Islam by Country
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Islam by Country

World Muslim population by percentage (2014 estimate)[1]

Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group. According to a study in 2020, Islam has 1.9 billion adherents, making up about 24.7% of the world population.[2][3] Most Muslims are either of two denominations: Sunni (87-90%, roughly 1.7 billion people)[4] or Shia (10-13%, roughly 180-230 million people).[5] Islam is the majority religion in several subregions: East Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Sahel, and the Middle East.[6][7][8][9][10][11] The diverse Asia-Pacific region contains the highest number of Muslims in the world, easily surpassing the combined Middle East and North Africa.[12]

South Asia contains the largest population of Muslims in the world. One-third of Muslims are of South Asian origin.[13][14][15] Islam is the dominant religion in the Maldives, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. India is the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries with more than 200 million adherents.[16]

The various Hamito-Semitic, Arab, Berber, Turkic, and Iranic countries of the greater Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region,[17] where Islam is the dominant religion in every country other than Israel,[7] host 23% of the world's Muslims.

The country with the single largest population of Muslims is Indonesia in Southeast Asia, which on its own hosts 13% of the world's Muslims.[18] Together, the Muslims in the countries of Southeast Asia constitute the world's third-largest population of Muslims. In the countries of the Malay Archipelago, Muslims are majorities in each country other than the Philippines, Singapore, and East Timor.

About 15% of Muslims reside in Sub-Saharan Africa,[19][page needed][8][20] and sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, China, and Europe.[6]

Western Europe hosts many Muslim immigrant communities where Islam is the second-largest religion after Christianity, where it represents 6% of the total population or 24 million people.[21]

According to the Pew Research Center in 2010, there were 50 Muslim-majority countries.[22][23] Around 62% of the world's Muslims live in the Asia-Pacific region (from Turkey to Indonesia), with over one billion adherents.[24] The largest Muslim population in a country is in Indonesia, a country home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan (11.1%), India (10.9%) and Bangladesh (9.2%).[6][25] About 20% of Muslims live in the Arab world.[26] In the Middle East, the non-Arab countries of Iran and Turkey are the largest Muslim-majority countries, while Egypt and Nigeria in Africa have the same status.[6][25] The study found more Muslims in the United Kingdom than in Lebanon and more in China than in Syria. The Indian state of Uttar Pradesh has more Muslims than any other Muslim-majority countries except Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Iran and Turkey.[6]

Denominations

Islam is divided into two major denominations, Sunni and Shi'a. Of the total Muslim population, 87-90% are Sunni and 10-13% are Shi'a. Most Shi'as (between 68% and 80%) live in mainly four countries: Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, and Iraq.[27] Furthermore, there are concentrated Shi'a populations in Lebanon, Russia, Pakistan, and 10 sub-Saharan African countries.[28] The major surviving Imamah-Muslim Sects are Usulism (with nearly more than 10%), Nizari Ismailism (with nearly more than 1%) and Alevism (with slightly more than 0.5%[29] but less than 1%[30]). The other existing groups include Zaydi Shi'a of Yemen whose population is nearly more than 0.5% of the world's Muslim population, Musta'li Ismaili (with nearly 0.1%[31] whose Taiyabi adherents reside in Sindh and Gujarat in South Asia. There are also significant diaspora populations in Europe, North America, the Far East, and East Africa[32]), and Ibadis from the Kharijites whose population has diminished to a level below 0.15%.[33] (with nearly around 1%),[34] non-denominational Muslims, Quranist Muslims and Wahhabis (with nearly around 1-2%[35] of the world's total Muslim population) also exist.

A study from the Pew Research Center in 2012 found that many Muslims (one out of five in 22 Muslim majority countries) identify as non-denominational or "Just a Muslim".[28] This non-denominational affiliation is most common in Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Central Asia, with minority populations in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The study found that a median percentage of 74% of Muslims Kazakhstan, 65% in Albania, 64% in Kyrgyzstan, 56% Indonesia, 55% in Mali, and 40% in Cameroon identify this way.[28] However, it is much less common in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.[28]

Countries

Most of the percentages of Muslim populations of each country, if not stated otherwise, were taken from the study by the Pew Research Center report of 5 facts about the muslim population in Europe, 2017.[6][36]

Table

Country/Region Total Population Muslim Population Muslim percentage of total population (%) Percentage of world (%) Sources
37,135,000 37,025,000 99.7 2.0 [37]
3,057,220 1,797,645 58.8 0.1 [38][39]
41,657,488 41,240,913 99.7 2.7 [40]
50,826 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [41]
85,708 2,228 2.6 < 0.1 [42][43]
30,355,880 90,000 0.3 < 0.1 [44][45]
17,422 < 1,000 0.6 < 0.1 [46]
95,882 < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1 [47]
44,694,198 400,000 0.9 < 1 [48][45]
3,038,217 3,038 0.1 < 0.1 [49]
116,576 < 1,000 0.4 < 0.1 [50][51]
25,700,000 666,000 2.6 < 0.1 [52]
9,000,000 720,000 8 < 0.1 [53][54]
10,046,516 9,735,074 96.9 0.5 [55]
332,634 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1 [56]
1,442,659 1,063,239 73.7 < 0.1 [57]
170,000,000 153,700,000 90.4 9.2 [58][59]
293,131 4,396 1.5 < 0.1 [60]
9,527,543 45,000-100,000 0.5-1.0 < 0.1 [61][62][63]
11,570,762 879,377 7.6 < 0.1 [64][65]
385,854 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [66][67]
11,340,504 3,141,319 27.7 0.14 [68]
71,176 < 1,000 1 < 0.1 [69]
766,397 0.2 < 0.1 [70][71]
11,306,341 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [72][73]
3,849,891 1,955,084 50.7 0.1 [74]
2,249,104 8,996 0.4 < 0.1 [75][76]
210,000,000 35,167-1,500,000 0.02-0.7 < 0.1 [77][78]
35,802 < 1,000 1.2 < 0.1 [79]
450,565 355,045 80.9 < 0.1 [80]
7,057,504 861,015 13.4 < 0.1 [81][82]
21,382,659 13,513,840 63.2 0.6 [83]
55,622,506 2,391,767 4.3 0.1 [84]
11,844,520 1,184,452 10 < 0.1 [85][86]
15,552,211 311,044 2 < 0.1 [87]
25,640,965 7,692,289 30 0.4 [88][89]
35,881,659 1,148,213 3.2 0.1 [90]
568,373 11,367 2 < 0.1 [91][92]
59,613 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [93]
5,745,062 861,759 15 < 0.1 [94]
15,833,116 9,183,207 58 0.4 [95][92]
17,925,262 4,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [96][97]
1,390,000,000 6,255,000-50,000,000 0.45-3 0.4 - 2.8 [98][99][100][101][102]
596 < 1,000 80 < 0.1 [103][104]
48,168,996 96,337 0.2 < 0.1 [105][106]
821,164 807,204 98.3 < 0.1 [107]
85,281,024 12,792,153 10 0.1 [108][109]
9,038 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [110]
4,987,142 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [111]
26,260,582 11,265,789 42.9 0.5 [112]
4,270,480 64,057 1.5 < 0.1 [113]
11,116,396 11,116 0.1 < 0.1 [114]
1,100,000 275,000 25.3 < 0.1 [115]
10,686,269 10,000-20,000 0.1-0.2 < 0.1 [116][65]
5,809,502 313,713 5.4 < 0.1 [117][65]
884,017 857,496 97 0.1 [118][119]
74,027 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [120]
10,298,756 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [121][122]
16,498,502 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [123][124]
95,000,000 85,000,000-90,000,000 90-94.7 4.9 [125][126]
6,187,271 18,000 0.28 < 0.1 [127][128][129]
797,457 79,745 10 < 0.1 [130][131]
6,000,000 2,160,000-3,100,000 36-51.6 0.1 [132][133][134]
1,244,288 1,508 < 0.1 < 0.1 [135]
300,000 129,230 10 < 0.1 [136]
110,871,031 34,702,632 31.3 1.8 [137]
51,018 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [138]
3,198 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [139]
103,643 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [140]
926,276 58,355 6.3 < 0.1 [141]
5,537,364 102,000 1.8 < 0.1 [142][65]
67,000,000 5,720,000 8.8 0.3 [65]
281,612 2,400 0.9 < 0.1
290,373 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [143]
2,119,036 211,903 10 < 0.1 [144][145]
2,092,731 2,002,743 95.7 0.1 [146]
4,926,087 527,091 10.7 < 0.1 [147]
83,100,000 5,300,000-5,600,000 6.4-6.7 0.2 [36][148][149]
28,102,471 5,058,444 17.6 0.2 [150][92][151]
29,461 1,150 4 < 0.1 [152][153]
10,761,523 215,230-613,406 2-5.7 < 0.1 [154][65]
57,691 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [155]
112,207 < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1 [156]
402,119 2,000 0.4 < 0.1
167,772 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [157]
16,581,273 1,200 < 0.1 < 0.1 [158][159]
11,855,411 10,563,171 89.1 0.5 [160]
1,833,247 826,794 45.1 < 0.1 [161]
740,685 55,000 7.3 < 0.1 [162]
10,788,440 5,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [163][164]
9,182,766 30,000 0.3 < 0.1 [165]
7,213,338 295,746 4.1 < 0.1 [166][167]
9,825,704 40,000-60,000 0.4-0.6 < 0.1 [65][168][169]
343,518 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [170][171]
1,370,000,000 200,000,000 14.6 10.9 [172][173]
266,500,000 231,000,000 86.7 12.7 [174]
83,000,000 82,500,000 99.4 4.6 [175]
40,194,216 38,465,864 95.7 1.9 [176]
5,068,050 70,952 1.4 < 0.1 [177][65]
89,407 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [178]
8,424,904 1,516,482 18 0.1 [179][180]
62,246,674 2,987,840 4.8 0.1 [181][65]
2,812,090 5,624 0.2 < 0.1 [182][183]
126,000,000 185,000 0.1 < 0.1 [184][185]
10,458,413 10,165,577 97.2 0.4 [186]
18,744,548 13,158,672 70.2 0.5 [187]
48,397,527 5,500,000 11.2 0.2 [188]
109,367 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [189]
1,907,592 1,823,657 95.6 0.1 [190]
2,916,467 2,175,684 74.6 0.2 [191]
6,500,000 5,200,000-5,850,000 80-90 0.3 [192][193]
7,234,171 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [194][195]
1,923,559 2,000 0.1-0.2 < 0.1 [196][197]
6,100,075 3,519,743 57.7 0.2 [198]
1,962,461 3,000 0.1 < 0.1 [199]
4,809,768 961,953 20 < 0.1 [200][201]
6,754,507 6,551,871 97 0.4 [202][203]
38,000 2,050 5.4 < 0.1 [204]
2,793,284 3,000 0.1 < 0.1 [205][206]
640,000 15,000 2.3 < 0.1 [207][208]
606,340 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1 [209][210]
25,683,610 2,568,361 10 < 0.1 [211][212]
19,842,560 3,968,512 20 0.1 [213][214]
32,730,000 20,063,500 61.3 1.1 [215][216]
374,775 374,775 100 < 0.1 [217]
18,429,893 17,508,398 95 0.8 [218][92]
449,043 11,675 2.6 < 0.1 [219][220]
75,684 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [221]
385,551 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
3,845,430 3,840,430 99.9 0.2 [222]
1,364,283 236,020 17.3 < 0.1 [223]
256,518 253,439 97 < 0.1 [224]
127,000,000 5,500 0.01 < 0.01 [225][226]
3,437,720 15,000 0.4 < 0.1 [227][228]
30,727 < 1,000 0.8 < 0.1 [229][230]
3,103,428 150,000 5 < 0.1 [231][232]
614,249 122,849 19.1 < 0.1 [233]
5,315 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1 [234]
38,314,130 37,930,989 99 2.1 [235]
27,233,789 3,830,063 17.9 0.3 [236][237]
2,413,643 9,654 0.4 < 0.1
10,084 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
29,218,867 1,292,909 4.2 0.1 [238]
17,400,000 887,000 5.1 0.1 [239]
304,759 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
278,500 7,000 2.8 < 0.1
4,903,800 41,000 0.9 < 0.1
6,284,757 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
21,466,863 21,101,926 98.3 1 [240]
200,000,000 95,000,000-103,000,000 53.5 5.3 [36][241]
1,611 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
25,610,672 3,000 0.1 < 0.1
2,118,945 705,608 33.3 < 0.1 [242]
56,200 < 1,000 0.7 < 0.1
5,328,212 175,507 3.2 < 0.1 [243]
4,633,752 2,427,000 86 0.2 [244]
220,000,000 212,300,000 96.5 11.1 [245][246]
17,900 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
4,780,978 4,298,000 97.5 0.3
4,158,783 25,000 0.7 < 0.1
8,558,800 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
7,052,983 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
31,237,385 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
109,000,000 5,450,000-12,000,000 5-11 0.3 - 0.6 [247][248]
38,430,000 6,796 0.02 < 0.1 [249]
10,291,027 65,000 0.4 < 0.1
3,337,177 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
2,450,285 1,566,786 77.5 0.1 [250]
5,399,895 107,997 2 < 0.1 [251]
865,826 36,364 4.2 < 0.1 [252]
19,524,000 73,000-200,000 0.3-1.0 < 0.1 [253]
144,350,000-146,750,000 14,000,000-22,000,000 10-15 1.7 [A] [254][255]
12,001,136 576,054 4.8 < 0.1 [256]
4,534 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
46,204 < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1
178,844 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
6,286 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
109,557 2,000 1.7 < 0.1
199,052 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
33,344 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
199,910 5,931 3 < 0.1 [257]
34,220,000 33,535,000 98.2 1.8
15,726,037 15,112,721 96.1 0.8 [258]
7,001,444 221,460 3.1 < 0.1 [259]
94,205 1,036 1.1 < 0.1 [260]
7,719,729 6,067,706 78.6 0.3 [261]
5,866,139 915,118 15.6 < 0.1 [262][263]
5,443,120 10,866 0.1-0.2 < 0.1 [65]
2,066,880 73,568 3.6 < 0.1 [65]
667,044 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
11,000,000 10,978,000 99.8 0.6 [264]
57,725,600 1,050,000 1.9 < 0.1 [265][266]
51,635,256 75,000 0.1 < 0.1 [45]
12,323,419 2,464,683 20 < 0.1 [267]
46,659,302 1,180,000 2.6 0.1 [65]
21,700,000 2,105,000 9.7 0.1 [268]
40,825,770 39,585,777 97 1.9 [269]
600,000 85,800 14.3 < 0.1 [270]
10,182,291 800,000 8.1 < 0.1 [36][65]
8,492,956 440,000 5.2 < 0.1 [271]
18,000,000 16,000,000 87 1 [272][273]
23,576,705 60,000 0.3 < 0.1 [274][275]
9,540,000 9,253,000 97.9 0.4 [276][277][278]
54,199,163 19,426,814 35.2 0.8 [279]
70,000,000 3,640,000 5.4 0.2 [280][281]
1,261,407 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
7,352,000 1,593,011 20 0.1 [282]
1,499 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
100,651 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
1,356,633 78,000 5.8 < 0.1
11,446,300 11,190,000 99.8 0.6
83,155,000 74,423,725 89.5 4.6 [283][284]
6,031,187 5,610,000 93.7 0.3
37,910 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
10,640 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
38,823,100 5,435,234 14 0.3 [285]
42,263,873 390,000-1,000,000 0.9-2.5 < 0.1 [286][287]
9,541,615 7,251,627 76 0.2 [288][289]
66,040,229 4,130,000 6.3 0.2 [65]
327,827,000 3,450,000 1.1 0.2 [290]
104,914 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
3,505,985 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
34,036,800 29,920,000 88.7 1.7 [291]
304,500 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
800 0 0 0
31,304,016 125,216 0.4 < 0.1 [292]
96,160,163 96,160 0.1 < 0.1 [293]
15,714 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [294]
603,253 599,633 99.4 < 0.1 [295][296]
28,036,829 27,784,498 99.2 1.5 [297][298]
16,887,720 168,877 1 < 0.1 [92]
14,000,000 100,000 0.7 < 0.1 [299]
  1. ^ Including citizens of the Russian Federation, as well as immigrants and migrants who live in Russia

Continents

Table

Region Muslims Muslim percentage (%) of total population Percentage (%) of World Muslim population
Asia 1,200,000,000 24.3 66.7
Central Asia 54,000,000[300] 81[301] 3.0
South Asia 600,000,000[302][303] 31.4[304][305] 30.6[13][306]
Southeast Asia 240,000,000[307] 40 13.3
East Asia 50,000,000[102] 3.1 2.8
Middle East-North Africa 315,322,000[17]-488,603,838 91.2 27.1
Africa 550,000,000 47 30.6
Sub-Saharan Africa 283,302,393 29.6 15.7
North America 3,500,000-7,000,000[308] 1.0[309] 0.4
South America 791,000 0.2 0.04
Europe 44,138,000 6.0 2.7
Oceania 650,000 1.6 0.04
World 1,800,000,000[310] 24.1 100

Projected demographic changes

A Pew Research Study in 2015 found that the Muslim population was expected to grow twice as fast (70%) as the world population by 2060 (1.8 billion in 2015 to 3 billion by 2060).[310] This expected growth is much larger than any other religious group.[310] Muslims are likely to constitute roughly 25% of the world's total population by 2030.[311] This expected growth is attributed to Muslim families generally having more children as well as the fact that the Muslim population has the youngest median age of any religion.[310] Furthermore, increased healthcare conditions in Muslim majority countries are currently increasing life expectancy and decreasing child mortality, which, if trends continue this way, will also contribute to the growth of the Muslim population more than any other religious group.[311] These trends are not for every region, however. In fact, Muslim population growth is expected to slow down in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East due to lower birth rates.[311]

The largest Muslim population growths are expected to be in the Middle East and Africa.[311] Furthermore, Pakistan is projected to be the country with the largest Muslim population by 2030.[311] Muslims are expected to grow to 8% (52.8 million) of the total population of Europe, and this growth is expected to be the largest in the western European countries.[311] Russia will have the largest total population of Muslims in Europe, however.[311] Most of these changes are expected to come from immigration.[311]

In the Americas, Canada's Muslim population is expected to increase to 6.6% and United States' to 2% by 2030.[311] These increases, much like Europe, are expected to be driven mainly by immigration.[311]

See also

Islam:

Religions by country:

General

References

  1. ^ "Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages'". Pew Research. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ "World population 2021 | Population clock live". countrymeters.info. Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ "Religion By Country 2021". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 2021.
  4. ^
  5. ^ See
    • "Shi?i". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 2019. In the early 21st century some 10-13 percent of the world's 1.6 billion Muslims were Shi?i.
    • "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2013. The Pew Forum's estimate of the Shia population (10-13%) is in keeping with previous estimates, which generally have been in the range of 10-15%. Some previous estimates, however, have placed the number of Shias at nearly 20% of the world's Muslim population.
    • "Shia". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 2011. Shi'a Islam is the second largest branch of the tradition, with up to 200 million followers who comprise around 15% of all Muslims worldwide...
    • Jalil Roshandel (2011). Iran, Israel and the United States. Praeger Security International. p. 15. ISBN 9780313386985. The majority of the world's Islamic population, which is Sunni, accounts for over 75 percent of the Islamic population; the other 10 to 20 percent is Shia.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Muslim Population by Country". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  8. ^ a b "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p.306 According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham, (A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total population. These numbers are estimates, and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007.
  10. ^ Britannica Archived 14 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Think Quest Archived 18 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Wadsworth.com
  11. ^ Vellturo, Madeline (May 2021). "FACTSHEET: ISLAMISTS IN CENTRAL SAHEL" (PDF). UNITED STATES COMMISSION on INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ "Muslims". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 2016.
  13. ^ a b Pechilis, Karen; Raj, Selva J. (1 January 2013). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. ISBN 9780415448512.
  14. ^ "10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ Diplomat, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, The. "How South Asia Will Save Global Islam". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2017.
  16. ^ "India invited as 'Guest of Honour' to OIC meet, Sushma Swaraj to attend". @businessline.
  17. ^ a b "Middle East-North Africa Overview". 7 October 2009.
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Further reading

External links


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