Inupiat Language
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Inupiat Language
Iñupiaq
Native toUnited States, formerly Russia; Northwest Territories of Canada
RegionAlaska; formerly Big Diomede Island
Ethnicity20,709 Iñupiat (2015)
Native speakers
2,144, 7% of ethnic population (2007)[1]
Latin (Iñupiaq alphabet)
Iñupiaq Braille
Official status
Official language in
Alaska,[2] Northwest Territories (as Inuvialuktun, Uummarmiutun dialect)
Language codes
ik
ipk
ipk - inclusive code
Individual codes:
esi - North Alaskan Iñupiatun
esk - Northwest Alaska Iñupiatun
Glottologinup1234
ELPInupiaq
Inuktitut dialect map.svg
Inuit dialects. Iñupiat dialects are orange (Northern Alaskan) and pink (Seward Peninsula).
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Iñupiaq , Inupiaq, Iñupiat , Inupiat, Iñupiatun or Alaskan Inuit is an Inuit language, or perhaps languages, spoken by the Iñupiat people in northern and northwestern American Alaska, as well as a small adjacent part of the Canadian Northwest Territories. The Iñupiat language is a member of the Inuit-Yupik-Unangax language family, and is closely related to (but not mutually intelligible with) other Inuit languages of Canada and Greenland. There are roughly 2,000 speakers.[3] It is considered a threatened language with most speakers at or above the age of 40.[4] Iñupiaq is an official language of the State of Alaska.[5]

The main varieties of the Iñupiaq language are North Slope Iñupiaq and Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq.

The Iñupiaq language has been in decline since contact with English in the late 19th century. American territorial acquisition and the legacy of boarding schools have created a situation today where a small minority of Iñupiat speak the Iñupiaq language. There is, however, revitalization work underway today in several communities.

History

The Iñupiaq language is an Inuit-Yupik-Unangan language, also known as Eskimo-Aleut, and has been spoken in the northern regions of Alaska for as long as 5,000 years. Between 1,000 and 800 years ago, Inuit peoples migrated east from Alaska to Canada and Greenland, eventually occupying the entire Arctic coast and much of the surrounding inland areas. The Iñupiaq dialects are the most conservative forms of the Inuit language, with less linguistic change than the other Inuit languages.

In the mid to late 19th century, Russian, British, and American colonists made contact with Iñupiat people. In 1885, the American territorial government appointed Rev. Sheldon Jackson as General Agent of Education.[6] Under his administration, Iñupiat people (and all Alaska Natives) were educated in English-only environments, forbidding the use of Iñupiaq and other indigenous languages of Alaska. After decades of English-only education, with strict punishment if heard speaking Iñupiaq, after the 1970s, most Iñupiat did not pass the Iñupiaq language on to their children, for fear of them being punished for speaking their language.

In 1972, the Alaska Legislature passed legislation mandating that if "a [school is attended] by at least 15 pupils whose primary language is other than English, [then the school] shall have at least one teacher who is fluent in the native language".[7]

Today, the University of Alaska Fairbanks offers bachelor's degrees in Iñupiaq language and culture, while a preschool/kindergarten-level Iñupiaq immersion school named Nikaitchuat Ilisa?viat teaches grades PreK-1st grade in Kotzebue.

In 2014, Iñupiaq became an official language of the State of Alaska, alongside English and nineteen other indigenous languages.[5]

Dialects

There are four main dialect divisions and these can be organized within two larger dialect collections:[8]

Iñupiaq dialect distribution through Alaska and Canada.[9]
  • Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq is spoken on the Seward Peninsula. It has a possible Yupik substrate and is divergent from other Inuit languages
    • Qawiaraq
    • Bering Strait
  • Northern Alaskan Iñupiaq is spoken from the Northwest Arctic and North Slope regions of Alaska to the Mackenzie Delta in Northwest Territories, Canada.
    • Malimiut
    • North Slope Iñupiaq

Inter-intelligibility is difficult. Speakers from Noatak, for example (the Kotzebue dialect of Malimiut) have difficulty undestanding speakers of the Kobuk dialect of Malimiut, and find King Island Iñupiaq to be completely unintelligible.[10]

Dialect collection[8][11] Dialect[8][11] Subdialect[8][11] Tribal nation(s) Populated areas[11]
Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq Bering Strait Diomede I?alikmiut Little Diomede Island, Big Diomede Island until the late 1940s
Wales Ki?ikmiut, Tapqa?miut Wales, Shishmaref, Brevig Mission
King Island Ugiuva?miut King Island until the early 1960s, Nome
Qawiaraq Teller Siñi?a?miut, Qawiara?miut Teller, Shaktoolik
Fish River I?a?ui?miut White Mountain, Golovin
Northern Alaskan Iñupiaq Malimiutun Kobuk Kuu?miut, Kiitaa?miut [Kiitaa?miut], Siilim Ka?iani?miut, Nuurvi?miut, Kuuvaum Ka?ia?miut, Akuni?miut, Nuataa?miut, Napaaqtu?miut, Kivalliñi?miut[12] Kobuk River Valley, Selawik
Kotzebue Pitta?miut, Ka?i?miut, Qikiqta?ru?miut[12] Kotzebue, Noatak
North Slope / Si?aliñi?miutun Common North Slope Utuqqa?miut, Siliña?miut [Kukparu?miut and Kuu?miut], Kakligmiut [Sitarumiut, Utqia?vigmiut and Nuvugmiut], Kuulugrua?miut, Ikpikpagmiut, Kuukpigmiut [Kañianermiut, Killinermiut and Kagmalirmiut][12][13]
Point Hope[9] Tiki?a?miut Point Hope[9]
Point Barrow Utqia?vigmiut
Anaktuvuk Pass Nunamiut Anaktuvuk Pass
Uummarmiutun (Uumma?miutun) Uummarmiut (Uumma?miut) Aklavik (Canada), Inuvik (Canada)

Extra geographical information:

Bering Strait dialect:

The Native population of the Big Diomede Island was moved to the Siberian mainland after World War II. The following generation of the population spoke Central Siberian Yupik or Russian.[11] The entire population of King Island moved to Nome in the early 1960s.[11] The Bering Strait dialect might also be spoken in Teller on the Seward Peninsula.[9]

Qawiaraq dialect:

A dialect of Qawiaraq is spoken in Nome.[9][11] A dialect of Qawariaq may also be spoken in Koyuk,[11] Mary's Igloo, Council, and Elim.[9] The Teller sub-dialect may be spoken in Unalakleet.[9][11]

Malimiutun dialect:

Both sub-dialects can be found in Buckland, Koyuk, Shaktoolik, and Unalakleet.[9][11] A dialect of Malimiutun may be spoken in Deering, Kiana, Noorvik, Shungnak, and Ambler.[9] The Malimiutun sub-dialects have also been classified as "Southern Malimiut" (found in Koyuk, Shaktoolik, and Unalakleet) and "Northern Malimiut" found in "other villages".[9]

North Slope dialect:

Common North Slope is "a mix of the various speech forms formerly used in the area".[11] The Point Barrow dialect was "spoken only by a few elders" in 2010.[11] A dialect of North Slope is also spoken in Kivalina, Point Lay, Wainwright, Atqasuk, Utqia?vik, Nuiqsut, and Barter Island.[9]

Phonology

Iñupiaq dialects differ widely between consonants used. However, consonant clusters of more than two consonants in a row do not occur. A word may not begin nor end with a consonant cluster.[9]

All Iñupiaq dialects have three basic vowel qualities: /a i u/.[9][11] There is currently no instrumental work to determine what allophones may be linked to these vowels. All three vowels can be long or short, giving rise to a system of six phonemic vowels /a a: i i: u u:/. Long vowels are represented by double letters in the orthographyaa?, ?ii?, ?uu?.[9] The following diphthongs occur: /ai ia au ua iu ui/.[9][14] No more than two vowels occur in a sequence in Iñupiaq.[9]

The Bering strait dialect has a fourth vowel /e/, which preserves the fourth proto-Eskimo vowel reconstructed as */?/.[9][11] In the other dialects, proto-Eskimo */e/ has merged with the closed front vowel /i/. The merged /i/ is referred to as the "strong /i/", which causes palatalization when preceding consonant clusters in the North Slope dialect (see section on palatalization below). The other /i/ is referred to as "the weak /i/". Weak and strong /i/s are not differentiated in orthography,[9] making it impossible to tell which ?i? represents palatalization "short of looking at other processes which depend on the distinction between two i's or else examining data from other Eskimo languages".[15] However, it can be assumed that, within a word, if a palatal consonant is preceded by an ?i?, it is strong. If an alveolar consonant is preceded by an ?i?, it is weak.[15]

Words begin with a stop (with the exception of the palatal stop /c/), the fricative /s/, nasals /m n/, with a vowel, or the semivowel /j/. Loanwords, proper names, and exclamations may begin with any segment in both the Seward Peninsula dialects and the North Slope dialects.[9] In the Uummarmiutun dialect words can also begin with /h/. For example, the word for "ear" in North Slope and Little Diomede Island dialects is siun whereas in Uummarmiutun it is hiun.

A word may end in any nasal sound (except for the /?/ found in North Slope), in the stops /t k q/ or in a vowel. In the North Slope dialect if a word ends with an m, and the next word begins with a stop, the m is pronounced /p/, as in a?nam tupi?a, pronounced /a?nap tupi?a/[9]

Very little information of the prosody of Iñupiaq has been collected. However, "fundamental frequency (Hz), intensity (dB), loudness (sones), and spectral tilt (phons - dB) may be important" in Malimiutun.[16] Likewise, "duration is not likely to be important in Malimiut Iñupiaq stress/syllable prominence".[16]

North Slope Iñupiaq

For North Slope Iñupiaq[8][9][17]

  1. ^ The sound might not exist.
  2. ^ Recent learners of the language, and heritage speakers are replacing the sound (written in Iñupiaq as "r") with the American English sound with which it is similar.[16]
  3. ^ The sound might actually be the sound .

The voiceless stops /p/ /t/ /k/ and /q/ are not aspirated.[9] This may or may not be true for other dialects as well.

/c/ is derived from a palatalized and unreleased /t/.[9]

Assimilation:[9]

Two consonants cannot appear together unless they share the manner of articulation (in this case treating the lateral and approximant consonants as fricatives). The only exception to this rule is having a voiced fricative consonant appear with a nasal consonant. Since all stops in North Slope are voiceless, a lot of needed assimilation arises from having to assimilate a voiceless stop to a voiced consonant.

This process is realized by assimilating the first consonant in the cluster to a consonant that: 1) has the same (or closest possible) area of articulation as the consonant being assimilated to; and 2) has the same manner of articulation as the second consonant that it is assimilating to. If the second consonant is a lateral or approximant, the first consonant will assimilate to a lateral or approximant if possible. If not the first consonant will assimilate to a fricative. Therefore:

IPA Example
/kn/ -> /?n/
or -> /?n/

Kamik

"to put boots on"

+

+

niaq

"will"

+

+

te

"he"

->

->

kamigniaqtuq or kami?niaqtuq

he will put the boots on

Kamik + niaq + te -> {kamigniaqtuq or kami?niaqtuq}

{"to put boots on"} + "will" + "he" -> {he will put the boots on}

/qn/ -> /?n/
or -> /?/ *

i?isaq

"to study"

+

+

niaq

"will"

+

+

tuq

"he"

->

->

i?isa?niaqtuq

he will study

i?isaq + niaq + tuq -> i?isa?niaqtuq

{"to study"} + "will" + "he" -> {he will study}

/tn/ -> /nn/

aqpat

"to run"

+

+

niaq

"will"

+

+

tuq

"he"

->

->

aqpanniaqtuq

he will run

aqpat + niaq + tuq -> aqpanniaqtuq

{"to run"} + "will" + "he" -> {he will run}

/tm/ -> /nm/

makit

"to stand up"

+

+

man

"when he"

->

->

makinman

When he stood up

makit + man -> makinman

{"to stand up"} + {"when he"} -> {When he stood up}

/t?/ -> //

makit

"to stand"

+

+

?uni

"by ---ing"

->

->

makiuni

standing up, he ...

makit + ?uni -> makiuni

{"to stand"} + {"by ---ing"} -> {standing up, he ...}

* The sound /?/ is not represented in the orthography. Therefore the spelling ?n can be pronounced as /?n/ or /?n/. In both examples 1 and 2, since voiced fricatives can appear with nasal consonants, both consonant clusters are possible.

The stops /t/ and /t/ do not have a corresponding voiced fricative, therefore they will assimilate to the closest possible area of articulation. In this case, the /t/ will assimilate to the voiced approximant /j/. The /t/ will assimilate into a /?/. Therefore:

IPA Example
/t/ -> /j?/

siksriit

"squirrels"

+

+

guuq

"it is said that"

->

->

siksriiyguuq

it is said that squirrels

siksriit + guuq -> siksriiyguuq

"squirrels" + {"it is said that"} -> {it is said that squirrels}

/tv/ -> /?v/

aqpat

"to run"

+

+

vik

"place"

->

->

aqparvik

race track

aqpat + vik -> aqparvik

{"to run"} + "place" -> {race track}

(In the first example above note that <sr> denotes a single constant, as shown in the alphabet section below, so the constraint of at most two consonants in a cluster, as mentioned above, is not violated.)

In the case of the second consonant being a lateral, the lateral will again be treated as a fricative. Therefore:

IPA Example
/ml/ -> /ml/
or -> /vl/

a?nam

"(of) the woman"

+

+

lu

"and"

->

->

a?namlu or a?navlu

and (of) the woman

a?nam + lu -> {a?namlu or a?navlu}

{"(of) the woman"} + "and" -> {and (of) the woman}

/nl/ -> /nl/
or -> /vl/

a?un

"the man"

+

+

lu

"and"

->

->

a?unlu or a?ullu

and the man

a?un + lu -> {a?unlu or a?ullu}

{"the man"} + "and" -> {and the man}

Since voiced fricatives can appear with nasal consonants, both consonant clusters are possible.

The sounds /f/ /x/ and /?/ are not represented in the orthography (unless they occur alone between vowels). Therefore, like the /?n/ example shown above, assimilation still occurs while the spelling remains the same. Therefore:

IPA (pronunciation) Example
/q?/ -> //

miq?iqtuq

child

miq?iqtuq

child

/k?/ -> /x?/

siksrik

squirrel

siksrik

squirrel

/vs/ -> /fs/

tavsi

belt

tavsi

belt

These general features of assimilation are not shared with Uummarmiut, Malimiutun, or the Seward Peninsula dialects. Malimiutun and the Seward Peninsula dialects "preserve[] voiceless stops (k, p, q, t) when they are etymological (i.e. when they belong to the original word-base)".[11] Compare:

North Slope Malimiutun Seward Peninsula dialects Uummarmiut English
nivliqsuq nipliqsuq nivliraqtuq makes a sound
igniq ikniq ikniq fire
annu?aak atnu?aak atar?aaq garment

Palatalization[9]

The following patterns of palatalization can occur in North Slope Iñupiaq: /t/ -> /t/, /t?/ or /s/; /?/ -> //; /l/ -> /?/; and /n/ -> /?/. Palatalization only occurs when one of these four alveolars is preceded by a strong i. Compare:

Type of I Example
strong

qimmiq

/qim:iq/

dog

->

->

->

qimmit

/qim:it/

dogs

qimmiq -> qimmit

/qim:iq/ -> /qim:it/

dog -> dogs

weak

tumi

/tumi/

footprint

->

->

->

tumit

/tumit/

footprints

tumi -> tumit

/tumi/ -> /tumit/

footprint -> footprints

strong

ii

/i?:i/

mountain

->

->

->

ii?u

/i?:i?u/

and a mountain

ii -> ii?u

/i?:i/ -> /i?:i?u/

mountain -> {and a mountain}

weak

tumi

/tumi/

footprint

->

->

->

tumilu

/tumilu/

and a footprint

tumi -> tumilu

/tumi/ -> /tumilu/

footprint -> {and a footprint}

Please note that the sound /t/ does not have its own letter, and is simply spelled with a T t. The IPA transcription of the above vowels may be incorrect.

If a t that precedes a vowel is palatalized, it will become an /s/. The strong i affects the entire consonant cluster, palatalizing all consonants that can be palatalized within the cluster. Therefore:

Type of I Example
strong

qimmiq

/qimmiq/

dog

+

+

+

tigun

/ti?un/

amongst the plural things

->

->

->

qimmisigun

/qim:isi?un/

amongst, in the midst of dogs

qimmiq + tigun -> qimmisigun

/qimmiq/ + /ti?un/ -> /qim:isi?un/

dog + {amongst the plural things} -> {amongst, in the midst of dogs}

strong

puqik

/puqik/

to be smart

+

+

+

tuq

/tuq/

she/he/it

->

->

->

puqiksuq

/puqiksuq/

she/he/it is smart

puqik + tuq -> puqiksuq

/puqik/ + /tuq/ -> /puqiksuq/

{to be smart} + {she/he/it} -> {she/he/it is smart}

Note in the first example, due to the nature of the suffix, the /q/ is dropped. Like the first set of examples, the IPA transcriptions of above vowels may be incorrect.

If a strong i precedes geminate consonant, the entire elongated consonant becomes palatalized. For Example: ni?aturuq and tikiññiaqtuq.

Further strong versus weak i processes[9]

The strong i can be paired with a vowel. The weak i on the other hand cannot.[15] The weak i will become an a if it is paired with another vowel, or if the consonant before the i becomes geminate. This rule may or may not apply to other dialects. Therefore:

Type of I Example
weak

tumi

/tumi/

footprint

->

->

->

tumaa

/tuma:/

her/his footprint

tumi -> tumaa

/tumi/ -> /tuma:/

footprint -> {her/his footprint}

strong

qimmiq

/qim:iq/

dog

->

->

->

qimmia

/qim:ia/

her/his dog

qimmiq -> qimmia

/qim:iq/ -> /qim:ia/

dog -> {her/his dog}

weak

kamik

/kamik/

boot

->

->

->

kammak

/kam:ak/

two boots

kamik -> kammak

/kamik/ -> /kam:ak/

boot -> {two boots}

Like the first two sets of examples, the IPA transcriptions of above vowels may be incorrect.

Uummarmiutun sub-dialect

For the Uummarmiutun sub-dialect:[14]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals m n ? ?
Stops voiceless p t t? k q ?[a]
voiced d?
Fricatives voiceless f x ? h
voiced v ? ? ?
Lateral voiceless ?
voiced l
Approximant j
  1. ^ Ambiguities: This sound might exist in the Uummarmiutun sub dialect.

Phonological rules

The following are the phonological rules:[14] The /f/ is always found as a geminate.

The /j/ cannot be geminated, and is always found between vowels or preceded by /v/. In rare cases it can be found at the beginning of a word.

The /h/ is never geminate, and can appear as the first letter of the word, between vowels, or preceded by /k/ /?/ or /q/.

The /t?/ and /d?/ are always geminate or preceded by a /t/.

The /?/ can appear between vowels, preceded by consonants /?/ /k/ /q/ /?/ /t/ or /v/, or it can be followed by /?/, /v/, /?/.

Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq

For Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq:[8]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals m n ?
Stops voiceless p t t? k q ?
voiced b
Fricatives voiceless s ? h
voiced v z ? ? ?
Lateral voiceless ?
voiced l
Approximant w j ?

Unlike the other Iñupiaq dialects, the Seward Peninsula dialect has a mid central vowel e (see the beginning of the phonology section for more information).

Gemination

In North Slope Iñupiaq, all consonants represented by orthography can be geminated, except for the sounds /t?/ /s/ /h/ and /?/.[9] Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq (using vocabulary from the Little Diomede Island as a representative sample) likewise can have all consonants represented by orthography appear as geminates, except for /b/ /h/ /?/ /?/ /w/ /z/ and /?/. Gemination is caused by suffixes being added to a consonant, so that the consonant is found between two vowels.[9]

Writing systems

Iñupiaq was first written when explorers first arrived in Alaska and began recording words in the native languages. They wrote by adapting the letters of their own language to writing the sounds they were recording. Spelling was often inconsistent, since the writers invented it as they wrote. Unfamiliar sounds were often confused with other sounds, so that, for example, 'q' was often not distinguished from 'k' and long consonants or vowels were not distinguished from short ones.

Along with the Alaskan and Siberian Yupik, the Iñupiat eventually adopted the Latin script (Qaliujaaqpait) that Moravian missionaries developed in Greenland and Labrador. Native Alaskans also developed a system of pictographs,[which?] which, however, died with its creators.[18]

In 1946, Roy Ahmaogak, an Iñupiaq Presbyterian minister from Utqia?vik, worked with Eugene Nida, a member of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, to develop the current Iñupiaq alphabet based on the Latin script. Although some changes have been made since its origin--most notably the change from '?' to 'q'--the essential system was accurate and is still in use.

Iñupiaq alphabet (North Slope and Northwest Arctic)[19]
A a Ch ch G g ? ? H h I i K k L l ? ? ? ? M m
a cha ga ?a ha i ka la ?a ?a a ma
N n Ñ ñ ? ? P p Q q R r S s Sr sr T t U u V v Y y
na ña ?a pa qa ra sa sra ta u va ya

Extra letter for Kobuk dialect: '

Iñupiaq alphabet (Seward Peninsula)
A a B b G g ? ? H h I i K k L l ? ? M m N n ? ? P p
a ba ga ?a ha i ka la ?a ma na ?a pa
Q q R r S s Sr sr T t U u V v W w Y y Z z Zr zr '
qa ra sa sra ta u va wa ya za zra

Extra letters for specific dialects:

  • Diomede: e
  • Qawiaraq: ch /t?/
Canadian Iñupiaq alphabet (Uummarmiutun)
A a Ch ch F f G g H h Dj dj I i K k L l ? ? M m
a cha fa ga ha dja i ka la ?a ma
N n Ñ ñ Ng ng P p Q q R r R? r? T t U u V v Y y
na ña ?a pa qa ra r?a ta u va ya

Morphosyntax

Due to the number of dialects and complexity of Iñupiaq Morphosyntax, the following section will be discussing Malimiutun morphosyntax as a representative example. Any examples from other dialects will be marked as such.

Iñupiaq is a polysynthetic language, meaning that words can be extremely long, consisting of one of three stems (verb stem, noun stem, and demonstrative stem) along with one or more of three endings (postbases, (grammatical) endings, and enclitics).[9] The stem gives meaning to the word, whereas endings give information regarding case, mood, tense, person, plurality, etc. The stem can appear as simple (having no postbases) or complex (having one or more postbases). In Iñupiaq a "postbase serves somewhat the same functions that adverbs, adjectives, prefixes, and suffixes do in English" along with marking various types of tenses.[9] There are six word classes in Malimiut Inñupiaq: nouns (see Nominal Morphology), verbs (see Verbal Morphology), adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, and interjections. All demonstratives are classified as either adverbs or pronouns.[16]

Nominal morphology

The Iñupiaq category of number distinguishes singular, dual, and plural. The language works on an Ergative-Absolutive system, where nouns are inflected for number, several cases, and possession.[9] Iñupiaq (Malimiutun) has nine cases, two core cases (ergative and absolutive) and seven oblique cases (instrumental, allative, ablative, locative, perlative, similative and vocative).[16] North Slope Iñupiaq does not have the vocative case.[9] Iñupiaq does not have a category of gender and articles.[]

Iñupiaq Nouns can likewise be classified by Wolf A. Seiler's seven noun classes.[16][20] These noun classes are "based on morphological behavior. [They] ... have no semantic basis but are useful for case formation ... stems of various classes interact with suffixes differently".[16]

Due to the nature of the morphology, a single case can take on up to 12 endings (ignoring the fact that realization of these endings can change depending on noun class). For example, the possessed ergative ending for a class 1a noun can take on the endings: -ma, ‑mnuk, ‑pta, ‑vich, ‑ptik, -psi, -mi, -mik, -mi?, -?an, -?aknik, and ‑?ata. Therefore, only general features will be described below. For an extensive list on case endings, please see Seiler 2012, Appendix 4, 6, and 7.[20]

Absolutive case/noun stems

The subject of an intransitive sentence or the object of a transitive sentence take on the absolutive case. This case is likewise used to mark the basic form of a noun. Therefore, all the singular, dual, and plural absolutive forms serve as stems for the other oblique cases.[9] The following chart is verified of both Malimiutun and North Slope Iñupiaq.

Absolutive endings[9][16]
Endings
singular -q, -k, -n, or any vowel
dual -k
plural -t

If the singular absolutive form ends with -n, it has the underlying form of -ti /t?/. This form will show in the absolutive dual and plural forms. Therefore:

ti?misuun

airplane

->

 

ti?misuutik

two airplanes

&

 

ti?misuutit

multiple airplanes

ti?misuun -> ti?misuutik & ti?misuutit

airplane {} {two airplanes} {} {multiple airplanes}

Regarding nouns that have an underlying /?/ (weak i), the i will change to an a and the previous consonant will be geminated in the dual form. Therefore:

Kamik

boot

->

 

kammak

two boots

Kamik -> kammak

boot {} {two boots}

If the singular form of the noun ends with -k, the preceding vowel will be elongated. Therefore:

savik

knife

->

 

saviik

two knives

savik -> saviik

knife {} {two knives}

On occasion, the consonant preceding the final vowel is also geminated, though exact phonological reasoning is unclear.[16]

Ergative case

The ergative case is often referred to as the Relative Case in Iñupiaq sources.[9] This case marks the subject of a transitive sentence or a genitive (possessive) noun phrase. For non-possessed noun phrases, the noun is marked only if it is a third person singular. The unmarked nouns leave ambiguity as to who/what is the subject and object. This can be resolved only through context.[9][16] Possessed noun phrases and noun phrases expressing genitive are marked in ergative for all persons.[16]

Ergative endings[16]
Endings Allophones
-m -um, -im

This suffix applies to all singular unpossessed nouns in the ergative case.

Examples
Example English
a?un -> a?utim man -> man (ergative)
a?atchiaq -> a?atchia?ma uncle -> my two uncles (ergative)

Please note the underlying /t?/ form in the first example.

Instrumental case

This case is also referred to as the modalis case. This case has a wide range of uses described below:

Usage of instrumental[16] Example
Marks nouns that are means by which the subject achieves something (see instrumental)

A?uniaqtim

hunter.ERG

a?vi?luaq

gray wale-ABS

tuqutkaa

kill-IND-3SG.SBJ-3SG.OBJ

nauligamik.

harpoon-INS

 

(using it as a tool to)

A?uniaqtim a?vi?luaq tuqutkaa nauligamik.

hunter.ERG {gray wale-ABS} kill-IND-3SG.SBJ-3SG.OBJ harpoon-INS

The hunter killed the gray whale with a harpoon.

Marks the apparent patient (grammatical object upon which the action was carried out) of syntactically intransitive verbs

Miñu?iqtugut

paint-IND-3SG.OBJ

umiamik.

boat-INS

 

(having the previous verb being done to it)

Miñu?iqtugut umiamik.

paint-IND-3SG.OBJ boat-INS

We're painting a boat.

Marks information new to the narrative (when the noun is first mentioned in a narrative)

Marks indefinite objects of some transitive verbs

Tuyu?aat

send-IND-3PL.SBJ-3SG.OBJ

tuyuutimik.

letter-INS

 

(new piece of information)

Tuyu?aat tuyuutimik.

send-IND-3PL.SBJ-3SG.OBJ letter-INS

They sent him a letter.

Marks the specification of a noun's meaning to incorporate the meaning of another noun (without incorporating both nouns into a single word) (Modalis of specification)[9]

Ni?iqaqtuguk

food--have-IND-1DU.SBJ

tuttumik.

caribou-INS

 

(specifying that the caribou is food by referring to the previous noun)

Ni?iqaqtuguk tuttumik.

food--have-IND-1DU.SBJ caribou-INS

We (dual) have (food) caribou for food.

Qavsiñik

how many-INS

paniqaqpit?

daughter--have

 

(of the following noun)

Qavsiñik paniqaqpit?

{how many}-INS daughter--have

How many daughters do you have?

Instrumental endings[16]
Endings Examples
singular -mik

Kamik

boot

->

->

kami?mik

(with a) boot

Kamik -> kami?mik

boot -> {(with a) boot}

dual [dual absolutive stem] -nik

kammak

(two) boots

->

->

kamma?nik

(with two) boots

kammak -> kamma?nik

{(two) boots} -> {(with two) boots}

plural [singular absolutive stem] -nik

kamik

boot

->

->

kami?nik

(with multiple) boots

kamik -> kami?nik

boot -> {(with multiple) boots}

Since the ending is the same for both dual and plural, different stems are used. In all the examples the k is assimilated to an ?.

Allative case

The allative case is also referred to as the terminalis case. The uses of this case are described below:[16]

Usage of Allative[16] Example
Used to signify motion or an action directed towards a goal[9]

Qali?aum

Qali?ak-ERG

quppi?aaq

coat-ABS

atauksritchaa

lend-IND-3SG.SBJ-3SG.OBJ

Nauyamun.

Nauyaq-ALL

 

(towards his direction/to him)

Qali?aum quppi?aaq atauksritchaa Nauyamun.

Qali?ak-ERG coat-ABS lend-IND-3SG.SBJ-3SG.OBJ Nauyaq-ALL

Qali?ak lent a coat to Nauyaq

Isiqtuq

enter-IND-3SG

iglumun.

house-ALL

 

(into)

Isiqtuq iglumun.

enter-IND-3SG house-ALL

He went into the house

Signifies that the statement is for the purpose of the marked noun

Ni?iqpa?mun

feast-ALL

niq?iuq?ñiaqtugut.

prepare.a.meal-FUT-IND-3PL.SBJ

 

(for the purpose of)

Ni?iqpa?mun niq?iuq?ñiaqtugut.

feast-ALL prepare.a.meal-FUT-IND-3PL.SBJ

We will prepare a meal for the feast.

Signifies the beneficiary of the statement

Piquum

Piquk-ERG

uligruat

blanket-ABS-PL

paipiuranun

baby-PL-ALL

qi?a?niqsuq.

knit-IND-3SG

 

(for)

Piquum uligruat paipiuranun qi?a?niqsuq.

Piquk-ERG blanket-ABS-PL baby-PL-ALL knit-IND-3SG

Evidently Piquk knits blankets for babies.

Marks the noun that is being addressed to

Qali?a?mun

Qali?a?mun-ALL

uqautirut

tell-IND-3PL.SBJ

 

(to)

Qali?a?mun uqautirut

Qali?a?mun-ALL tell-IND-3PL.SBJ

They (plural) told Qali?ak.

Allative endings
Endings Examples
singular -mun

a?nauraq

girl

->

->

a?nauramun

(to the) girl

a?nauraq -> a?nauramun

girl -> {(to the) girl}

dual [dual absolutive stem] -nun

a?naurak

(two) girls

->

->

a?naura?*

(with two) girls

a?naurak -> a?naura?*

{(two) girls} -> {(with two) girls}

plural [singular absolutive stem] -nun

a?nauraq

girl

->

->

a?nauranun

(to the two) girls

a?nauraq -> a?nauranun

girl -> {(to the two) girls}

*It is unclear as to whether this example is regular for the dual form or not.

Numerals

Iñupiaq numerals are base-20 with a sub-base of 5. The numbers 1 to 20 are:[21]

1 2 3 4 5
atausiq mal?uk pi?asut sisamat tallimat
6 7 8 9 10
itchaksrat tallimat mal?uk tallimat pi?asut quliu?utai?aq qulit
11 12 13 14 15
qulit atausiq qulit mal?uk qulit pi?asut akimia?utai?aq akimiaq
16 17 18 19 20
akimiaq atausiq akimiaq mal?uk akimiaq pi?asut iñuiñña?utai?aq iñuiññaq

The sub-base of five shows in the words for 5, tallimat, and 15, akimiaq, to which the numbers 1 to 3 are added to create the words for 7, 8, 16, 17 and 18, etc. (itchaksrat '6' being irregular). Apart from sisamat '4', numbers before a multiple of five are indicated with the subtractive element -utai?aq: quliu?utai?aq '9' from qulit '10', akimia?utai?aq '14' from akimiaq '15', iñuiñña?utai?aq '19' from iñuiññaq '20'.[22]

Scores are created with the element -ipiaq, and numbers between the scores are composed by adding 1 through 19 to these. Multiples of 400 are created with -agliaq and 8000's with -pak. Note that these words will vary between singular -q and plural -t, depending on the speaker and whether they are being used for counting or for modifying a noun.

# Number Notation
20 iñuiññaq 20
25 iñuiññaq tallimat 20 + 5
29 iñuiññaq quliu?utai?aq 20 + 10 - 1
30 iñuiññaq qulit 20 + 10
35 iñuiññaq akimiaq 20 + 15
39 mal?ukipia?utai?aq 2 * 20 - 1
40 mal?ukipiaq 2 * 20
45 mal?ukipiaq tallimat 2 * 20 + 5
50 mal?ukipiaq qulit 2 * 20 + 10
55 mal?ukipiaq akimiaq 2 * 20 + 15
60 pi?asukipiaq 3 * 20
70 pi?asukipiaq qulit 3 * 20 + 10
80 sisamakipiaq 4 * 20
90 sisamakipiaq qulit 4 * 20 + 10
99 tallimakipia?utai?aq 5 * 20 + 1
100 tallimakipiaq 5 * 20
110 tallimakipiaq qulit 5 * 20 + 10
120 tallimakipiaq iñuiññaq 5 * 20 + 20
140 tallimakipiaq mal?ukipiaq 5 * 20 + 2 * 20
200 qulikipiaq 10 * 20
300 akimiakipiaq 15 * 20
400 iñuiññakipiaq (in reindeer herding and math, i?agiññaq) 20 * 20
800 mal?uagliaq 2 * 400
1200 pi?asuagliaq 3 * 400
1600 sisamaagliaq 4 * 400
2000 tallimaagliaq 5 * 400
2400 tallimaagliaq i?agiññaq 5 * 400 + 400
2800 tallimaagliaq mal?uagliaq 5 * 400 + 2 * 400
4000 quliagliaq 10 * 400
7999 atausiqpautai?aq 8000 - 1
8000 atausiqpak 8000
16,000 mal?uqpak 2 * 8000
24,000 pi?asuqpak 3 * 8000
32,000 sisamaqpak 4 * 8000
40,000 tallimaqpak 5 * 8000
48,000 tallimaqpak atausiqpak 5 * 8000 + 8000
72,000 tallimaqpak sisamaqpak 5 * 8000 + 4 * 8000
80,000 quliqpak 10 * 8000
120,000 akimiaqpak 15 * 8000
160,000 iñuiññaqpiaq 20 * 80000
800,000 tallimakipiaqpak 5 * 20 * 8000

The system continues through compounding, e.g.

# Number Notation
3,200,000 i?agiññaqpak 400 * 8000
64,000,000 atausiqpakaippaq 8000 * 8000
1,280,000,000 iñuiññaqpakaippaq 20 * 8000 * 8000
25,600,000,000 i?agiññaqpakaippaq 400 * 8000 * 8000
511,999,999,999 atausiqpakpi?atcha?utai?aq 1 * 8000 * [64M] - 1
204,800,000,000,000 i?agiññaqpakpi?atchaq 400 * 8000 * [64M]
2,048,000,000,000,000 quliagliaqpakpi?atchaq 10 * 400 * 8000 * [64M]

There is also a decimal system for the hundreds and thousands, with the numerals qavluun for 100, kavluutit for 1000, mal?uk kavluutit for 2000, etc.[23]

Etymology

The numeral five, tallimat, is derived from the word for hand/arm. The word for 10, qulit, is derived from the word for "top", meaning the ten digits on the top part of the body. The numeral for 15, akimiaq, means something like "it goes across", and the numeral for 20, iñuiññaq means something like "entire person" or "complete person", indicating the 20 digits of all extremities.[22]

Verbal morphology

Again, Malimiutun Iñupiaq is used as a representative example in this section. The basic structure of the verb is [(verb) + (derivational suffix) + (inflectional suffix) + (enclitic)], although Lanz (2010) argues that this approach is insufficient since it "forces one to analyze ... optional ... suffixes".[16] Every verb has an obligatory inflection for person, number, and mood (all marked by a single suffix), and can have other inflectional suffixes such as tense, aspect, modality, and various suffixes carrying adverbial functions.[16]

Tense

Tense marking is always optional. The only explicitly marked tense is the future tense. Past and present tense cannot be marked and are always implied. All verbs can be marked through adverbs to show relative time (using words such as "yesterday" or "tomorrow"). If neither of these markings is present, the verb can imply a past, present, or future tense.[16]

Future tense[16]
Tense Example
Present

Uqaqsiitigun

telephone

uqaqtuguk.

we-DU-talk

Uqaqsiitigun uqaqtuguk.

telephone we-DU-talk

We (two) talk on the phone.

Future

Uqaqsiitigun

telephone

uqa?isiruguk.

we-DU-FUT-talk

Uqaqsiitigun uqa?isiruguk.

telephone we-DU-FUT-talk

We (two) will talk on the phone.

Future (implied)

I?ñivaluktuq

give birth probably

aakaura?a

my sister

uvlaakun.

tomorrow

I?ñivaluktuq aakaura?a uvlaakun.

{give birth probably} {my sister} tomorrow

My sister (will) give(s) birth tomorrow. (the future tense "will" is implied by the word tomorrow)

Aspect

Marking aspect is optional in Iñupiaq verbs. Both North Slope and Malimiut Iñupiaq have a perfective versus imperfective distinction in aspect, along with other distinctions such as: frequentative (-ataq; "to repeatedly verb"), habitual (-suu; "to always, habitually verb"), inchoative (-?hiñaaq; "about to verb"), and intentional (-sa?uma; "intend to verb"). The aspect suffix can be found after the verb root and before or within the obligatory person-number-mood suffix.[16]

Mood

Iñupiaq has the following moods: Indicative, Interrogative, Imperative (positive, negative), Coordinative, and Conditional.[16][20] Participles are sometimes classified as a mood.[16]

[16]
Mood Usage Example Notes
Indicative Declarative statements

a?uniaqtit

hunt-NZ-PL

siñiktut.

sleep-3-IND

a?uniaqtit siñiktut.

hunt-NZ-PL sleep-3-IND

The hunters are sleeping.

Participles Creating relative clauses

Putu

Putu

a?utauruq

young-man

umiaqaqtuaq.

boat-have-3-PTCP

Putu a?utauruq umiaqaqtuaq.

Putu young-man boat-have-3-PTCP

Putu is a man who owns a boat.

"who owns a boat" is one word, where the meaning of the English "who" is implied through the case.
Interrogative Formation of yes/no questions and content questions

Puuvratlavich.

swim-POT-2-INTERR

Puuvratlavich.

swim-POT-2-INTERR

Can you (singular) swim?

Yes/no question

Suvisik?

what-2DU-INTERR

Suvisik?

what-2DU-INTERR

What are you two doing?

Content question (this is a single word)
Imperative A command

Naala?iñ!

listen-2SG-IMP

Naala?iñ!

listen-2SG-IMP

Listen!

Conditionals Conditional and hypothetical statements

Kakkama

hungry-1SG-COND-PFV

ni?i?aru?a.

eat-PFV-1SG-IND

Kakkama ni?i?aru?a.

hungry-1SG-COND-PFV eat-PFV-1SG-IND

When I got hungry, I ate.

Conditional statement. The verb "eat" is in the indicative mood because it is simply a declarative statement.

Kaakkumi

hungry-1SG-COND-IPFV

ni?iñiaqtu?a.

eat-FUT-1SG-IND

Kaakkumi ni?iñiaqtu?a.

hungry-1SG-COND-IPFV eat-FUT-1SG-IND

If I get hungry, I will eat.

Hypothetical statement. The verb "eat" is in the indicative mood because it is simply a statement.
Coordinative Formation of dependent clauses that function as modifiers of independent clauses

Agliqi?u?a

read-1SG-COORD

ni?iru?a.

eat-1SG-IND

Agliqi?u?a ni?iru?a.

read-1SG-COORD eat-1SG-IND

[While] reading, I eat.

The coordinative case on the verb "read" signifies that the verb is happening at the same time as the main clause ("eat" - marked by indicative because it is simply a declarative statement).

Indicative mood endings can be transitive or intransitive, as seen in the table below.

Indicative intransitive endings Indicative transitive endings
OBJECT
Mood marker 3s 3d 3p 2s 2d 2p 1s 1d 1p
+t/ru ?a

guk

gut

1S

1D

1P

S

U

B

J

E

C

T

+kI/gI ga

kpuk

kput

kka

tka

vuk

vut

kpiñ

?

visigiñ

vsik

?

?

vsI

?

?

1S

1D

1P

S

U

B

J

E

C

T

tin

sik

sI

2S

2D

2P

n

ksik

ksi

kkiñ

tin

sik

si

?ma

vsia

vsiñ?a

vsiguk

?

?

vsigut

?

?

2S

2D

2P

q

k

t

3S

SD

3P

+ka/ga a

ak

at

ik

?

?

I

?

It

atin

?

?

asik

?

?

asI

?

?

a?a

aa

aa

atiguk

?

?

atigut

?

?

3S

3D

3P

Syntax

Nearly all syntactic operations in the Malimiut dialect of Iñiupiaq--and Inuit languages and dialects in general--are carried out via morphological means."[16]

The language aligns to an ergative-absolutive case system, which is mainly shown through nominal case markings and verb agreement (see above).[16]

The basic word order is subject-object-verb. However, word order is flexible and both subject and/or object can be omitted. There is a tendency for the subject of a transitive verb (marked by the ergative case) to precede the object of the clause (marked by the absolutive case). There is likewise a tendency for the subject of an intransitive verb (marked by the absolutive case) to precede the verb. The subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a clause (both marked by the absolutive case) are usually found right before the verb. However, "this is [all] merely a tendency."[16]

Iñupiaq grammar also includes morphological passive, antipassive, causative and applicative.

Noun incorporation

Noun incorporation is a common phenomenon in Malimiutun Iñupiaq. The first type of noun incorporation is lexical compounding. Within this subset of noun incorporation, the noun, which represents an instrument, location, or patient in relation to the verb, is attached to the front of the verb stem, creating a new intransitive verb. The second type is manipulation of case. It is argued whether this form of noun incorporation is present as noun incorporation in Iñupiaq, or "semantically transitive noun incorporation"--since with this kind of noun incorporation the verb remains transitive. The noun phrase subjects are incorporated not syntactically into the verb but rather as objects marked by the instrumental case. The third type of incorporation, manipulation of discourse structure, is supported by Mithun (1984) and argued against by Lanz (2010). See Lanz's paper for further discussion.[16] The final type of incorporation is classificatory noun incorporation, whereby a "general [noun] is incorporated into the [verb], while a more specific [noun] narrows the scope".[16] With this type of incorporation, the external noun can take on external modifiers and, like the other incorporations, the verb becomes intransitive. See Nominal Morphology (Instrumental Case, Usage of Instrumental table, row four) on this page for an example.

Switch-references

Switch-references occur in dependent clauses only with third person subjects. The verb must be marked as reflexive if the third person subject of the dependent clause matches the subject of the main clause (more specifically matrix clause).[16] Compare:

Switch references[16]
Example Notes

Kaakkama

hungry-3-REFL-COND

ni?i?aruq.

eat-3-IND

Kaakkama ni?i?aruq.

hungry-3-REFL-COND eat-3-IND

When he/she got hungry, he/she ate.

The verb in the matrix clause (to eat) refers to the same person because the verb in the dependent clause (To get hungry) is reflexive. Therefore, a single person got hungry and ate.

Kaa?man

hungry-3-NREFL-COND

ni?i?aruq.

eat-3-IND

Kaa?man ni?i?aruq.

hungry-3-NREFL-COND eat-3-IND

When he/she got hungry, (someone else) ate.

The verb in the matrix clause (to eat) refers to a different singular person because the verb in the dependent clause (To get hungry) is non-reflexive.

Text sample

This is a sample of the Iñupiaq language of the Kivalina variety from Kivalina Reader, published in 1975.

Aaaayiña aniñiqsuq Qikiqtami. Aasii iñugu?uni. Tiki?a?mi Kivaliñi?mi?u. Tuvaaqatiniguni Aivayuamik. Qulit atautchimik qitun?iv?utik. Itchaksrat iñuuvluti?. I?a?at Qitun?aisa taamna Qiñu?ana.

This is the English translation, from the same source:

Aaaayiña was born in Shishmaref. He grew up in Point Hope and Kivalina. He marries Aivayuaq. They had eleven children. Six of them are alive. One of the children is Qiñu?ana.

Vocabulary comparison

The comparison of various vocabulary in four different dialects:

North Slope Iñupiaq[24] Northwest Alaska Iñupiaq[24]
(Kobuk Malimiut)
King Island Iñupiaq[25] Qawiaraq dialect[26] English
atausiq atausriq atausiq atauchiq 1
mal?uk mal?uk ma?luuk mal?uk 2
pi?asut piñasrut pi?asut pi?achut 3
sisamat sisamat sitamat chitamat 4
tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat 5
itchaksrat itchaksrat a?vinik?it alvinil?it 6
tallimat mal?uk tallimat mal?uk tallimat ma?luuk mul?unil?it 7
tallimat pi?asut tallimat piñasrut tallimat pi?asut pi?achu?ilgit 8
quli?u?utai?aq quliuutai?aq qulin?utailat quluu?utailat 9
qulit qulit qulit qulit 10
qulit atausiq qulit atausriq qulit atausiq qulit atauchiq 11
akimia?utai?aq akimiautai?aq agimia?utailaq . 14
akimiaq akimiaq agimiaq . 15
iñuiññautai?aq iñuiña?utai?aq inuina?utailat . 19
iñuiññaq iñuiñaq inuinnaq . 20
iñuiññaq qulit iñuiñaq qulit inuinaq qulit . 30
mal?ukipiaq mal?ukipiaq ma?luutiviaq . 40
tallimakipiaq tallimakipiaq tallimativiaq . 100
kavluutit . kabluutit . 1000
nanuq nanuq ta?ukaq nanuq polar bear
ilisaurri ilisautri iskuuqti ilichausrirri teacher
mi?uaqtu?vik aglagvik iskuu?vik naaqiwik school
a?naq a?naq a?naq a?naq woman
a?un a?un a?un a?un man
a?naiyaaq a?nauraq niaqsaa?ruk niaqchi?ruk girl
a?utaiyaaq a?ugauraq ilagaa?ruk ilagagruk boy
Tanik Nalua?miu Nalua?miu Nalua?miu white person
ui ui ui ui husband
nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq wife
panik panik panik panik daughter
i?ñiq i?ñiq qitu?naq . son
iglu tupiq ini ini house
tupiq palapkaaq palatkaaq tupiq tent
qimmiq qipmiq qimugin qimmuqti dog
qavvik qapvik qappik qaffik wolverine
tuttu tuttu tuttu tuttupiaq caribou
tuttuvak tiniikaq tuttuvak, muusaq . moose
tulugaq tulugaq ti?mia?ruaq anaqtuyuuq raven
ukpik ukpik ukpik ukpik snowy owl
tatqiq tatqiq taqqiq taqiq moon/month
uvlu?iaq uvlu?iaq ublu?iaq ublu?iaq star
siqiñiq siqiñiq mazaq matchaq sun
niivik tiivlu, niivik tiivuq, niuik niiwik table
uqautitaun uqaqsiun qaniqsuun qaniqchuun telephone
mitchaa?vik mirvik mizrvik mirrvik airport
tiun ti?misuun silakuaqsuun chilakuaqchuun airplane
qai- mau?aq- qai- qai- to come
pisuaq- pisruk- a?ui- a?ui- to walk
savak- savak- sawit- chuli- to work
nakuu- nakuu- naguu- nakuu- to be good
ma?aqtaaq taaqtaaq taaqtaaq ma?aqtaaq, taaqtaaq black
uva?a uva?a ua?a uwa?a, waa?a I, me
ilviñ ilvich iblin ilvit you (singular)
kiña kiña kina kina who
sumi nani, sumi nani chumi where
qanuq qanuq qanu?uuq . how
qakugu qakugu qagun . when (future)
ii ii ii'ii ii, i'i yes
naumi naagga naumi naumi no
paniqtaq paniqtaq paniqtuq pipchiraq dried fish or meat
saiyu saigu saayuq chaiyu tea
kuuppiaq kuukpiaq kuupiaq kupiaq coffee

Notes

See also

References

  1. ^ "Population and Speaker Statistics". www.uaf.edu/anlc/. Alaska Native Language Center. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Alaska OKs Bill Making Native Languages Official".
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Inupiatun, North Alaskan". Ethnologue.
  5. ^ a b "Alaska's indigenous languages now official along with English". Reuters. 2016-10-24. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Sheldon Jackson in Historical Perspective". www.alaskool.org. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Krauss, Michael E. 1974. Alaska Native language legislation. International Journal of American Linguistics 40(2).150-52.
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Iñupiaq/Inupiaq". languagegeek.com. Retrieved .
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al MacLean, Edna Ahgeak (1986). North Slope Iñupiaq Grammar: First Year. Alaska Native Language Center, College of Liberal Arts; University of Alaska, Fairbanks. ISBN 1-55500-026-6.
  10. ^ Linda Lanz (2010) A Grammar of Iñupiaq Morphosyntax, PhD dissertation, Rice University
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Dorais, Louis-Jacques (2010). The Language of the Inuit: Syntax, Semantics, and Society in the Arctic. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-7735-3646-3.
  12. ^ a b c Burch 1980 Ernest S. Burch, Jr., Traditional Eskimo Societies in Northwest Alaska. Senri Ethnological Studies 4:253-304
  13. ^ Spencer 1959 Robert F. Spencer, The North Alaskan Eskimo: A study in ecology and society, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, 171 : 1-490
  14. ^ a b c Lowe, Ronald (1984). Uummarmiut Uqalungiha Mumikhitchi?utingit: Basic Uummarmiut Eskimo Dictionary. Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada: Committee for Original Peoples Entitlement. pp. xix-xxii. ISBN 0-9691597-1-4.
  15. ^ a b c Kaplan, Lawrence (1981). Phonological Issues In North Alaska Iñupiaq. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Fairbanks. p. 85. ISBN 0-933769-36-9.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Lanz, Linda A. (2010). A grammar of Iñupiaq morphosyntax (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). Rice University. hdl:1911/62097.
  17. ^ Kaplan, Larry (1981). North Slope Iñupiaq Literacy Manual. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  18. ^ Project Naming Archived 2006-10-28 at the Wayback Machine, the identification of Inuit portrayed in photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada
  19. ^ Kaplan, Lawrence (2000). "L'Iñupiaq et les contacts linguistiques en Alaska". In Tersis, Nicole and Michèle Therrien (eds.), Les langues eskaléoutes: Sibérie, Alaska, Canada, Groënland, pages 91-108. Paris: CNRS Éditions. For an overview of Iñupiaq phonology, see pages 92-94.
  20. ^ a b c Seiler, Wolf A. (2012). Iñupiatun Eskimo Dictionary (PDF). Sil Language and Culture Documentation and Descriptions. SIL International. pp. Appendix 7. ISSN 1939-0785. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-28.
  21. ^ MacLean (2014) Iñupiatun Uqaluit Taniktun Sivuninit / Iñupiaq to English Dictionary, p. 840 ff
  22. ^ a b Clark, Bartley William (2014). Iñupiatun Uqaluit Taniktun Sivuninit/Iñupiaq to English Dictionary (11 ed.). Fairbanks: University of Alaska. pp. 831-841. ISBN 9781602232334.
  23. ^ "Iñupiaq numbers".
  24. ^ a b "Interactive IñupiaQ Dictionary". Alaskool.org. Retrieved .
  25. ^ "Ugiuva?miuraaqtuaksrat / Future King Island Speakers". Ankn.uaf.edu. 2009-04-17. Retrieved .
  26. ^ Agloinga, Roy (2013). I?a?ui?miutullu Qawaira?miutullu Aglait Nalaunaitkataat. Atuun Publishing Company.

OBJ:object INS:instrumental case

Print Resources: Existing Dictionaries, Grammar Books and Other

  • Barnum, Francis. Grammatical Fundamentals of the Innuit Language As Spoken by the Eskimo of the Western Coast of Alaska. Hildesheim: G. Olms, 1970.
  • Blatchford, DJ. Just Like That!: Legends and Such, English to Iñupiaq Alphabet. Kasilof, AK: Just Like That!, 2003. ISBN 0-9723303-1-3
  • Bodfish, Emma, and David Baumgartner. Iñupiat Grammar. Utqia?vigmi: Utqia?vium minuaqtu?viata Iñupiatun savagvianni, 1979.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence D. Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Iñupiaq. Alaska Native Language Center research papers, no. 6. Fairbanks, Alaska (Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks 99701): Alaska Native Language Center, 1981.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence. Iñupiaq Phrases and Conversations. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, 2000. ISBN 1-55500-073-8
  • MacLean, Edna Ahgeak. Iñupiallu Tan?iu Uqalu?isa I?a?ich = Abridged Iñupiaq and English Dictionary. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, 1980.
  • Lanz, Linda A. A Grammar of Iñupiaq Morphosyntax. Houston, Texas: Rice University, 2010.
  • MacLean, Edna Ahgeak. Beginning North Slope Iñupiaq Grammar. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, 1979.
  • Seiler, Wolf A. Iñupiatun Eskimo Dictionary. Kotzebue, Alaska: NANA Regional Corporation, 2005.
  • Seiler, Wolf. The Modalis Case in Iñupiat: (Eskimo of North West Alaska). Giessener Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Bd. 14. Grossen-Linden: Hoffmann, 1978. ISBN 3-88098-019-5
  • Webster, Donald Humphry, and Wilfried Zibell. Iñupiat Eskimo Dictionary. 1970.

External links and language resources

There are a number of online resources that can provide a sense of the language and information for second language learners.


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Inupiat_language
 



 



 
Music Scenes