Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (?). It looks similar to the circumflex (^), which has a sharp tip (Â â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û), while the inverted breve is rounded: (? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?).
The inverted breve above is used in traditional Slavicist notation of Serbo-Croatian phonology to indicate long falling accent. It is placed above the syllable nucleus, which can be one of five vowels (? ? ? ? ?) or syllabic ?. This use of the inverted breve is derived from the Ancient Greek circumflex, which was preserved in the polytonic orthography of Modern Greek and influenced[clarification needed] early Serbian Cyrillic printing through religious literature. In the early 19th century, it began to be used in both Latin and Cyrillic as a diacritic to mark prosody in the systematic study of the Serbian-Croatian linguistic continuum.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, an inverted breve below is used to mark a vowel as non-syllabic, i.e. assuming the role of a semivowel. The diacritic thus expands upon the four primary symbols [j,w,?,?] the IPA reserves for semivowels, which correspond to the full vowels [i,u,y,?], respectively. Any vowel is eligible for marking as non-syllabic; a frequent use of the diacritic is in conjunction with the centralised equivalents of the vowels just mentioned: [,,].
The same diacritic is placed under iota () to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *y as it relates to Greek grammar; upsilon with an inverted breve () is used alongside digamma (?) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *w.
|Combining Inverted Breve||U+0311||̑|
|Combining Inverted Breve Below||U+032F||̯|
|Combining Double Inverted Breve||U+0361||͡|
|Combining Double Inverted Breve Below||U+1DFC||᷼|
|Modifier Breve With Inverted Breve||?||U+AB5B||꭛|
|Latin Capital Letter A With Inverted Breve||?||U+0202||Ȃ|
|Latin Small Letter A With Inverted Breve||?||U+0203||ȃ|
|Latin Capital Letter E With Inverted Breve||?||U+0206||Ȇ|
|Latin Small Letter E With Inverted Breve||?||U+0207||ȇ|
|Latin Capital Letter I With Inverted Breve||?||U+020A||Ȋ|
|Latin Small Letter I With Inverted Breve||?||U+020B||ȋ|
|Latin Capital Letter O With Inverted Breve||?||U+020E||Ȏ|
|Latin Small Letter O With Inverted Breve||?||U+020F||ȏ|
|Latin Capital Letter R With Inverted Breve||?||U+0212||Ȓ|
|Latin Small Letter R With Inverted Breve||?||U+0213||ȓ|
|Latin Capital Letter U With Inverted Breve||?||U+0216||Ȗ|
|Latin Small Letter U With Inverted Breve||?||U+0217||ȗ|