Javanese Orthography
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Javanese Orthography

Javanese Latin alphabet is Latin script used for writing the Javanese language. Prior to the introduction of Latin script, Javanese was written in Javanese script (hanacaraka) or Arabic-based Pegon script.

The Latin script was introduced during Dutch colonial period which exhibited the influence of Dutch orthography. Since the introduction of Latin script, the Javanese orthography in Latin script has been undergo several orthographic reforms.

The alphabet is generally the same as the Indonesian alphabet. There are six digraphs: dh, kh, ng, ny, sy, and th, and two letters with diacritics: é and è.


Letter Name Letter Name Letter Name
A a a J j S s ès
B b K k ka T t
C c L l èl U u u
D d M m èm V v
E e é N n èn W w
F f èf O o o X x èks
G g P p Y y
H h ha Q q ki Z z zèt
I i i R r èr

Sound and Spelling Correlation

Sriwedari (1927) Indonesian (1991) Suriname (1986) Sound
a a â /a/
a /?/ In open final syllables, or open penultimates followed by another open <Aa>.
Depends on dialect. Sometimes written as <Oo>.
b b b /b?/
tj c ty /t?/
d d d /d/
? dh d //
e e e /?/
/e/ In open syllables.
Sometimes <Èè> is used to distinguish it from /?/
/?/ In closed syllable, or when followed by an open /i u/.
Sometimes <Éé> is used to distinguish it from /?/
f f f /f/ Only used in loanwords
g g g //
h h h /h/
i i i /i/ In open syllables.
/?/ In closed syllable.
dj j j /d/
k k k /k/
l l l /l/
m m m /m/
n n n /n/
ng ng ng /?/
nj ny ny /?/
o o o /o/ In open syllables.
/?/ In closed syllable, or when followed by an open /i u/.
p p p /p/
q q q /q/ Only used in loanwords.
r r r /r/
s s s /s/
t t t /t?/
? th t /?/
oe u u /u/ In open syllables.
/?/ In closed syllables.
v v v /v/ Only used in loanwords.
w w w /w/
x x x /x/ Only used in loanwords.
j y y /j/
z z z /z/ Only used in loanwords.

Relation with Javanese script

  • (h)a - ? or ? (A)
  • b(a) - ?
  • c(a) - ?
  • d(a) - ?
  • dh(a) - ?
  • é and è - or ? (É/È)
  • (h)e -
  • f(a) - foreign letter
  • g(a) - ?
  • h(a) - ?
  • (h)i - or ? (I)
  • j(a) - ?
  • k(a) - ?
  • l(a) - ?
  • m(a) - ?
  • n(a) - ?
  • ny(a) - ?
  • ng(a) - ?
  • (h)o - or ? (O)
  • p(a) - ?
  • q(a) - Sasak letter ?
  • r(a) - ?
  • s(a) - ?
  • t(a) - ?
  • th(a) - ?
  • (h)u - or ? (U)
  • v(a) - foreign letter
  • w(a) - ?
  • x(a) - Approximated by
  • y(a) - ?
  • z(a) - foreign letter

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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