a Japanese Justice Ministry official said "Given that the Palestinian Authority has improved itself to almost a full-fledged state and issues its own passports, we have decided to accept the Palestinian nationality". The Japanese government declared that it would not recognize any act that would jeopardize a Palestianian state with the pre-1967 borders nor the annexation of East Jerusalem by Israel.
Liechtenstein relies on Switzerland to carry out most of its foreign affairs. In January 2011, it co-sponsored a draft resolution guaranteeing the Palestinian people's right to self-determination, and stated that this right must be exercised with a view to achieving a viable and fully sovereign Palestinian state.
Like the rest of the European Union, Lithuania supports a two-state solution including an independent Palestinian state. Foreign Minister Audronius A?ubalis called for a strong, unanimous European position that encouraged both parties to resume peace talks.
In an interview with Foreign Minister Jean Asselborn in March 2011, The Jerusalem Post stated that Luxembourg was considered among the "least friendly" countries to Israel in the EU. In response to divisions within the EU regarding the Palestinians' September bid for UN membership, Asselborn reportedly urged the PNA to accept an upgrade in its observer status and not ask for membership. He insisted, "We cannot let the Palestinians leave New York at the end of the month with nothing", He referred to the positions of four members in particular that stood as an obstacle to the achievement of a common position, but that he "cannot agree to say no" to the Palestinian endeavour. He noted that securing the support of all EU nations would have been a great moral advantage for Palestine.
Mexico maintains a policy of supporting a two-state solution. Palestinian and Israeli officials expected Mexico to follow South American countries in recognizing the State of Palestine in early 2011. Its position on the matter is seen as influential in Latin America, and therefore critical to both proponents and opponents. Opposition parties have urged the government to recognize a Palestinian state as part of the September initiative, putting down its hesitance to U.S. pressure.
The FSM is a consistent supporter of Israel, especially in international resolutions, though this is due in part to its association with the United States. During the summit of the Pacific Islands Forum in September 2011, the leader of the Micronesian delegation reportedly stated his country's solidarity with the Palestinian people's suffering and support for their right to self-determination. Regarding the PNA's endeavour to gain admission to the United Nations, however, the official stated that the agreements signed with the U.S. prevented the FSM from voting according to its government's wishes in cases where they conflicted with those of the U.S. In reference to Israel's continued development assistance to Micronesians, another diplomat noted, "We need Israeli expertise, so I don't see a change in our policy anytime soon."
Moldova maintains a policy of neutrality in international affairs. It has expressed full support for the Quartet principles for the settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which call for an independent Palestinian state.
Myanmar is one of only two members of the Non-Aligned Movement that has not recognized the State of Palestine, alongside Singapore. Former foreign affairs minister Win Aung stated in 2000 that Myanmar supports a two-state solution within internationally recognized borders.
During the Pacific Islands Forum in early September 2011, Foreign Affairs Minister Kieren Keke confirmed his nation's solidarity with the Palestinian people and their right to self-determination. The PNA's foreign ministry published a statement prior to the summit claiming that most Pacific island nations would vote against a United Nations resolution regarding the Palestinian state.
In June 2011, Foreign Minister Uri Rosenthal stated that the request to admit Palestine at the United Nations would "not be supported by the Netherlands". He called instead for a resumption of negotiations: "We will continue to stress for a restart to direct negotiations." He insisted that a peace deal must be based "on an agreement between all parties", and that the Netherlands was opposed to anything done without the consent of both parties. Abbas highlighted the importance of the Dutch role in the peace process, precisely because it maintained close ties with Israel: "It doesn't disturb us at all. They play a very important role and the Palestinian people are very appreciative of their help."
New Zealand supports a two-state solution to the peace process. It also maintains a policy of tacit rather than explicit recognition of new states. For Palestine, this would mean upgrading its accredited delegation to a diplomatic status. In early September 2011, Foreign Minister Murray McCully said that the government would not make a decision until the wording of the resolution was released. "We've got a reputation for being fair minded and even handed on this matter and all we can do is wait to see the words. He also told Riyad al-Malki that he had refused to give any pledges Israel to oppose to vote. Since 2017, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has reiterated her support for a two-state solution and opposition to settler expansions.
The Norwegian government upgraded the Palestinian mission in Oslo to an embassy in December 2010 and called for the creation of a Palestinian state within the following year. In January 2011, Støre stated that, should negotiations with Israel fail to make progress by September, his country would recognize Palestine within the United Nations framework. Following a meeting with Abbas in July 2011, Støre claimed that it was "perfectly legitimate" for the Palestinians to seek a vote on recognition of statehood. "The fundamental Norwegian view is that a people have the right to use UN institutions to clarify questions about the legitimacy of their status in the world. We are opposed to denying this to the Palestinians". The minister withheld full commitment until the request was officially announced, after which, on 18 September, he confirmed that Norway would lend recognition to Palestine.
Panama has not indicated its position regarding a vote on statehood, and is reported to be undecided on the matter. President Ricardo Martinelli has a record of supporting Israel in UN resolutions, and has reportedly resisted pressure from other Latin American governments to recognize Palestine. The Central American Integration System (SICA) was expected to adopt a joint position on the issue at its summit on 18 August, but Panama insisted that discussion should retain a regional focus and the matter was not included on the final agenda. In early September, Foreign Minister Roberto Henriquez said that the government's decision would not be made public until its vote is cast, but added, "It is very important that the birth of this country and its recognition in the international forum is previously accompanied by a full peace agreement with its neighbour, Israel." On 4 July 2015, Panama's Vice President and Foreign Minister Isabel De Saint Malo de Alvarado said that her government is looking at ways to recognize the State of Palestine without affecting their "close relationship" with Israel.
In February 2011, several parliamentary factions proposed resolutions calling on the government to recognize the State of Palestine. However, these were dismissed by the two majority parties, which insisted on a prior settlement acceptable to both Palestinians and Israelis. Foreign Minister Paulo Portas stated that Portugal supports the initiative to recognize Palestine, but that it must not forget the security of Israel: "We will do everything for Palestine, which deserves to have its state, and do nothing against Israel, which deserves to have its security." In December 2014, the Portuguese Parliament passed a resolution that is non-binding calling on the government to recognize Palestine as an independent state with 9 of 230 members opposing the measure.
On 28 November 2014, the Foreign Policy Committee rejected a motion to immediately recognize Palestine, but approved an alternative motion requiring the government to submit a proposal to recognize Palestine to the National Assembly.
Foreign Minister Peter Shannel Agovaka met Riyad al-Malki in early September at the summit of the Pacific Islands Forum in Wellington. Agovaka reportedly confirmed his government's support of Palestinian efforts at the United Nations, and that possible recognition of the State of Palestine would be considered in the next cabinet meeting.
On 1 July 2011, the Spanish parliament passed a resolution urging its government to recognize the State of Palestine on the 1967 borders. Prior to this, Nabil Shaath had claimed in May that Spain intended to recognize the Palestinian state before September. In late July, Foreign Minister Trinidad Jiménez said that Spain supports the bid, but that it would not determine its position until the proposal is made official. In an interview with El País in August, Jiménez confirmed Spain's support: "We are working with the idea that there is a majority in the EU that will support moving forward with the recognition of Palestine." She added that it was the right time to do this, since it would give Palestinians much needed hope about their future state. On 20 November 2014, the Spanish parliament approved a non-binding motion calling on the government to recognize Palestine by a vote of 319-2.
In September 2011, following the summit of the Pacific Islands Forum in Wellington, the PNA's foreign ministry noted that it had made significant strides in its efforts to attain recognition from Tonga.
In December 2017, Foreign Affairs Minister Dennis Moses said, "Trinidad and Tobago's policy has always been to support the two states policy which means steadfast recognition of the State of Israel with secure territorial borders as well as the establishment of a Palestinian State."
In September 2011, Britain said it would recognize Palestine as a state, but only with non-member observer status, rather than full membership, at the United Nations. In October 2014, the UK House of Commons passed a symbolic non-binding Motion by a vote of 274 in favour to 12 against which called on the Government to recognize Palestine. Also in October 2014, the devolved government of Scotland called for recognition of Palestine as an independent state and for the UK to open an Embassy.
President Barack Obama declared U.S. opposition to the bid in his speech to the General Assembly, saying that "genuine peace can only be realized between Israelis and Palestinians themselves" and that "[u]ltimately, it is Israelis and Palestinians - not us - who must reach an agreement on the issues that divide them". Obama told Abbas that they would veto any United Nations Security Council move to recognize Palestinian statehood.
The State of Palestine is a party to several multilateral treaties, registered with five depositaries: the United Kingdom, UNESCO, United Nations, the Netherlands and Switzerland. The ratification of the UNESCO conventions took place in 2011/2012 and followed Palestine becoming a member of UNESCO, while the ratification of the other conventions were performed in 2014 while negotiations with Israel were in an impasse.
In an objection of 16 May 2014, Israel informed the Secretary General of the United Nations that it did not consider that 'Palestine' (single quotation marks in original) met the definition of statehood and that its requested accession to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment as being "without legal validity and without effect upon Israel's treaty relations under the Convention". The United States and Canada lodged similar objections.
^Tessler, Mark (1994). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (2nd, illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 722. ISBN978-0-253-20873-6. "Within two weeks of the PNC meeting, at least fifty-five nations, including states as diverse as the Soviet Union, China, India, Greece, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, Malta, and Zambia, had recognised the Palestinian state."
^Sabasteanski, Anna (2005). Patterns of Global Terrorism 1985-2005: U.S. Department of State Reports with Supplementary Documents and Statistics. 1. Berkshire. p. 47. ISBN0-9743091-3-3.
^ abBoyle, Francis A. (1 September 2009). Palestine, Palestinians and International Law. Clarity Press. p. 19. ISBN978-0-932863-37-9. "As I had predicted to the PLO, the creation of [a] Palestinian State was an instantaneous success. Palestine would eventually achieve de jure diplomatic recognition from about 130 states. The only regional hold-out was Europe and this was because of massive political pressure applied by the United States Government."
Organisation of the Islamic Conference (13-16 March 1989). "Final Communique". The Eighteenth Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (Session of Islamic Fraternity and Solidarity). Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 2010.
Organisation of the Islamic Conference (28-30 May 2003). "Resolutions on Palestine Affairs". The Thirtieth Session of the Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (Session of Unity and Dignity). United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2010.
Kurz, Anat N. (2005). Fatah and the Politics of Violence: the institutionalization of a popular struggle. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 123. ISBN978-1-84519-032-3. "117 UN member states recognized the declared State of Palestine ..."
Quigley, John B. (30 December 2010). "Recognize Palestine now". McClatchy-Tribune. Youngstown News. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2010. "With recognitions in recent weeks by Brazil and Argentina, some 105 states now formally recognize Palestine at the diplomatic level."
Whitbeck, John V. (28 December 2010). "Palestine: recognising the state". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2010. "Coming soon after the similar recognitions by Brazil and Argentina, Bolivia's recognition brought to 106 the number of UN member states recognizing the State of Palestine, whose independence was proclaimed on November 15, 1988."
^"Diplomatic Relations". Permanent Observer Mission of The State of Palestine to the United Nations New York. Retrieved 2013.
^Government of Algeria (28 December 2010). "Algerie-Palestine-Diplomatie" (in French). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 2011. "Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire de l'État de Palestine".
^Government of Kuwait. "The Arab Economic Summit 2009". Al-Diwan Al-Amiri, official website, State of Kuwait. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Mr. Mahmoud Abbas is the President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) and the President of the State of Palestine."
^Government of Afghanistan. "Afghan Diplomatic Missions". Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Canberra. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Embassy of Afghanistan in Damascus ... non-resident envoy to: Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine".
^ abGovernment of Indonesia. "Bilateral Cooperation - Palestine". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Indonesia's formal recognition towards the recently established State of Palestine the very next day, on 16 November 1988 ... One year later, Indonesia and Palestine agreed to advance their bilateral relations through the signing of a Joint Communique on the Commencement of Indonesia-Palestine Diplomatic Relations at Ambassadorial Level, on 19 October 1988 ... Indonesia assigned its Head of Mission to the Republic of Tunisia as the Ambassador non-resident for Palestine until 1 June 2004, when the assignment was relegated to the Indonesia's Ambassador for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Amman."
^"India-Palestine Relations"(PDF). Ministry of External Affairs - India. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 2010. "In 1947, India voted against the partition of Palestine at the UN GA. India was first Non-Arab State to recognize PLO ... in 1974. India was one of the first countries to recognize the State of Palestine in 1988. In 1996, India opened its Representative Office to the Palestine Authority in Gaza, which later was shifted to Ramamllah in 2003".
^"Vietnam-Palestine Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Vietnam. Retrieved 2009. "1968: Viet Nam established ties with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)... 19 November 1988: Viet Nam recognized the State of Palestine and officially transformed the PLO's resident Representative Office into the Embassy of the State of Palestine."
^ abEmbassies & consulates in the Philippines. Best of the Philippines. 1995. ISBN9789719151609., p219: "The State of Palestine is recognized by over one hundred states including the Republic of the Philippines. In September 1989, diplomatic relations were established between the two governments leading to the opening of the Embassy of the State of Palestine in Manila, May 1990."
^ ? ? ? (in Arabic). Palestine News Network. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 2011.
^ abGovernment of Azerbaijan. "Politics"(PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original(PDF) on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 2014. "The Republic of Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with Palestine since 15.04.1992".
^ abcGeneral Delegation of Palestine to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific. "Profiles". Palestinian National Authority. Retrieved 2010. "The Head of the General Delegation of Palestine to Australia and New Zealand and Ambassador to East Timor, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu."
^Government of South Africa. "Palestine (The State of)". Department of International Relations and Cooperation. Retrieved 2010. "The establishment of full diplomatic relations with the State of Palestine was announced on 15 February 1995. ... South African Representation in Palestine - The South African Representative to the Palestinian National Authority ... State of Palestine Representation in South Africa - Embassy of the State of Palestine".
^ abcGovernment of Paraguay; Ministry of Foreign Affairs (28 January 2011). "Reconocimiento del Estado de Palestina" (Press release) (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 2011. "... estableció relaciones diplomáticas con Palestina el 25 de marzo de 2005 mediante el intercambio de Notas Reversales, acto que implicó su reconocimiento. ... Por esta declaración la República del Paraguay reitera expresamente el reconocimiento de ese Estado como libre e independiente con las fronteras del 4 de junio de 1967."
^Government of Costa Rica. "Palestina.doc" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto. Archived from the original on 21 April 2011. Retrieved 2011. "La República de Costa Rica y el Estado de Palestina acordaron hoy el establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas".
"Lebanon recognizes 'state of Palestine'". The Jerusalem Post. 30 November 2008. "The Lebanese government has approved forming full diplomatic relations with what it calls the 'state of Palestine', and is elevating the office of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Beirut to the status of an embassy. No date has been set to carry out the decision, which was announced by Lebanese Information Minister Tariq Mitri."
^Gobernio de la provincia de Salta (30 September 2009). "Almuerzo países Árabes". Delegación de la Casa Salta. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 2011. "Embajador Estado de Palestina".
^Dominica is a member of the Caribbean Community, which supports a two-state solution along internationally recognised borders. It is also one of eight members of the Bolivarian Alliance, which issued a statement on 9 September 2011 expressing full support for the recognition of the State of Palestine by the United Nations.
^Shelley, Toby (1988). "Spotlight on Morocco". West Africa. London: West Africa Publishing Company Ltd (3712-3723: 5-31 December): 2282. "...the SADR was one of the first countries to recognise the state of Palestine ... on November 15."
^Government of Israel. "Introduction". Greece's Relations with Israel, 1961-1967. Documents on the Foreign Policy of Israel. Israel State Archives. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 2011.
^Kaminaris, S.C. (June 1999). "Greece and the Middle East". Middle East Review of International Affairs. Rubin, Barry; Global Research in International Affairs. 3 (2). Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 2011.
^"Bilateral relations". Sovereign Order of Malta - official site. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 2012. "The Order of Malta has relations at Ambassador level with: Palestinian Authority".