Kutik-Inshushinak
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Kutik-Inshushinak
Puzur-Inshushinak
Governor of Susa
Military Governor of Elam
King of Elam
Statue of Puzur-Inshushinak with inscription in his name (lower half).jpg
Statue of Puzur-Inshushinak (lower half of seated ruler) with inscription in his name and victories, particularly over the king of Shimashki.[1]
Reignc. 2100 BCE
PredecessorKhita
DynastyKings of Elam
Kutik-Inshushinak ruled from Susa

puzur-inshushinak ensi shushiki skakkanakku mati NIMki
"Puzur-Inshushinak, Ensi of Susa and Shakkanakku of Elam"
"Table au Lion", Louvre Museum[2]

Puzur-Inshushinak (Linear Elamite: Puzur-Shushinak.jpg Pu-zu-r ?u-?i-na-k, Akkadian: , puzur3-din?u?inak, also , puzur?-din?u?inak "Calling Inshushinak"), also sometimes thought to read Kutik-Inshushinak in Elamite,[3] was king of Elam, around 2100 BC,[4] and the last from the Awan dynasty according to the Susa kinglist.[5] He mentions his father'name as ?impi-i?huk, which, being an Elamite name, suggests that Puzur-Inshuhinak himself was Elamite.[6]

In the inscription of the "Table au Lion", he appears as "Puzur-Inshushin(ak) Ensi (Governor) of Susa, Shakkanakku (Military Governor) of the country of Elam" ( puzur-inshushinak ensi shushiki skakkanakku mati NIMki), a title used by his predecessors Eshpum, Epirmupi and Ili-ishmani as governors of the Akkadian Empire for the territory of Elam.[2][7] In another inscription, he calls himself the "Mighty King of Elam", suggesting an accession to independence from the weakening Akkadian Empire.[8]

Rule

His father was Shinpi-khish-khuk, the crown prince, and most likely a brother of king Khita. Kutik-Inshushinak's first position was as governor of Susa, which he may have held from a young age. About 2110 BC, his father died, and he became crown prince in his stead.

Elam had been under the domination of Akkad since the time of Sargon, and Kutik-Inshushinak accordingly campaigned in the Zagros mountains on their behalf. He was greatly successful as his conquests seem to have gone beyond the initial mission.

In 2090 BC, he asserted his independence from king Shar-Kali-Sharri of the Akkadian Empire, which had been weakening ever since the death of Naram-Sin, thus making himself king of Elam.[9] He conquered Anshan and managed to unite most of Elam into one kingdom.[9]

According to the inscriptions of Ur-Nammu, Puzur-Inshushinak conquered numerous cities in central Mesopotamia, including Eshnunna and Akkad, and probably Akshak.[10] His conquests probably encroached considerably on Gutian territory, gravely weakening them, and making them unable to withstand the Neo-Sumerian revolt of Utu-hengal.[11]

The Elamite name of Puzur-Inshushinak:
Puzur-Shushinak.jpg
Pu-zu-r ?u-?i-na-k
in the Linear Elamite script (right to left).[12]

He built extensively on the citadel at Susa, and encouraged the use of the Linear Elamite script to write the Elamite language. This may be seen as a reaction against Sargon's attempt to force the use of Akkadian. Most inscriptions in Linear Elamite date from the reign of Kutik-Inshushinak.

His achievements were not long-lasting, for after his death the linear script fell into disuse, and Susa was overrun by the Third dynasty of Ur under Ur-Nammu and his son Shulgi.[9] The Ur III dynasty had held control over Susa after the demise of Puzur-Inshushinak, and they built numerous buildings and temples there. This control was continued by Shulgi as shown by his numerous dedications in the city-state.[13] He also engaged in marital alliances, by marrying his daughters to rulers of eastern territories, such as Anshan, Marhashi and Bashime.[13] Concomitantly, Elam fell under control of the Shimashki dynasty (also Elamite of origin).[14]

It is now known that his reign in Elam overlapped with that of Ur-Nammu of Ur-III,[15] although the previous lengthy estimates of the duration of the intervening Gutian dynasty and rule of Utu-hengal of Uruk had not allowed for that synchronism. Ur-Nammu, who styled himself "King of Sumer and Akkad" is probably the one who, early in his reign, reconquered the northern territories that had been occupied by Puzur-Inshushinak, before going on to conquer Susa.[16]

Statue of Puzur-Inshushinak

The bottom part of a statue, probably representing Puzur-Inshushinak himself, is visible in the Louvre Museum, Sb 55.[17][18] The statue lists the numerous victories of Puzur-Inshushinak over neighbouring territories, and particularly mentions the submission of the king of Shimashki who "kissed his feet".[19]

Inscriptions

A possible mention of Puzur-Inshushinak appears in one of Puzer-Mama's inscriptions,[20][21] but this is considered doubtful by Walter Sommerfeld and Piotr Steinkeller.[22]

References

  1. ^ Mémoires. Paris P. Geuthner. 1899. pp. 7-15.
  2. ^ a b Translation into French in Mémoires. Paris: P. Geuthner. 1899. p. 8.
  3. ^ "Sumerian Dictionary". oracc.iaas.upenn.edu.
  4. ^ or from about 2240 to 2220 BC according to the (long chronology)
  5. ^ Daniel T. Potts (1999). The Archaeology of Elam. Cambridge University Press. p. 122.
  6. ^ Steinkeller, Piotr. Puzur-In?su?sinak at Susa: A Pivotal Episode of Early Elamite History Reconsidered. p. 293.
  7. ^ Mémoires. Paris P. Geuthner. 1899. pp. 20-21.
  8. ^ Shayegan, M. Rahim (2011). Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia. Cambridge University Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-521-76641-8.
  9. ^ a b c Hansen, Donald P. (2002). Leaving No Stones Unturned: Essays on the Ancient Near East and Egypt in Honor of Donald P. Hansen. Eisenbrauns. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-57506-055-2.
  10. ^ "According to one of Ur-Namma's inscriptions, which describes his conflictwith Puzur-In?su?sinak, the latter occupied the cities of Awal, Kismar, and Ma?skan-?sarrum, and the lands of E?snuna, Tutub, Zimudar, and Akkade. The prolog to Ur-Namma's code adds to list the northern Babylonian cities of Marda, GIRkal, Kazalu, and probably Ak ?sak?, plus their rural settlements." in Steinkeller, Piotr. Puzur-In?su?sinak at Susa: A Pivotal Episode of Early Elamite History Reconsidered. p. 295.
  11. ^ Steinkeller, Piotr. Puzur-In?su?sinak at Susa: A Pivotal Episode of Early Elamite History Reconsidered. p. 298.
  12. ^ Zur Entzifferung der altelamischen Inschriften - PDF Free Download. 1912.
  13. ^ a b Potts, Daniel T. (2012). A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. John Wiley & Sons. p. 746. ISBN 978-1-4051-8988-0.
  14. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica: Elam - Simashki dynasty, F. Vallat
  15. ^ Wilcke; See Encyclopedia Iranica articles AWAN, ELAM
  16. ^ Steinkeller, Piotr. Puzur-In?su?sinak at Susa: A Pivotal Episode of Early Elamite History Reconsidered. pp. 298-299.
  17. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  18. ^ Mémoires. Paris P. Geuthner. 1899. pp. 7-15.
  19. ^ Mémoires. Paris P. Geuthner. 1899. pp. 7-15.
  20. ^ CDLI-Archival View.
  21. ^ Inscription Puzur-Mama E2.12.5.1 in Frayne, Douglas. Sargonic and Gutian Periods. p. 272.
  22. ^ Sallaberger, Walther; Schrakamp, Ingo. "Philological Data for a Historical Chronology of Mesopotamia in the 3rd Millennium": 123. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  23. ^ Translation of the Akkadian portion into French, in Mémoires. Paris: P. Geuthner. 1899. pp. 4-7.
  24. ^ Mémoires. Paris: P. Geuthner. 1899. p. 8.
  25. ^ SCHEIL, V. (1931). "Dynasties Élamites d'Awan et de Sima?". Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale. 28 (1): 1-46. ISSN 0373-6032. JSTOR 23283945.
  26. ^ Hansen, Donald P. (2002). Leaving No Stones Unturned: Essays on the Ancient Near East and Egypt in Honor of Donald P. Hansen. Eisenbrauns. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-57506-055-2.
  27. ^ Louvre, Musée du. The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-87099-651-1.
Preceded by
Khita
King of Elam
2240–2220 BC
Succeeded by
----
Ur III dynasty

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Kutik-Inshushinak
 



 



 
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