Kum%C4%81rila Bha%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADa
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Kum%C4%81rila Bha%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADa

Kum?rila Bhaa
Bornest. 700 AD
EraHindu Indian philosophy
Main interests

Kum?rila Bhaa (fl. roughly 700) was a Hindu philosopher and a scholar of Mimamsa school of philosophy from early medieval India. He is famous for many of his various theses on Mimamsa, such as Mimamsaslokavarttika. Bhaa was a staunch believer in the supreme validity of Vedic injunction, a great champion of P?rva-M?ms? and a confirmed ritualist.[1] The Varttika is mainly written as a subcommentary of Sabara's commentary on Jaimini's Purva Mimamsa Sutras. His philosophy is classified by some scholars as existential realism.[2]

Scholars differ as regards Kum?rila Bhaa's views on a personal God. For example, Manikka Vachakar believed that Bhaa promoted a personal God[3] (saguna brahman), which conflicts with the M?ms? school. In his Varttika, Kum?rila Bhaa goes to great lengths to argue against the theory of a creator God[4] and held that the actions enjoined in the Veda had definite results without an external interference of Deity.

Kum?rila is also credited with the logical formulation of the Mimamsic belief that the Vedas are unauthored (apauru?ey?). In particular, his defence against medieval Buddhist positions on Vedic rituals is noteworthy. This contributed to the decline of Buddhism in India,[5] because his lifetime coincides with the period in which Buddhism began to decline.[1] Indeed, his dialectical success against Buddhists is confirmed by Buddhist historian Taranatha, who reports that Kum?rila defeated disciples of Buddhap?lita, Bh?viveka, Dharmadasa, Dign?ga and others.[6] His work strongly influenced other schools of Indian philosophy,[7] with the exception that while Mimamsa considers the Upanishads to be subservient to the Vedas, the Vedanta school does not think so.

Early life

The birthplace of Kum?rila Bhatta is uncertain. According to the 16th-century Buddhist scholar Taranatha, Kum?rila was a native of South India. However, Anandagiri's Shankara-Vijaya states that Kumarila came from "the North" (udagdet), and persecuted the Buddhists and the Jains in the South.[8]

Another theory is that he came from eastern India, specifically Kamarupa (present-day Assam). Sesa's Sarvasiddhanta-rahasya uses the eastern title Bhattacharya for him. His writings indicate that he was familiar with the production of silk, which was common in present-day Assam.[9] Yet another theory is that he comes from Mithila, which has similar culture to Bengal and Assam, and produced another scholar on the subject Mandana Misra.

Linguistics views

Kum?rila Bhaa and his followers in the M?ms? tradition known as Bhas argued for a strongly Compositional view of semantics called abhihit?nvaya or "designation of what has been denoted." In this view, the meaning of a sentence was understood only after understanding first the meanings of individual words. Word referents were independent, complete objects, a view that is close to the Fodorian view of language, according to philosopher Daniel Arnold.[10] He also used several Tamil words in his works, including one of the earliest mention of the name Dravida in North Indian sources, found in his Tantrav?rttika.[11]

The above-mentioned view of sentence meaning was debated over some seven or eight centuries by the followers of Prabh?kara school within M?ms?, who argued that words do not directly designate meaning. Rather, word meanings are understood as already connected with other words (anvit?bhidh?na, anvita = connected; abhidh?na = denotation). This view was influenced by the holistic arguments of Bhart?hari's spho?a theory.[] Essentially the Pr?bh?karas argued that sentence meanings are grasped directly, from perceptual and contextual cues, skipping the stage of grasping singly the individual word meanings,[12] similar to the modern view of linguistic underspecification, which relates to the Dynamic Turn in Semantics, that also opposes purely compositional approaches to sentence meaning.

Criticism of Buddhism

With the aim to prove the superiority of Vedic scripture, Kum?rila Bhaa presented several novel arguments:

1. "Buddhist (or Jain) scripture could not be correct because it had several grammatical lapses." He specifically takes the Buddhist verse: 'ime samkhada dhamma sambhavanti sakarana akarana vinassanti' (These phenomena arise when the cause is present and perish when the cause is absent). Thus he presents his argument:[13]

The scriptures of Buddhists and Jains are composed in overwhelmingly incorrect (asadhu) language, words of the Magadha or Dakshinatya languages, or even their dialects (tadopabhramsa). Therefore false compositions (asannibandhana), they cannot possibly be true knowledge (shastra) ... By contrast, the very form itself (the well-assembled language) of the Veda proves its authority to be independent and absolute.

2. Every extant school held some scripture to be correct. To show that the Veda was the only correct scripture, Kum?rila ingeniously said that "the absence of an author would safeguard the Veda against all reproach" (apaurusheya).[14] There was "no way to prove any of the contents of Buddhist scriptures directly as wrong in spirit...", unless one challenges the legitimacy and eternal nature of the scripture itself. It is well known that the Pali Canon was composed after the Buddha's parinirvana. Further, even if they were the Buddha's words, they were not eternal or unauthored like the Vedas.

3. The Sautrantika Buddhist school believed that the universe was momentary (kshanika). Kum?rila said that this was absurd, given that the universe does not disappear every moment. No matter how small one would define the duration of a moment, one could divide the moment into infinitely further parts. Kum?rila argues: "if the universe does not exist between moments, then in which of these moments does it exist?" Because a moment could be infinitesimally small, Bhaa argued that the Buddhist was claiming that the universe was non-existent.

4. The Determination of perception (pratyaksha pariccheda).[15]

Some scholars believe that Kum?rila's understanding of Buddhist philosophy was far greater than that of any other non-Buddhist philosopher of his time.[16] However, see Taber 2010 for an alternate view.[17]

According to Buton Rinchen Drub, Kum?rila spoke abusively towards his nephew, Dharmak?rti, as he was taking his brahminical garments. This drove Dharmak?rti away, and resolving to vanquish all non-Buddhist heretics he took the robes of the Buddhist order instead.[18]

Legendary life

According to legend, Kum?rila went to study Buddhism at Nalanda (the largest 4th-century university in the world), with the aim of refuting Buddhist doctrine in favour of Vedic religion. He was expelled from the university when he protested against his teacher (Dharmakirti) ridiculing the Vedic rituals. Legend has it that even though he was thrown off of the university's tower, he survived with an eye injury by claiming "if the Vedas are the ultimate then I will be spared fro. Death". (Modern Mimamsa scholars and followers of Vedanta believe that this was because he imposed a condition on the infallibility of the Vedas thus encouraging the Hindu belief that one should not even doubt the infallibility of the Vedas.)

One medieval work on the life of Sankara (considered most accurate) claims that Sankara challenged Bhaa to a debate on his deathbed.[19] Kum?rila Bhaa could not debate Sankara as he was punishing himself to have disrespected his Buddhist teacher by defeating him in a debate using the Vedas by self immolation at the banks of Narmada and instead directed him to argue with his student Mandana Misra in Mahi?mati. He said:

"You will find a home at whose gates there are a number of caged parrots discussing abstract topics like -- 'Do the Vedas have self-validity or do they depend on some external authority for their validity? Are karmas capable of yielding their fruits directly, or do they require the intervention of God to do so? Is the world eternal, or is it a mere appearance?' Where you find the caged parrots discussing such abstruse philosophical problems, you will know that you have reached Maana's place."


  • Shlokavartika ("Exposition on the Verses", commentary on Shabara's Commentary on Jaimini's Mimamsa Sutras, Bk. 1, Ch. 1) [2]
  • Tantravartika ("Exposition on the Sacred Sciences", commentary on Shabara's Commentary on Jaimini's Mimamsa Sutras, Bk. 1, Ch. 2-4 and Bks. 2-3) [3]
  • Tuptika ("Full Exposition" commentary on Shabara's Commentary on Jaimini's Mimamsa Sutras, Bks. 4-9) [4]
  • Kataoka, Kei, Kumarila on Truth, Omniscience and Killing. Part 1: A Critical Edition of Mimamasa-Slokavarttika ad 1.1.2 (Codanasutra). Part 2: An Annotated Translation of Mimamsa-Slokavarttika ad 1.1.2 (Codanasutra) (Wien, 2011) (Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, 814; Beiträge zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens, 68).


  1. ^ a b Sharma, pp. 5-6.
  2. ^ Bhatt, p. 6.
  3. ^ A History of Indian Philosophy By Surendranath Dasgupta. p. 156.
  4. ^ Bales, p. 198.
  5. ^ Sheridan, p. 198-201
  6. ^ Arnold, p. 4.
  7. ^ Bhatt, p. 3.
  8. ^ Kum?rila Bhaa; Peri Sarveswara Sharma (1980). Anthology of Kum?rilabhaa's Works. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-208-2084-5.
  9. ^ Biswanarayan Shastri (1995). M?ms? philosophy & Kum?rila Bhaa. Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. p. 76.
  10. ^ Arnold, Daniel (2005). Buddhists, Brahmins, and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of Religion. New York: Columbia University Press.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Matilal, p. 108.
  13. ^ Pollock, p. 55.
  14. ^ Jha, p. 31.
  15. ^ Taber, p
  16. ^ Rani, p
  17. ^ Taber, John (2010). "Kum?rila's Buddhist". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 38 (3): 279-296. doi:10.1007/s10781-010-9093-9.
  18. ^ Buton, Rinchen drub (1931). The History of Buddhism in India and Tibet. Translated by E. Obermiller. Heidelberg: Harrossowitz. p. 152.
  19. ^ 'Madhaviya Sankara Digvijayam' by medieval Vijayanagara biographer Madhava, Sringeri Sharada Press


  • Arnold, Daniel Anderson. Buddhists, Brahmins, and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of Religion. Columbia University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-231-13281-7.
  • Bales, Eugene (1987). A Ready Reference to Philosophy East and West. University Press of America. p. 201. ISBN 9780819166401. Buddhist philosophy as presented in Mimamsa Sloka Vartika.
  • Bhatt, Govardhan P. The Basic Ways of Knowing: An In-depth Study of Kum?rila's Contribution to Indian Epistemology. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass, 1989. ISBN 81-208-0580-1.
  • Kumarila Bhatta, Translated by Ganganatha Jha (1985). Slokavarttika. The Asiatic Society, Calcutta.
  • Bimal Krishna Matilal (1990). The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language. Oxford.
  • Vijaya Rani (1982). Buddhist Philosophy as Presented in Mimamsa Sloka Varttika. 1st Ed. Parimal Publications, Delhi ASIN B0006ECAEO.
  • Sheldon Pollock (2006). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men - Sanskrit, Culture and Power in Premodern India. University of California Press.
  • Sharma, Peri Sarveswara (1980). Anthology of Kum?rilabhaa's Works. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Sheridan, Daniel P. "Kumarila Bhatta", in Great Thinkers of the Eastern World, ed. Ian McGready, New York: Harper Collins, 1995. ISBN 0-06-270085-5
  • Translated and commentary by John Taber (January 2005). A Hindu Critique of Buddhist Epistemology. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-33602-4.

External links

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