Kashmir Shaivism
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Kashmir Shaivism

The trident (tril?bija maalam) symbol and yantra of Parama Shiva, representing the triadic energies of the supreme goddess Par?, Par?-apar? and Apar? ?akti.

Kashmir Shaivism, or Trika Shaivism, is a nondualist tradition of Shaiva-Shakta Tantra which originated sometime after 850 CE.[1][2] Though this tradition was very influential in Kashmir and is thus often called Kashmir Shaivism, it was actually a pan-Indian movement termed "Trika" by its great exegete, Abhinavagupta, which also flourished in Orissa and Maharashtra.[2][3] Defining features of the Trika tradition are its idealistic and monistic Pratyabhijna ("Recognition") philosophical system, propounded by Utpaladeva (c. 925-975 CE) and Abhinavagupta (c. 975-1025 CE), and the centrality of the three goddesses Par?, Par?par?, and Apar?.[1][2]

While Trika draws from numerous Shaiva texts, such as the Shaiva Agamas and the Shaiva and Shakta Tantras, its major scriptural authorities are the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, the Siddhayoge?var?mata and the An?maka-tantra.[4] Its main exegetical works are those of Abhinavagupta, such as the Tantraloka, M?linlokav?rttika, and Tantras?ra which are formally an exegesis of the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, although they also drew heavily on the Kali-based Krama subcategory of the Kulam?rga.[5] Another important text of this tradition is the Vijñ?na-bhairava-tantra, which focuses on outlining numerous yogic practices.[6]

Kashmir Shaivism claimed to supersede Shaiva Siddhanta, a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative tantric Shaivism.[7] The Shaiva Siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva's grace) was replaced by recognizing oneself as Shiva who, in Kashmir Shaivism's monism, is the entirety of the universe.[8]

History

Shiva and Parvati (which is associated with Shakti), Kashmir, 10 or 11th century.

Shiva Sutras and Spandak?rik?

Dating from around 850-900 CE, the Shiva Sutras and Spandak?rik? were the first attempt from the kta ?aiva domain to present a non-dualistic metaphysics and gnostic soteriology in opposition to the dualistic exegesis of the Shaiva Siddhanta.[9] The Shiva Sutras appeared to Vasugupta in a dream, according to tradition. The Spandak?rik? was either composed by Vasugupta or his student Bhatta Kallata.[10][11][12]

Lineage

Somananda, the first theologian of monistic Shaivism, was the teacher of Utpaladeva, who was the grand-teacher of Abhinavagupta, who in turn was the teacher of Ksemaraja.[13][14]

Abhinavagupta

The Tantr?loka, M?linlokav?rttika, and Tantras?ra of the Kashmirian Abhinavagupta (975-1025 CE) are formally an exegesis on the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, although they also drew heavily on the Kali-based Krama tradition of the Kulam?rga.[5]

Jayaratha (1150-1200 CE) wrote a commentary on the Tantr?loka.[15]

20th century revival

There were no major writers or publications after approximately the 14th century. In the 20th century Swami Lakshman Joo, a Kashmiri Hindu, helped revive both the scholarly and yogic streams of Kashmir Shaivism.[16] His contribution is enormous. He inspired a generation of scholars who made Kashmir Shaivism a legitimate field of inquiry within the academy.[17][18]

Acharya Rameshwar Jha, a disciple of Lakshman Joo, is often credited with establishing the roots of Kashmir Shaivism in the learned community of Varanasi. Rameshwar Jha with his creativity, familiarity with the ancient texts and personal experiences provided access to concepts of non-dualistic Kashmir Shaivism. His writings of Sanskrit verses have been published as the books Purnta Pratyabhijna[19] and Samit Swatantram.[19]

Swami Muktananda, although not belonging to the direct lineage of Kashmir Shaivism, felt an affinity for the teachings, validated by his own direct experience.[20][21] He encouraged Motilal Banarsidass to publish Jaideva Singh's translations of Shiva Sutras, Pratyabhijnahrdayam, Spanda Karikas and Vijnana Bhairava, all of which Singh studied in-depth with Lakshman Joo.[22][23] He also introduced Kashmir Shaivism to a wide audience of western meditators through his writings and lectures on the subject.[24][25]

The Vijnana Bhairava Tantra, a chapter from the Rudrayamala Tantra, was introduced to the West by Paul Reps, a student of Lakshman Joo, by including an English translation in his book Zen Flesh, Zen Bones. Cast as a discourse between the god Shiva and his consort Devi or Shakti, it presents 112 meditation methods or centering techniques (dharanas).[26]

Practice

Prerequisites

Tantric initiation (diksa) is necessary for undertaking the tantric practices of Trika Saivism.

Since it is a Tantric tradition, a necessary prerequisite for Trika yogic practice is tantric initiation or diksa. The M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, a major source for the tradition, states: "Without initiation there is no qualification for Saiva yoga."[27]

Although domesticated into a householder tradition, Kashmir Shaivism recommended a secret performance of Kaula practices in keeping with its tantric heritage. This was to be done in seclusion from public eyes, therefore allowing one to maintain the appearance of a typical householder.[28]

The M?lin?vijayottara Tantra outlines several major preconditions conferring the authority to practice Yoga:

The Yogin who has mastered posture [and] the mind, controlled the vital energy, subdued the senses, conquered sleep, overcome anger and agitation and who is free from deceit, should practise Yoga in a quiet, pleasant cave or earthen hut free from all obstructions.[29]

Six laksyas

Schist statue of Shiva Mahadeva, Northern India, Kashmir, 8th century. Cleveland Museum of Art.

Numerous texts such as the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra also outline six "varieties of the goal" or "targets" (laksyas) of yogic practices, mainly:[30]

  • Contemplation of void (vyoman), which bestows all Perfections and liberation.
  • Contemplation of body (vigraha), which bestows the coercion of deities like Visnu or Rudra
  • Contemplation of drop (bindu), which bestows sovereignty over Yogins
  • Contemplation of phoneme (varna), which bestows the Perfection of mantra
  • Contemplation of world (bhuvana), which bestows regency of a world
  • Contemplation of resonance (dhvani), which leads to isolation and liberation.

Each of the goals is given specific practices. For example, in the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, perfecting the Void is said to be reached by moving the mind and vital energy (through the use of mantric resonance) through two groups of three voids located along the central channel (which are also correlated with a system of six cakras), reaching to the region above the head. Different scriptures outline different lists of voids and their location in the body.[31] The practice of resonance deals with various sounds, and how the yogin is to focus on a specific sound and its resonance within the central channel.[32]

Regarding mantra, different Saiva tantras and texts teach different mantras and bija (seed) mantras. These mantras are generally intoned (uccara) at different positions in the body along the central channel (such as at the heart, throat, forehead, etc). The Diksottara tantra for example, teaches the intonation of the 'ha?sá' mantra, beginning in the heart region.[33] Some texts teach "a lineal ascent through the heart, the throat, the palate, and the forehead, culminating with the transcendence of sonic experience as the 'Limit of Resonance' [nadanta] in the cranium is pierced." Other texts have the mantric energy follow the breath through the nose outside the body.[34]

Yogas

Since Trika Saivism is a synthesis of various traditions, its texts, like the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, distinguishes four different types of Saiva yoga. According to Somadev Vasudeva:

Two of these have been assimilated from the Tantras of the Siddhanta [1.] the conquest of the reality-levels (tattvajaya), which has been transformed into a radically new type of yoga based on the fifteen levels of the apperceptive process, and, [2.] the yoga of six ancillaries (?a?a?gayoga), which is taken over with only minor variations. The third is [3.] Kaula yoga with its system of four immersions (pindastha, padastha, rupastha and rupatita) and as a fourth may be counted [4.] the three types of possession (avesa) taught in the Trika (anava, sakta and sambhava) which are innovatively presented as three meta-categories under which all yogic exercises can be subsumed.[35]


The conquest of the tattvas

In Trika texts as well as those of other Saiva schools, it is common to formulate the process of yogic conquest of the realities (tattvas) as a series of Dh?ras. Dh?ras ("introspections") are "complex sequences of meditative practices" which focus on a series of contemplations on a "hierarchy of apperceptive states designed to bring him ever closer to the level of the highest perceiver, Shiva". This hierarchy of meditations and visualizations is based on the Shaiva schema of the 36 tattvas.[36] According to Somadev Vasudeva, the procedure can be described thus:

The Yogin starts by disengaging the mind from external stimuli and then fixes it upon a tattva [such as earth, water, etc] with ever deepening absorption. He attains an internalised vision of the reality, and compares it with his authoritative, scriptural knowledge of the highest level. By means of tarka [reasoning], an ontological value judgement, he discerns that it is different from Siva and thus transcends it. The Yogin's ascension inevitably brings him to the reality which is Siva at the zenith of all paths.[37]

One example of the meditation on the tattva of buddhi (intellect) from the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra is as follows:

Contemplating in the heart a lotus with colour of the rising sun, with eight petals containing the [eight bhavas] of dharma etc., and a pericarp, [the Yogin's] intellect becomes steady within a month. Within six he becomes a knower of the Sruti (scripture). Within three years he himself becomes an author of scriptures. Contemplating his own [physical] form there (in the heart), he perceives the principle of intellect.[38]

Yoga with six ancillaries (?a?a?gayoga)

Trika yoga generally uses a system of six "limbs" or ancillaries (a?gas) which are seen as subsidiary to the principle conquest of the tattvas. This system was adopted from the dualistic Saiva Siddhanta as well as in P?ñcar?tra scriptures such as the Jayakhyasamhita. According to Somadeva Vasudeva, in Trika, ?a?a?gayoga "is to be understood as a collection of helpful or even indispensable yogic techniques which enable the prospective Yogin to achieve the required "coalescence" or "identification" (tanmayata, lit. the "consisting-of-that-ness") with the object of contemplation."[39]

These six subsidiaries as outlined by the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, are:[40]

  • Pr?n?y?ma, control of the "breath" or "vital energy" (prana), includes various forms of inhalation, exhalation, kumbhakah, as well as proper posture (asana), defined as either lotus or some other seated posture. The practice of udgatha (eruption) is also taught, which is a "process whereby the retained air is propelled or launched upwards from the navel-region so that it strikes the head."[41]
  • Dh?ran? (fixations or concentrations). Four are taught: Fire, Water, Sovereign (defined as bindu and nada) and Nectar (fixating upon a lunar disc above the cranium which drops divine nectar into the central channel, filling the body).[42]
  • Tarka (judgment or reasoning), defined as "the ascertainment of what is to be cultivated and what is to be rejected."
  • Dhy?na (meditation), defined as "attentive contemplation on Siva" or "a focused stream of awareness directed towards the judged and thus accepted reality".
  • Sam?dhi, a deep absorption that arises from prolonged (the text states 48 minutes) and "firmly established" meditation, in which the yogin "becomes as though non-existent. He reaches a state where he becomes as though dead, from which even intense sounds and other such [sense data] cannot rouse him."[43]
  • Praty?h?ra, complete withdrawal of the mind

In the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra (chapter 17), these are seen as six progressive steps leading to complete identification with the object of meditation.[39] It is important to note that different Saiva tantras outline different forms of the six ancillaries, and "there is no consensus as to their order, their definition or even their subdivisions" among the different tantras.[44]

Yogic suicide

The practice of utkranti, also called "yogic suicide", is also taught in nondual Saiva Tantras like the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, which uses the vital energy rising through the central channel to end one's life and proceed to union with Siva.[45] The text says that this abandonment of the body can be done at the end of one's life, after one has mastered all that one has set out to achieve.[46]

Four upayas

To attain moksha, s?dhana or spiritual practice is necessary. Kashmir Shaivism describes four major methods (up?ya-s):[47]

  1. avop?ya, the method of the body,
  2. ktop?ya, the method of the mind,
  3. mbhavop?ya, the method of Consciousness,
  4. anup?ya the 'methodless' method.

avop?ya - purification of the body

While most other paths observe offering incense and external objects to the deity, this path takes on to offering breaths. The individual controls his heart and pulse by reducing it significantly. The final stage is renouncing consumption of food and water. As a result, he/she connects the state of the supreme in the form of Shiva which results in purification of the body and generation of ojas.[47]

Philosophy

Sri Yantra diagram with the Ten Mahavidyas. The triangles represent Shiva and Shakti, the snake represents Spanda and Kundalini.

Influences and major exponents

The philosophy of Trika Shaivism is called Pratyabhijñ? (Recognition) and it is mainly a nondual idealistic and monistic theism.[48][1] It is influenced by the works of the Saiva monist Vasugupta (c. 800-850 CE) and numerous ?aiva scriptures such as the Agamas and ?aiva-?akta Tantras.The Trika philosophical system of Pratyabhijñ? is presented in the works of Som?nanda (c. 900-950 CE), Utpaladeva (c. 925-975 CE), Abhinavagupta (c. 975-1025 CE) and his disciple Kshemar?ja (c. 1000-1050).[1]

According to Christopher Wallis, the philosophy of Trika Shaivism also adopted much of the ontological apparatus of Skhya school, such as its system of 25 tattvas, expanding and reinterpreting it for its own system of 36 tattvas.[49] Another important source for Trika is the idealistic and dualistic theism of Shaiva Siddhanta.[50] The Saivas also were influenced by the work of Buddhist Vijñ?nav?da and Pramanavada philosophers, especially Dharmakirti, who was also taken as a primary non-Saiva opponent and whose doctrines were sometimes absorbed into the Pratyabhijñ? system.[51]

Metaphysics and theology

The philosophy of Recognition, as outlined by thinkers like Utpaladeva, teaches that though the identity of all souls is one with God (Isvara) or Shiva (which is the single reality, Being and absolute consciousness), they have forgotten this due to Maya or ignorance. However, through knowledge one can recognize one's authentic divine nature and become a liberated being.[52] Another important element of Trika theology is the active and dynamic nature of consciousness, which is described as the spontaneous vibration or pulsation (spanda) of universal consciousness, which is an expression of its freedom (sv?t?ntrya) and power (?akti).[53] Because of this, though this philosophy is idealist, it affirms the reality of the world and everyday life, as a real transformation (parinama), manifestation or appearance (?bh?sa) of the absolute consciousness.[54] The Absolute is also explained through the metaphor of light (prakasha) and reflective awareness (vimarsha).[55]

Tantric scholar-practitioner Christopher Wallis outlines the metaphysics and theology of non-dual Shaiva Tantra thus:

All that exists, throughout all time and beyond, is one infinite divine Consciousness, free and blissful, which projects within the field of its awareness a vast multiplicity of apparently differentiated subjects and objects: each object an actualization of a timeless potentiality inherent in the Light of Consciousness, and each subject the same plus a contracted locus of self-awareness. This creation, a divine play, is the result of the natural impulse within Consciousness to express the totality of its self-knowledge in action, an impulse arising from love. The unbounded Light of Consciousness contracts into finite embodied loci of awareness out of its own free will. When those finite subjects then identify with the limited and circumscribed cognitions and circumstances that make up this phase of their existence, instead of identifying with the transindividual overarching pulsation of pure Awareness that is their true nature, they experience what they call "suffering." To rectify this, some feel an inner urge to take up the path of spiritual gnosis and yogic practice, the purpose of which is to undermine their misidentification and directly reveal within the immediacy of awareness the fact that the divine powers of Consciousness, Bliss, Willing, Knowing, and Acting comprise the totality of individual experience as well--thereby triggering a recognition that one's real identity is that of the highest Divinity, the Whole in every part. This experiential gnosis is repeated and reinforced through various means until it becomes the nonconceptual ground of every moment of experience, and one's contracted sense of self and separation from the Whole is finally annihilated in the incandescent radiance of the complete expansion into perfect wholeness. Then one's perception fully encompasses the reality of a universe dancing ecstatically in the animation of its completely perfect divinity.[56]

This single supreme reality is also sometimes referred to as Aham (the heart). It is considered to be a non-dual interior space of ?iva, support for the entire manifestation,[57] supreme mantra[58] and identical to ?akti.[59] In Kashmir Shivaism the highest form of Kali is Kalasankarshini who is nirguna, formless and is often show as a flame above the head of Guhya Kali the highest gross form of Kali. In Nepali Newar arts, both form and formless attributes of Kali is often envisioned in a single art form showing the hierarchy of goddesses in their tradition. In it Guhyakali image culminates in flame, with Kalasankarshini, the highest deity in the sequence, who consumes time within herself and is envisioned solely as a flame representing Para Brahman.[60]

Theology of the Triad or Trika

Kali, ca. 9th century, from Andhra Pradesh. The Trika synthesis of Abhinavagupta also adopted the doctrines of the Krama school of Shakta Tantra, whose main goddess was Kali.[2]

An important element of Trika Shaivism's theology is the use of several triads (symbolized by the trident) in its theological explanation of the Absolute reality. There are several triads described in Trika theology of thinkers like Abhinavagupta, including:

  • Three realitiesiva (The Supreme Transcendent), ?akti (immanent in creation, the link between the macrocosm and the microcosm) and A?u (the limited atom or individual, a complete image of the ultimate, the microcosm of the macrocosm).[61]
  • Three powers: Icch? (will), Jñ?na (knowledge), and Kriy? (action). Any action of any being, including God, is subject to these three fundamental energies. Iccha or Will is in the beginning of any action or process. Jnana by which the action is clearly expressed first in mind, before it is put into action. Then comes Kriy?, the energy of the action.
  • Three entities: pati (?iva), pa (bondage), pa?u (soul)
  • Shakti Triad or Three Goddesses: Par? (transcendence), Par?par? (transcendence and immanence) and Apar? ?akti (immanence)
  • Three aspects of knowledge: Pramatri (the subject), Pramana (the modalities of knowledge) and Prameya - the known object
  • Three states of consciousness: j?grat (waking), svapna (dreaming) and su?upti (dreamless sleep)
  • Three-fold spiritual path: mbhavop?ya, ktop?ya and avop?ya
  • The transcendental triad: praka (luminosity), vimar?a (dynamics),s?marasya (homogeneous bliss)
  • The three impurities?avamala, m?y?, karma.

Comparison with Advaita Vedanta

Kashmir Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta are both non-dual philosophies that give primacy to Universal Consciousness (Chit or Brahman).[62] In Kashmir Shaivism, all things are a manifestation of this Consciousness,[63] but the phenomenal world (?akti) is real, existing and having its being in Consciousness (Chit).[64]

Texts

According to Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, Kashmiri Trika Shaivism looks to three scriptures "as its primary authorities", the M?lin?vijayottara Tantra, the Siddhayoge?var?mata and the An?maka-tantra.[4]

As a monistic tantric system, Trika Shaivism, as it is also known, draws teachings from shrutis, such as the monistic Bhairava Tantras, Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta, and also a unique version of the Bhagavad G?t? which has a commentary by Abhinavagupta, known as the Gitartha Samgraha. Teachings are also drawn from the Tantr?loka of Abhinavagupta, prominent among a vast body of smritis employed by Kashmir Shaivism.

In general, the whole written tradition of Shaivism can be divided in three fundamental parts: ?gama stra, Spanda stra and Pratyabhijñ? stra.[65]

1. ?gama stra are those writings that are considered as being a direct revelation from Siva. These writings were first communicated orally, from the master to the worthy disciple. They include essential works such as M?lin?vijaya Tantra, Svacchanda Tantra, Vijñ?na Bhairava Tantra, Netra Tantra, M?gendra Tantra, Rudray?mala Tantra, ?ivas?tra and others. There are also numerous commentaries to these works, ?ivas?tra having most of them.[66]

2. Spanda stra, the main work of which is Spanda K?rik? of Bhatta Kallata, a disciple of Vasugupta, with its many commentaries. Out of them, two are of major importance: Spanda Sandoha (this commentary talks only about the first verses of Spanda K?rik?), and Spanda Nir?aya (which is a commentary of the complete text).[66]

3. Pratyabhijñ? stra are those writings which have mainly a metaphysical content. Due to their extremely high spiritual and intellectual level, this part of the written tradition of Shaivism is the least accessible for the uninitiated. Nevertheless, this corpus of writings refer to the simplest and most direct modality of spiritual realization. Pratyabhijñ? means "recognition" and refers to the spontaneous recognition of the divine nature hidden in each human being (atman). The most important works in this category are: vara Pratyabhijñ?, the fundamental work of Utpaladeva, and Pratyabhijñ? Vimar?in?, a commentary to vara Pratyabhijñ?. vara Pratyabhijñ? means in fact the direct recognition of the Lord (vara) as identical to one's Heart. Before Utpaladeva, his master Som?nanda wrote ?iva Di (The Vision of Siva), a devotional poem written on multiple levels of meaning.[67]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d David Peter Lawrence, Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  2. ^ a b c d Wallis, Christopher; Tantra Illuminated, chapter II, The History of ?aiva Tantra
  3. ^ Carl Olson, The Many Colors of Hinduism, Rutgers University Press, 2007, page 237
  4. ^ a b Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989, p. 12.
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  7. ^ Flood, Gavin. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.61
  8. ^ Flood, Gavin. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.66-67, 122
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  50. ^ Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989, p. 19-20.
  51. ^ Torella, Raffaele. 1992. "The Pratyabhijñ? and the Logical-Epistemological School of Buddhism" in Ritual and Speculation in Early Tantrism: Studies in Honor of Andre Padoux. Albany: SUNY Press.
  52. ^ Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989, p. 17-18.
  53. ^ Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989, p. 24.
  54. ^ Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989, p. 25.
  55. ^ Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989, p. 26.
  56. ^ Wallis, Christopher; Tantra Illuminated, chapter I, 1 The Philosophy of Nondual ?aiva Tantra
  57. ^ Par?-trik? Vivara?a, Jaideva Singh, page 194
  58. ^ Par?-trik? Vivara?a, Jaideva Singh, page 180
  59. ^ Par?-trik? Vivara?a, Jaideva Singh, page 127
  60. ^ Time and Space In Tantric arts, Sthaneshwar Timalsina
  61. ^ The Trika ?aivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. 13
  62. ^ Jaideva Singh (2008), Pratyãbhijñah?dayam: The Secret of Self-Recognition, Moltilal Banarsidass, 2008 p.24-26
  63. ^ Dyczkowski 1987, p. 44.
  64. ^ Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The Divine Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.119
  65. ^ The Trika Shaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. IX
  66. ^ a b The Trika Shaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. X
  67. ^ The Trika Shaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. XI

Sources

  • Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43878-0
  • Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Suny press
  • Sanderson, Alexis (2005a), "Saivism:Saivism in Kasmir", in Jones, Lindsay (ed.), MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul, MacMillan
  • Sanderson, Alexis (2005b), "Saivism:Trika Saivism", in Jones, Lindsay (ed.), MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul, MacMillan
  • Sanderson, Alexis (2005e), "Saivism: Krama Saivism", in Jones, Lindsay (ed.), MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul, MacMillan

Further reading

  • Basham, A. L. (1989). Zysk, Kenneth (ed.). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507349-5.
  • Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. (1987). The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-432-9.
  • Lakshmanjoo, Swami (2003). Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme. 1st Books Library. ISBN 1-58721-505-5.
  • Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010). Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual Shaivism of Kashmir. Suny press.
  • Mishra, Kamalakar (1999). Kashmir Saivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism. Sri Satguru Publications. ISBN 81-7030-632-9.
  • Shankarananda, Swami (2003). Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism. Shaktipat Press. ISBN 0-9750995-0-7.
  • Hughes, John. Self Realization in Kashmir Shaivism. ISBN 0-7914-2179-1.
  • Toshkani, (Proceedings Edited by) SS (2002). Lal Ded: The great Kashmiri Saint-poetess, Proceedings of the National Seminar Conducted by Kashmir Education, Culture and Science Society, November 12, 2000. B-36 Pamposh Enclave, New Delhi-110048: APH Publishing Corporation. ISBN 81-7648-381-8.CS1 maint: location (link)
  • Muktananda, Swami (2000). Play of Consciousness - A Spiritual Autobiography. SYDA Foundation. ISBN 0-911307-81-8.
  • Muktananda, Swami (1980). Secret of the Siddhas. SYDA Foundation. ISBN 81-86693-07-6.
  • Durgananda, Swami; Brooks; et al. (1997). Meditation Revolution. Agama Press. ISBN 0-9654096-1-9.
  • Singh, Jaideva (2000). ?iva Sutras - The Yoga of Supreme Identity. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0406-6.
  • Singh, Jaideva (2005). Spanda-K?rikas - The Divine Creative Pulsation. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0821-5.
  • Singh, Jaideva (2008). Pratyãbhijñah?dayam - The Secret of Self-Recognition. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0323-7.

External links


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