Kagayanen Language
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Kagayanen Language
Native toPhilippines
Regioneastern Palawan
Native speakers
30,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines. It belongs to the Manobo subgroup of the Austronesian language family, and is the only member of this subgroup that is not spoken on Mindanao or nearby islands.


Kagayanen is spoken in the following areas.[2]


[h] occurs only in loan words, proper names, or in words that have [h] in the cognates of neighboring languages.[4] Outside of loanwords, /d/ becomes [r] between vowels.[5]

Comparative and historical evidence suggests that /ð?/ and /l/ were in complementary distribution before a split occurred with pressure from contact with English, Spanish, and Tagalog.[6]

Vowels of Kagayanen[7]
Front Central Back
Close i ? u
Open a

/i/ ranges between [i] and [e], except in unstressed syllables (as well as before consonant clusters) where it lowers to [?] or [?].[8] Similarly, /u/ lowers to [?] in unstressed syllables, before consonant clusters, and word-finally. It is otherwise [u].[9]



  • MacGregor, Louise A. (1995), "Kagayanen: Introduction and wordlist", in Tryon, Darrell T. (ed.), Comparative Austronesian dictionary: An introduction to Austronesian studies, part 1: fascicle 1, Trends in Linguistics., 10, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 363-368
  • Olson, Kenneth S.; Mielke, Jeff (2007), "Acoustic properties of the Kagayanen vowel space" (PDF), in Trouvain, Jürgen; Barry, William (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Universität des Saarlandes, pp. 845-848, retrieved
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199-215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296

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