Inverted Breve
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Inverted Breve
Inverted breve
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
double acute?
double grave ?
caron, há?ek?
inverted breve  ̑  
diaeresis, umlaut¨
palatal hook  ?
retroflex hook  ?
hook above, d?u h?i ?
horn ?
iota subscript ͅ 
ogonek, nosin??
perispomene ͂ 
rough breathing?
smooth breathing?
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
full stop/period.
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ?
titlo ?
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara? ? ? ?
avagraha? ? ? ? ? ?
chandrabindu? ? ?
virama? ? ? ? ? ?
visarga? ? ? ?
Gurmukh? diacritics
Khmer diacritics
Thai diacritics
IPA diacritics
Japanese kana diacritics
dakuten ?
handakuten ?
Syriac diacritics
Dotted circle?
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?

Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (?). It looks similar to the circumflex (^), which has a sharp tip (Â â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û), while the inverted breve is rounded: (? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?).

Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet,[] but as a phonetic indicator. It is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex.



The inverted breve above is used in traditional Slavicist notation of Serbo-Croatian phonology to indicate long falling accent. It is placed above the syllable nucleus, which can be one of five vowels (? ? ? ? ?) or syllabic ?. This use of the inverted breve is derived from the Ancient Greek circumflex, which was preserved in the polytonic orthography of Modern Greek and influenced[clarification needed] early Serbian Cyrillic printing through religious literature. In the early 19th century, it began to be used in both Latin and Cyrillic as a diacritic to mark prosody in the systematic study of the Serbian-Croatian linguistic continuum.

International Phonetic Alphabet

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, an inverted breve below is used to mark a vowel as non-syllabic, i.e. assuming the role of a semivowel. The diacritic thus expands upon the four primary symbols [j,w,?,?] the IPA reserves for semivowels, which correspond to the full vowels [i,u,y,?], respectively. Any vowel is eligible for marking as non-syllabic; a frequent use of the diacritic is in conjunction with the centralised equivalents of the vowels just mentioned: [,,].

The same diacritic is placed under iota () to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *y as it relates to Greek grammar; upsilon with an inverted breve () is used alongside digamma (?) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *w.[1]


Inverted breve characters are supported in Unicode and HTML code (decimal numeric character reference).

Name Letter Unicode HTML
Combining Inverted Breve U+0311 ̑
Combining Inverted Breve Below U+032F ̯
Combining Double Inverted Breve U+0361 ͡
Combining Double Inverted Breve Below U+1DFC ᷼
Modifier Breve With Inverted Breve ? U+AB5B ꭛
Latin Capital Letter A With Inverted Breve ? U+0202 Ȃ
Latin Small Letter A With Inverted Breve ? U+0203 ȃ
Latin Capital Letter E With Inverted Breve ? U+0206 Ȇ
Latin Small Letter E With Inverted Breve ? U+0207 ȇ
Latin Capital Letter I With Inverted Breve ? U+020A Ȋ
Latin Small Letter I With Inverted Breve ? U+020B ȋ
Latin Capital Letter O With Inverted Breve ? U+020E Ȏ
Latin Small Letter O With Inverted Breve ? U+020F ȏ
Latin Capital Letter R With Inverted Breve ? U+0212 Ȓ
Latin Small Letter R With Inverted Breve ? U+0213 ȓ
Latin Capital Letter U With Inverted Breve ? U+0216 Ȗ
Latin Small Letter U With Inverted Breve ? U+0217 ȗ

In LaTeX the control \textroundcap{o} puts an inverted breve over the letter o.[2]


  1. ^ Herbert Weir Smyth. Greek Grammar. par. 20 a: semivowels.
  2. ^ "LaTeX for Classical Philologists and Indo-Europeanists". Retrieved .[dead link]

See also

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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