Kingdom of Kurdistan
Keyaniya Kurdistanê ?
|Status||Unrecognized short-lived state|
|Religion||Sunni Islam (Specifically Qadiriyya Sufi Order)|
o Prime Minister
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|10 August 1920|
|24 July 1923|
|3 October 1932|
The Kingdom of Kurdistan was a short-lived state proclaimed in the city of Sulaymaniyah following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Officially, the territory involved was under the jurisdiction of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
During the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Kurds attempted to establish an independent state. On at least one occasion they succeeded and formed the Kingdom of Kurdistan, which lasted from September 1921 until July 1925.
The Shaykh of the Qadiriyyah order of Sufis, the most influential personality in Southern Kurdistan, was appointed governor of the former sanjak of Duhok, but rallied against the British and declared an independent Kurdistan in May 1919. He was defeated in June.
On 10 October 1921, a statement was issued in Suleymanyah, the capital of Kurdistan, to establish a Kurdish government. Sheikh Mahmud Barzanji declared himself as the King of the Kingdom of Kurdistan.
After the Treaty of Sèvres, which settled some territories, Sulaymaniya still remained under the direct control of the British High Commissioner. After the subsequent penetration of the Turkish "Özdemir" Detachment into the area, an attempt was made by the British to counter this by appointing Shaykh Mahmud governor again, in September 1922. The Shaykh revolted again, and in November declared himself King of the Kingdom of Kurdistan. Members of his cabinet included:
Barzanji was defeated by the British in July 1924, and in January 1926 the League of Nations gave the mandate over the territory back to Iraq, with the provision for special rights for Kurds. In 1930-1931, Shaykh Makhmud Barzanji made his last unsuccessful attempt.[clarification needed]