Justicialist Party
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Justicialist Party
Justicialist Party
Partido Justicialista
PresidentAlberto Fernández
Vice-PresidentCristina Álvarez Rodríguez[1]
Senate leaderJosé Mayans (FdT)
Chamber leaderMáximo Kirchner (FdT)
FounderJuan Perón
Founded21 November 1946; 74 years ago (1946-11-21)
Merger ofLabour Party
UCR Board Renewal
Independent Party[2]
Headquarters130 Matheu Street
Buenos Aires
Student wingPeronist University Youth
Youth wingPeronist Youth
Membership (2019)3,818,678[3]
Kirchnerism (majority)[10][11]
Menemism (minority)[12][13]
Political positionSyncretic
National affiliationFrente de Todos[16]
Continental affiliationChristian Democrat Organization of America[17]
Colors  Light blue   White
Anthem"Peronist March"
Seats in the Senate
Seats in the Chamber of Deputies
Election symbol

The Justicialist Party (Spanish: Partido Justicialista, IPA: [pa?'tiðo xustisja'lista]; abbr. PJ) is a major political party in Argentina, and the largest branch within Peronism.[19]

Current president Alberto Fernández belongs to the Justicialist Party (and has, since 2021, served as its chairman),[1] as well as former presidents Juan Domingo Perón, Héctor Cámpora, Raúl Lastiri, Isabel Perón, Carlos Menem, Ramón Puerta, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Eduardo Camaño, Eduardo Duhalde, Néstor Kirchner, and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. Justicialists have been the largest party in Congress almost consistently since 1987.

Founded by Juan Domingo Perón, it was previously called the Peronist Party after its founder. It is the largest party in Congress; however, this does not reflect the divisions within the party over the role of Kirchnerism, the left-wing populist faction of the party, which is opposed by the dissident Peronists, the conservative faction of the party.


First emblem of the Peronist Party, 1946-1955

The Justicialist Party was founded in 1947 by Juan and Evita Perón, and superseded the Labour Party on which Perón had been elected a year earlier. After the enactment of women's suffrage, the Female Peronist Party, led by the First Lady, was also established. All Peronist entities were banned from elections after 1955, when the Revolución Libertadora overthrew Perón, and civilian governments' attempt to lift Peronism's ban from legislative and local elections in 1962 and 1965 resulted in military coups.[20]

Basing itself on the policies espoused by Perón as Argentine president, the party's platform has from its inception centered on populism, and its most consistent base of support has historically been the General Confederation of Labor, Argentina's largest trade union. Perón ordered the mass nationalization of public services, strategic industries, and the critical farm export sector; enacted progressive labor laws and social reforms; and accelerated public works investment.[20]

His tenure also favored technical schools, harassed university staff, and promoted urbanization as it raised taxes on the agrarian sector. Those trends earned Peronism the loyalty of much of the working and lower classes but helped alienate the upper and middle classes of society. Censorship and repression intensified, and following his loss of support from the influential Argentine Catholic Church, Perón was ultimately and violently deposed in a 1955 coup.[20]

The alignment of groups as supporting or opposing Peronism has largely endured, but the policies of Peronism itself varied greatly over the subsequent decades, as did increasingly those put forth by its many competing figures. During Perón's exile, it became a big tent party united almost solely by its support for the aging leader's return. A series of violent incidents, as well as Perón's negotiations with both the military regime and diverse political factions, helped lead to his return to Argentina in 1973 and to his election in September that year.[21]

An impasse followed in which the party had a place both for leftist armed organizations such as Montoneros, and far-right factions such as José López Rega's Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance. Following Perón's death in 1974, however, the tenuous understanding disintegrated, and a wave of political violence ensued, ultimately resulting in the March 1976 coup. The Dirty War of the late 1970s, which cost hundreds of Peronists (among thousands more) their lives, solidified the party's populist outlook, particularly following the failure of conservative Economy Minister José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz's free trade and deregulatory policies after 1980.[21]

In the first democratic elections after the end of the dictatorship of the National Reorganization Process, in 1983, the Justicialist Party lost to the Radical Civic Union (UCR). Six years later, it returned to power with Carlos Menem, during whose term the Constitution was reformed to allow for presidential reelection. Menem (1989-1999) adopted neoliberal right-wing policies which changed the overall image of the party.[22]

The Justicialist Party was defeated by a coalition formed by the UCR and the centre-left FrePaSo (itself a left-wing offshoot of the PJ) in 1999, but regained political weight in the 2001 legislative elections, and was ultimately left in charge of managing the selection of an interim president after the economic collapse of December 2001. Justicialist Eduardo Duhalde, chosen by Congress, ruled during 2002 and part of 2003.[22]

The 2003 elections saw the constituency of the party split in three, as Carlos Menem, Néstor Kirchner (backed by Duhalde) and Adolfo Rodríguez Saá ran for the presidency leading different party coalitions. After Kirchner's victory, the party started to align behind his leadership, moving slightly to the left.[23][24]

The Justicialist Party effectively broke apart in the 2005 legislative elections when two factions ran for a Senate seat in Buenos Aires Province: Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (then the first lady) and Hilda González de Duhalde (wife of former president Duhalde). The campaign was particularly vicious. Kirchner's side allied with other minor forces and presented itself as a heterodox, left-leaning Front for Victory (FpV), while Duhalde's side stuck to older Peronist tradition. González de Duhalde's defeat to her opponent marked, according to many political analysts, the end to Duhalde's dominance over the province, and was followed by a steady defection of his supporters to the winner's side.

Néstor Kirchner proposed the entry of the party into the Socialist International in February 2008. His dominance of the party was undermined, however, by the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector, when a bill raising export taxes was introduced with presidential support. Subsequent growers' lockouts helped result in the defection of numerous Peronists from the FpV caucus, and further losses during the 2009 mid-term elections resulted in the loss of the FpV absolute majorities in both houses of Congress.[25]

In 2015, the PJ, with its presidential candidate Daniel Scioli, was defeated by the Cambiemos coalition. Mauricio Macri was inaugurated as President of Argentina, ending 12 years of Kirchnerism.

However, in the elections of 2019, the PJ joined the Frente de Todos, which won the presidential elections. The PJ returned to power, with Alberto Fernández as President of the nation.


From its foundation, the Justicialist Party has been a Peronist catch-all party,[26] which focuses on the figure of Juan Perón and his wife, Eva, with economic populist ideals.

From the return of Perón in 1973 and under the leadership of Isabel Perón, the Justicialist Party was no longer characterized by anti-imperialist and revolutionary tones but by a strong focus on anticommunism (of which it became the main bulwark in South America) and the support of economic liberalism.

That line continued even after the military dictatorship of the National Reorganization Process, with the government of Carlos Menem until that of Eduardo Duhalde. The party moved from being a Tercera Posición ("Third Position") to a centre-right party, while rival Radical Civic Union acted as a centre-left party.

Since 2003, the party has undergone an abrupt revolution, with the rise of a faction known as the Front for Victory, led by Néstor Kirchner. The policies and ideology of that faction were dubbed Kirchnerism, a mix of socialism, left-wing nationalism and radicalism. Kirchner was elected President of Argentina and soon became a popular left-wing figure. The party shifted to being left-wing populist, while the Radical Civic Union joined with other anti-Kirchnerist centrist and center-right parties including Republican Proposal. After his death in 2010, his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, took over the leadership of the Front for Victory, which continues to be a major faction of the Justicialist Party.


The party is headed by a National Committee, whose president is the de facto leader of the party.

Electoral history

Presidential elections

Election year Candidate(s) First Round Second Round Result Note
# votes % vote # votes % vote
1951 Juan Perón 4,745,168 63.40 Green tickY Elected as the Peronist Party
1958 no candidate (banished) Steady --
1963 no candidate (banished) Steady --
M-1973 Héctor Cámpora 5,907,464 49.56 Green tickY Elected as the Justicialist Party part of the Justicialist Liberation Front
S-1973 Juan Perón 7,359,252 61.85 Green tickY Elected part of the Justicialist Liberation Front
1983 Ítalo Lúder 5,944,402 40.16 Red XN Defeated 247 Electoral College seats
1989 Carlos Menem 7,953,301 47.49 Green tickY Elected 325 Electoral College seats, part of the Popular Justicialist Front
1995 Carlos Menem 8,687,319 49.94 Green tickY Elected Joint-ticket (PJ--UCeDé)
1999 Eduardo Duhalde 7,254,417 38.27 Red XN Defeated part of the Justicialist Coalition for Change
2003 Carlos Menem 4,740,907 24.45 null 0 Red XN 2nd-R Forfeited Front for Loyalty, a faction of PJ
Néstor Kirchner 4,312,517 22.24 null 0 Green tickY 2nd-R Unopposed Front for Victory, a faction of PJ
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá 2,735,829 14.11 Red XN 1st-R Defeated Front of the Popular Movement, a faction of PJ
2007 Cristina Kirchner 8,651,066 45.29 Green tickY Elected part of the Front for Victory Alliance
Alberto Rodríguez Saá 1,458,955 7.64 Red XN Defeated part of the Justice, Union and Liberty Front Alliance
2011 Cristina Kirchner 11,865,055 54.11 Green tickY Elected Front for Victory, a faction of PJ
2015 Daniel Scioli 9,338,449 37.08 12,198,441 48.60 Red XN 2nd-R Defeated part of the Front for Victory Alliance
2019 Alberto Fernández 12,473,709 48.10 Green tickY Elected part of the Everyone's Front Alliance

Congressional elections

Chamber of Deputies

Election year votes % seats won Total seats Position Presidency Note
1948 64.1
Majority Juan Perón (PP) as the Peronist Party
1951 63.5
Majority Juan Perón (PP) as the Peronist Party
1954 4,977,586 62.96
Majority Juan Perón (PJ) as the Peronist Party
1958 null 0 0
Banned Pedro Eugenio Aramburu (de facto)
1960 null 0 0
Banned Arturo Frondizi (UCRI)
1962 1,592,446 17.53
Minority Arturo Frondizi (UCRI) as Unión Popular
Minority José María Guido (UCRI) as Unión Popular and other pro-Justicialist
1965 2,833,528
(UP only)
(UP only)

(UP only)
Minority Arturo Umberto Illia (UCRP) as Unión Popular and other pro-Justicialist
1973 5,908,414 48.7
Majority Alejandro Agustín Lanusse (de facto) as Justicialist Party part of the Justicialist Liberation Front
1983 5,697,610 38.5
Minority Reynaldo Bignone (de facto)
1985 5,259,331 34.3
Minority Raúl Alfonsín (UCR)
1987 6,649,362 41.5
Minority Raúl Alfonsín (UCR)
1989 7,324,033 42.9
Minority Raúl Alfonsín (UCR) part of the Popular Justicialist Front
1991 6,288,222 40.2
Minority Carlos Menem (PJ)
1993 6,946,586 42.5
Minority Carlos Menem (PJ)
1995 7,294,828 43.0
Majority Carlos Menem (PJ)
1997 6,267,973 36.3
Minority Carlos Menem (PJ)
1999 5,986,674 32.3
Minority Carlos Menem (PJ)
2001 5,267,136 37.5
Minority Fernando de la Rúa (UCR--Alianza)
2003 5,511,420 35.1
Majority Eduardo Duhalde (PJ)
2005 6,883,925 40.5
Majority Néstor Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2007 5,557,087 45.6
Majority Néstor Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2009 5,941,184 30.3
Minority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2011 12,073,675 58.6
Majority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2013 12,702,809 55.4
Majority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2015 8,797,279 37.4
Minority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2017 9,518,813 39.0
Minority Mauricio Macri (PRO-Cambiemos) as Citizen's Unity
2019 11,359,508 45.5
Minority Mauricio Macri (PRO-Cambiemos)

Senate elections

Election year votes % seats won Total seats Position Presidency Note
Majority Fernando de la Rúa (UCR-Alianza)
2003 1,852,456 40.7
Majority Eduardo Duhalde (PJ)
2005 3,572,361 45.1
Majority Néstor Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2007 1,048,187 45.6
Majority Néstor Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2009 756,695 30.3
Minority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2011 5,470,241 54.6
Majority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2013 1,608,846 32.1
Majority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2015 2,336,037 32.7
Majority Cristina Kirchner (PJ-FPV)
2017 3,785,518 32.7
Minority Mauricio Macri (PRO--Cambiemos)
Majority Mauricio Macri (PRO--Cambiemos)


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External links

Coordinates: 34°36?40.5?S 58°24?0.5?W / 34.611250°S 58.400139°W / -34.611250; -58.400139

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