Kurds in Iran
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Kurds in Iran

Iranian Kurds
Total population
8.1 million (10%)
(2014 CIA estimate)[1]
Languages
Kurdish, Gorani and Persian
Religion
Shia Islam (Twelver)[2][3]
Sunni Islam (Shafi'i)[4]
(Sufi order Qadiriyya also present)[5]
Yarsanism
Related ethnic groups
see Iranian peoples

Kurds in Iran (Kurdish: Kurdên Îranê ,? ‎,[6] Persian: ‎)[7] are the third largest ethnic group in Iran[8] after Persians and Iranian Azerbaijanis, comprising about 10% of the country's population according to the CIA in 2014.[1]

Geographic distribution

Iranian Kurds in Marivan protest against ISIL during the Siege of Kobanî, 6 October 2014

Iranian Kurdistan or Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojhilatê Kurdistanê), is an unofficial name for the parts of western Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey.[9] It includes the Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, West Azerbaijan Province, Ilam Province, and Lorestan Province.[10][11]

Shia Feyli Kurds inhabit Kermanshah Province, except for those parts where people are Jaff, and Ilam Province; as well as some parts of Kurdistan and Hamadan provinces. The Kurds of Khorasan, in the North Khorasan Province of northeastern Iran, are Shi'ite Muslims.[12][13] The Lak tribe populate parts of Ilam Province and Lorestan Province, while Chegini Kurds reside in central Lorestan.

During the Iranian Revolution, Kurdish nationalist political parties were unsuccessful in attracting support, who at that time had no interest in autonomy.[14][15] However, since the 1990s, Kurdish nationalism in the region has grown, partly due to outrage at the government's violent suppression of Kurdish activism.[16]

Religion

The two major religions among Kurds in Iran are Islam and Yarsanism, while fewer Kurds adhere to Bahá'í Faith and Judaism.[17][18] There is disagreement on which is the largest denomination among Kurds; some experts such as Richard N. Frye and Martin van Bruinessen argue that Sunni Islam (the Shafi'i branch[4]) is the majority religion,[19][20] while researcher Anu Leinonen believes it is the Twelver branch of Shia Islam.[21]

Pockets of Sunni Kurds belong to the Qadiriyya tariqa (around Marivan and Sanandaj). These orders have experienced repression from the state, including the destruction of their places of worship.[5][22] Yarsanis are also targeted by the central government.[23]

Separatism

Kurdish separatism in Iran[24] or the Kurdish-Iranian conflict[25][26] is an ongoing,[27][28][24][29] long running, separatist dispute between the Kurdish opposition in Western Iran and the governments of Iran,[24] lasting since the emergence of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1918.[27]

Tribes

Tribe Kurdish and Persian
names
Geography Notes
Ali Sherwan Kurdish:
Persian: ?
Ilam Province[30] Southern Kurdish-speaking[30]
Amar Kurdish: ?
Persian:
Gilan Province, Greater Khorasan and Qazvin Province[31][32] Kurmanji-speaking[32]
Arkawâzi Kurdish:
Persian: ?
Ilam Province[30] Southern Kurdish-speaking[30]
Badreh Kurdish:
Persian: ?
Ilam Province[33]
Balavand Persian: ? Ilam Province[30]
Beiranvand Kurdish: Bîranwend ,
Persian:
Between Aleshtar and Khorramabad; Bayranshahr.[34] Laki-speaking.[34]
Chahardoli Persian: ? Hamadan Province and West Azerbaijan Province[35] Laki-speaking[35]
Chalabianlu Persian: East Azerbaijan Province[36]
Chegini Kurdish: Çengînî ,
Persian: ?
Between Khorramabad and the Kashgan river.[37] Chegini dialect (Mixture of Laki and Luri)[38]
Dehbalai Persian: Ilam Province[30]
Delikan Persian: Ardabil Province[39] Turkophone[39]
Dilfan Kurdish: Dilfan ,
Persian:
Around Delfan County. Present in Ilam and Mazandaran provinces as well.[40] Laki-speaking[40]
Donboli Kurdish: Dimilî ,?
Persian:
Khoy and Salmas area.[41] Turkophone[42]
Falak al-Din Persian: Hamadan Province[43] Laki-speaking[43]
Eyvan Kurdish: ?
Persian:
Ilam Province[30]
Feyli Kurdish: Feylî ,
Persian: ?
Ilam Province (Ilam, Chardoval, Mehran, Malekshahi, Abdanan, Dehloran).[44] Southern Kurdish-speaking.[44]
Ghiasvand Persian: ? Hamadan Province[43] Laki-speaking[43]
Guran Kurdish: Goran ,
Persian:
Hawraman region Gorani-speaking.[45]
Hasanvand Kurdish:
Persian:
Around Aligudarz, Khorramabad and Borujerd.[46] Laki-speaking.[47]
Herki Kurdish: Herkî ,
Persian: ?
Western countryside of Urmia in the Targavar and Margavar valleys.[48][49] Kurmanji-speaking.[50]
Jaff Kurdish: Caf ,
Persian:
From Sanandaj to Kermanshah with Javanrud as area of origin.[51] Sorani-speaking.[52]
Jalali Kurdish: Celalî ,
Persian:
Around Maku.[53] Kurmanji-speaking.[54]
Jalilavand Kurdish: Celalwend ,
Persian: ?
Around Dinavar and in Lorestan Province.[55] Laki-speaking.[55]
Kakavand Kurdish: Kakewend ,?
Persian: ?
Kermanshah, Harsin area,[56] and Kakavand District, Delfan.[57] Laki-speaking.[56]
Kalhori Kurdish: Kelhûr ,
Persian: ?
Around Eslamabad-e Gharb, Qasr-e Shirin and Gilan-e Gharb.[58]
Ilam Province (Chardoval and Eyvan)[44]
Southern Kurdish-speaking.[44]
Khezel Kurdish: ?
Persian:
Ilam Province[30] Southern Kurdish-speaking[30]
Kolivand Persian: Ilam Province[30]
Kordshuli Kurdish: Kurd?ûlî
Persian: ?
Fars Province[59] Laki-speaking[60]
Kuruni Kurdish: Kûranî
Persian:
Fars Province[61]
Malekshahi Kurdish: Melek?ahî
Persian: ?
Ilam Province[30] Southern Kurdish-speaking[44]
Mamash Kurdish: Mama? ,?
Persian: ?
Southern parts of West Azerbaijan.[62] Sorani-speaking.[62]
Mangur Kurdish: Mangûr ,
Persian:
Around Piranshahr, Mahabad, Sardasht and Bukan in West Azerbaijan.[63] Sorani-speaking.[64]
Milan Kurdish: Mîlan ,
Persian:
North of Zurabad in northern West Azerbaijan[65] Kurmanji-speaking.[65]
Mukri Kurdish: Mukrî ,
Persian: ?
Around Baneh, Mahabad, Piranshahr and Saqqez.[66] Sorani-speaking.[67]
Musavand Persian: ? Hamadan Province[43] Laki-speaking[43]
Qolugjan Ardabil Province[39]
Re?wan Kurdish: Re?wan ,
Persian:
Gilan Province, Greater Khorasan and Qazvin Province[31][32] Kurmanji-speaking[32]
Rizehvand Persian: ? Ilam Province[68]
Sanjâbi Kurdish: Sencabî ,
Persian:
Western parts of Kermanshah Province.[69] Southern Kurdish-speaking.[70]
Shaqaqi Kurdish: ?eqaqî ,
Persian:
East Azerbaijan Province[71]
Shatran Persian: Ardabil Province[39]
Shekak Kurdish: ?ikak ,?
Persian: ?
Western countryside of Urmia.[72] Kurmanji-speaking.[73]
Shuhan Persian: Ilam Province[30] Southern Kurdish-speaking[30]
Torkashvand Persian: Hamadan Province[43] Laki-speaking[43]
Uriad Persian: Fars Province[59]
Zangana Kurdish: Zengine ,?
Persian:
South of Kermanshah.[58] Southern Kurdish-speaking.[58]
Zola Kurdish: ?
Persian: ?
Hamadan Province[43] Laki-speaking[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "The Time of the Kurds". CFR. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ Leinonen, Anu (2017). Unity or Diversity? Turkish Nationalism, Kurds, and the Turkish Mainstream Press (PDF). Helsinki: University of Helsinki. p. 66. ISBN 978-951-51-2890-4. Most Iranian Kurds are Shi'a (of Twelver Shi'ism).
  3. ^ Sebastian Maisel (2018). The Kurds: An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society. p. 54.
  4. ^ a b Ali Ezzatyar (2016). The Last Mufti of Iranian Kurdistan: Ethnic and Religious Implications in the Greater Middle East. p. 29. ISBN 9781137563248.
  5. ^ a b "Dervish practice Sufism on a yearly, 30-day journey through Kurdistan". Rûdaw. 27 February 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ " ? ". zheen.org (in Kurdish). Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ ; (2012). " ? ?". ? ? ? (in Persian). 10 (39): 81-100. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ Political Geography of Iranian Nationalities farsnews.com 18 February 2018
  9. ^ Kurdish Awakening: Nation Building in a Fragmented Homeland, (2014), by Ofra Bengio, University of Texas Press
  10. ^ Federal Research Division, 2004, Iran: A Country Study, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4191-2670-9, ISBN 978-1-4191-2670-3, p. 121, "The Kurdish area of Iran includes most of West Azerbaijan."
  11. ^ Youssef Courbage, Emmanuel Todd, 2011, A Convergence of Civilizations: The Transformation of Muslim Societies Around the World, p. 74. Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-15002-4, ISBN 978-0-231-15002-6. "Kurds are also a majority of the population in the provinces of Kermanshah, West Azerbaijan, and Ilam."
  12. ^ "http://rangvarehayeyekrang.ir". Archived from the original on 2017-12-17. Retrieved . External link in |title= (help)
  13. ^ " ? ? " (in Persian). 29 October 2016. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ Romano, David (2006). The Kurdish Nationalist Movement. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-521-85041-X.
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  16. ^ McDowall (1996). A Modern History of the Kurds. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 278. ISBN 1-85043-653-3.
  17. ^ Helen Chapin Metz (1989). Iran: a country study. Federal Research Division. p. 126.
  18. ^ Vahid Rashidvash (August 2013). "Iranian People: Iranian Ethnic Groups" (PDF). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. Yerevan: 221. Retrieved 2020.
  19. ^ R. N. Frye. "Iran v. Peoples of Iran". Iranica Online. Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ Martin Van Bruinessen (1991). "Religion in Kurdistan". Kurdish Times. Istanbul: The Isis Press. 4: 8. doi:10.31826/9781463229887-003. ISBN 9781463229887.
  21. ^ Anu Leinonen (2017). Unity or Diversity? Turkish Nationalism, Kurds, and the Turkish Mainstream Press. Helsinki. p. 66. ISBN 978-951-51-2890-4. Retrieved 2020.
  22. ^ "Iran's Sufis Under Pressure". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 2020.
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  26. ^ Near East, North Africa report, 1994
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  66. ^ Oskar Mann (1906). "Die Mundart der Mukri-Kurden" (PDF) (in German). 1. Berlin: Verlag Georg Reimer: xviii-xix. Retrieved 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  67. ^ Michael L. Chyet (1991). 'And a Thornbush Sprang Up Between Them': Studies on 'Mem U Zin', a Kurdish Romance. p. 29.
  68. ^ "( ? (". ilamtoday.com. Retrieved 2020.
  69. ^ , ?; ?, ? (23 August 2015). " ? " (PDF). ? (in Persian). 7 (1): 21-39. doi:10.22059/jhss.2015.57831. ISSN 2251-9254. Retrieved 2020.
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  71. ^ "Shahsevan". Iranica Online. Retrieved 2020.
  72. ^ (2005). ? (in Persian). p. 411.
  73. ^ Sebastian Maisel (2018). The Kurds: An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society. p. 236.

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