John III the Terrible
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John III the Terrible
John III the Terrible
Ioan Voda.jpg
Prince of Moldavia
ReignFebruary 1572 - June 1574
PredecessorBogdan IV of Moldavia
SuccessorPeter the Lame
Born1521
Died14 June 1574
Ro?cani [ro]
DynastyBogdan-Mu?at
FatherStephen IV of Moldavia
MotherSerpega
ReligionOrthodox

John III the Terrible (Romanian: Ioan cel Cumplit), also John III the Brave (Romanian: Ioan cel Viteaz) (1521 - June 14, 1574) was Voivode of Moldavia between February 1572 and June 1574.

He was the grandson of Bogdan III and the son of Stephen IV and his Armenian mistress Serpega. It is said he spent part of his life being a merchant in Constantinople, where he had closely studied the Ottomans and their weaknesses.

Ioan was one of the last medieval Romanian rulers to battle the Ottoman Turks. His nickname "the Terrible" was a result of his harsh treatment of the Boyars, the Moldavian nobility, which at that time were very influential in deciding the rulers of the small principality. Attempting to strengthen his rule and make an example out of disloyal nobles, Ioan III carried out several Boyar executions, thus earning his alias "the Terrible". The common people appreciated his courageous stand against the nobility's corruption and the harsh Turkish domination. He refused to double the amount of tribute paid to the Ottomans but the Moldovan army was defeated in the Battle of Cahul Lake, he was captured and executed.[1]

His short reign was marked by fierce combat against the Ottoman Empire and their Crimean Tatar allies. In order to counter the power of the Ottomans, he allied himself with the Ukrainian Cossacks. He was victorious at the battles of Jili?te, the Siege of Br?ila, Tighina and Cetatea Alb?.[] When an army of 150,000 Turks[] was sent against him, he personally surrendered, being promised that his Moldavian soldiers and Cossack allies would be spared in exchange for his capture.[] He was killed by the Ottomans by tying his body to four camels, which were driven in different directions.[] His soldiers were nonetheless slaughtered mercilessly.[]

See also

References

  1. ^ Brezianu, Andrei; Spânu, Vlad (2010). The A to Z of Moldova. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press. pp. xxviii. ISBN 978-0-8108-7211-0. OCLC 526091516.
Preceded by
Bogdan L?pu?neanu
Ruler of Moldavia
1572-1574
Succeeded by
Petru ?chiopul

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