Joseph Zen Ze-kiun
Bishop Emeritus of Hong Kong
|Installed||23 September 2002|
|Term ended||15 April 2009|
|Predecessor||John Baptist Wu|
|Other post(s)||Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca (2006-present)|
|Ordination||11 February 1961|
by Maurilio Fossati
|Consecration||9 December 1996|
by John Baptist Wu
|Created cardinal||24 March 2006|
by Pope Benedict XVI
|Born||13 January 1932|
Shanghai, Republic of China
|Previous post(s)||Coadjutor Bishop of Hong Kong (1996-2002)|
|Motto||Ipsi Cura Est|
(English: "For he cares about you")
|Coat of arms|
Ordination history of
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
|See||Hong Kong (Emeritus)|
Joseph Zen Ze-kiun SDB (Shanghainese: [z z t?y], born 13 January 1932) is a cardinal of the Catholic Church from Hong Kong, who served as the sixth Bishop of Hong Kong. He was appointed cardinal in 2006, and has been outspoken on issues regarding human rights, political freedom, and religious liberty. His strong ties with the pro-democracy camp often attract criticism from the pro-Beijing camp and the government of the People's Republic of China. He retired on 15 April 2009, but remains a strong pro-democracy influence in Hong Kong.
Joseph Zen was born in Shanghai to Catholic parents, Vincent Zen and Margaret Tseu. He studied in a church school during the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was sent to an abbey after his father suffered a stroke.
Zen fled to Hong Kong from Shanghai to escape Communist rule at the end of the Chinese Civil War. After entering the Salesians at the Hong Kong novitiate, he was ordained to the priesthood on 11 February 1961 by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati. Zen obtained a licentiate in theology (1961) and a doctorate in philosophy (1964) from the Salesian Pontifical University in Rome. After 1973, he taught in the Holy Spirit Seminary College of Hong Kong - 1976 to 1978 of Macao Salesian School (Instituto Salesiano) as principal. In 1978 he became the Provincial Superior of Salesians (which includes mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan), then resigned in 1983. He was a lecturer in the seminaries in China, centres of studies acknowledged by the Communist party, between 1989 and 1996. He was appointed the coadjutor Bishop of Hong Kong in 1996 by Pope John Paul II.
On 18 September 2005, he told Hong Kong newspaper Apple Daily reporters that he was willing to retire in January 2007. He also said that he wanted to be a teacher in either mainland China or in Africa, as there was a shortage of teachers in Africa. Democratic Party ex-chairman Martin Lee, also a Roman Catholic, stated that because Zen was still healthy for his age, the Pope may request him to stay in his position. Legislative Council member Audrey Eu praised Zen for being braver than other religious leaders in Hong Kong in sharing his political views and also because "he carried out his ideas of fairness, equitableness, and philanthropy via actual efforts". On the other hand, some conservatives inside the church speculated that the strained relationship between Beijing and the Holy See will become more relaxed if Zen retires. Nonetheless, Zen wrote a letter to the Pope on 13 January 2006 and stated that he did want to retire from his position, though not because of his age. On 15 April 2009 Pope Benedict accepted Cardinal Zen's resignation and John Tong Hon became the Bishop of the diocese.
From 22 October 2011 for three days Cardinal Zen went on hunger strike which was undertaken as an act of protest against losing a long-standing legal battle with the Hong Kong government over how aided schools should be run. He later wrote about his experiences in an open letter.
On 22 February 2006, the Vatican announced that Zen would be elevated to the College of Cardinals by Pope Benedict XVI in the consistory on 24 March 2006. Zen, who was created Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca, saw his elevation as indication of how much the Pope values the Church in China. He was named a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments.
Bishop Zen's elevation was welcomed by Catholics in Hong Kong as it was seen as a recognition of the bishop's stance on social justice and as an honour for the church in Hong Kong. Vicar General Dominic Chan Chi-ming said that it would be an honour to have a cardinal to once again head the diocese. Rev. Louis Ha Ke-loon said it shows that the Pope feels that Bishop Zen should speak out. Democrat legislator Martin Lee added that it was good news because no matter whether he is a bishop or a cardinal, as a religious leader Zen speaks as moral voice of the people.
At the time of his elevation, Zen was the only Chinese cardinal eligible to participate in papal conclaves. His elevation can be seen as giving hope to the underground Catholic Church in China.
In 2014 Cardinal Zen Ze-kiun asked Pope Francis not to visit China, saying the pontiff would be "manipulated". In an interview he told the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera: "I would tell him now, 'Don't come, you would be manipulated'. ...The few courageous [Catholics] could not meet [the Pope], and the Communist Party would show him the illegitimate bishops, including the three excommunicated ones." The comments came as ties between the Vatican and China improved in the early days of the pontificate of Francis, with the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs congratulating Francis on his election. Cardinal Zen said he did not see signs of dialogue happening between the Catholic Church and China. "Even if under these conditions Beijing was to extend a hand, it would be a trick under these circumstances," he said. "Our poor bishops are slaves, the Communist Party denies them respect, tries to take away their dignity."
In September 2014 as part of the 2014 Hong Kong protests, Cardinal Zen addressed the protesters saying "It's high time we really showed that we want to be free and not to be slaves. ... We must unite together". During his speech protesters were fired on with tear gas and he asked them to disperse.
In a 2018 interview, Cardinal Zen, on Sino-Holy See relations, said "Pope Francis does not know the real Communist Party in China, but Parolin should know. He was there [in the Secretariat of State] so many years, so he must know. He may be happy to encourage the pope to be optimistic about the negotiations ... but that's dangerous. Pope Francis needs someone to calm him down from his enthusiasm." Zen added that "It seems the Secretary of State wants to have a solution anyway. He is so optimistic. That's dangerous. I told the pope that he [Parolin] has a poisoned mind. He is very sweet, but I have no trust in this person. He believes in diplomacy, not in our faith."
In 2019, Zen responded to Cardinal Filoni's weeklong trip to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. Cardinal Filoni said that the provisional agreement between Beijing and the Holy See signed in 2018 "will be a very good thing for the Church in the future, and also for China." Zen suggested that "One wonders: from which planet did our leaders in Rome descend?" Zen, the emeritus bishop of Hong Kong, responded on his blog on 5 March. Zen added that "The incredible thing is the invitation to trust the government! Is information on recent oppression measures missing from our superiors in the Vatican?"
After he succeeded as Bishop of Hong Kong on 23 September 2002, he led the Diocese in voicing reservations about the proposed anti-subversion laws, required under Article 23 of the Basic Law. He was worried that these laws, if enacted without a thorough consultation process including a white paper, could easily lead to future violations of basic civil rights.
On 1 July 2003, he took part in a prayer gathering at Victoria Park before the 1 July March began. Many Christians, including Catholics and those of other denominations, attended the demonstration.
Cardinal Zen attended the 4 June 2006 Prayer gathering in memory of the victims of the 1989 massacre. He asked the Chinese government to let the Chinese people freely discuss the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.
On 5 June 2005, Zen announced that if the Legislative Council passed a proposal to support the schools to create incorporated management committees on 8 July 2005, he would appeal against the decision to the court. The Education (Amendment) Bill 2002, once enacted, would likely play down the role of the Church in running Catholic schools and in promoting Catholic education. However, after the Government gave up some argued points in the motion, the Diocese decided to support the motion, though the Diocese later announced plans to prosecute the Government on 28 September 2005.
After two teachers committed suicide in early January 2006, Zen said that these acts must be due to the educational reforms and he asked the government to halt new reforms. Then Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower Fanny Law rejected causal connections, but provoked furor among teachers and the public when she questioned why only two teachers committed suicide because of the reforms. She apologised for her "inappropriate" remarks on 10 January.
On 18 December 2005, Zen visited protesters at the 2005 WTO Ministerial Conference and tried to visit the detained South Korean Catholics, including two priests and a nun. He criticised the Hong Kong police for their treatment of the protesters. About one month later, several unions in Hong Kong Police Force decided to write a letter to the Pope to complain about Zen's speech. Zen replied that some policemen were "sycophantic to the senior officers inside the police force".
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|Catholic Church titles|
Title last held byLorenzo Bianchi
| Coadjutor Bishop of Hong Kong
Title next held byJohn Tong Hon
John Baptist Wu
| Bishop of Hong Kong
John Tong Hon
James Aloysius Hickey
| Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca