Jebero Language
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Jebero Language
Native toPeru
Ethnicity2,500 (2000)
Native speakers
30 (2011)[1]
  • Jebero
Language codes

Jebero (Chebero, Xebero, Xihuila) is a moribund Amazonian language spoken by the Jebero people of Jeberos, Peru. It is spoken by only a small number of older adults and belongs to the Cahuapanan family together with Chayahuita.



Monophthong phonemes[2]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ?
Open a
  • /i/ varies between close front unrounded , near-close front unrounded and close-mid front unrounded .[2]
  • /u/ varies between near-close near-front rounded and close-mid back weakly rounded , with the latter realization being the most usual.[2]
  • /?/ varies between mid near-front unrounded and close-mid central unrounded .[2]
    • /?/ is shorter than the other vowels, particularly between voiceless consonants.[2]
    • The sequence /?n/ is sometimes realized as a syllabic [n?].[2]
  • /a/ varies between open central unrounded and near-open retracted front .[2] The vowel chart in Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013) puts /a/ in the near-open central position .
    • In closed syllables, /a/ is realized as open-mid central unrounded .[2]


  • /m, p/ are bilabial, whereas /w/ is labialized velar.
  • /t?/ is an affricate, rather than a plosive.[3] It has nevertheless been placed in the table in that manner to save space.
  • /n, t, ð, l/ are laminal denti-alveolar [n?, t?, ð?, l?].[4]
    • In the syllable coda, /n/ is realized with a wider contact, maximally dentoalveolo-velar [n].[4]
    • After /u, a/, the denti-alveolar contact is often not made, which makes /n/ sound more like a velar nasal .[4]
    • /ð/ may sometimes sound as if it were a lateral consonant, but it is never realized as lateral.[2]
  • /?, ?/ are dentoalveolo-palatal [, ].[4]
    • /?/ is sometimes realized as a weak fricative .[2]
  • /h/ occurs only in the affirmative interjection [ahã].[3]
  • /r/ is realized as a flap in the syllable onset and as a trill in the syllable coda.[4]
  • /?r/ is a glottalized flap . Intervocalically, it is realized as a sequence [].[4]


  1. ^ "Jebero". Ethnologue. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  3. ^ a b c Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 98.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 100.


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