Legio VII Gemina (Latin for "The Twins' Seventh Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was raised in AD 68 in Hispania by the general Galba to take part in his rebellion against the emperor Nero. "Gemina" means the legion was dedicated to the legendary twin founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus, who were suckled by a she-wolf. The legion was deployed in the city called Legio (modern-day León, Spain) in AD 74 and remained in Hispania to the end of the 4th century.
Tacitus calls the legion "Galbiana", to distinguish it from the senior Legio VII Claudia, but this appellation is not found on any inscriptions. It appears to have received the appellation of "Gemina" on account of its amalgamation by Vespasian with one of the German legions, not improbably the Legio I Germanica.
After serving in Pannonia and in the civil wars, it was settled by Vespasian in Hispania Tarraconensis, to supply the place of the Legio VI Victrix and Legio X Gemina, two of the three legions ordinarily stationed in the province, but which had been withdrawn to Germania. The Antonine Itinerary, Ptolemy, the Notitia Imperii, as well as a few inscriptions all state that its regular winter quarters, under later emperors, were at Leon, but there are numerous inscriptions to prove that a strong detachment of it was stationed at Tarraco (modern Tarragona), the chief city of the province. The following are a selection, in order of time:
The legion had units stationed at their extended fortified camps:
Also under the legion were five auxiliary units, a cavalry wing, two cohorts of equitatae and two of peditatae:
During the majority of its existence, the number of effectives under the military commander of the VII were usually around the 7,712 between auxiliaries and regulars, not counting local levies and other reinforcements sent from Rome for temporary services.
The station of this legion in the Gallaecia Roman province grew into an important city, León, that after the invasions of 409 AD in Iberia became part of the Suevic Kingdom, which resisted the attacks of the Visigoths until 586, when it was taken by Leovigild. It was one of the few cities which the Visigoths allowed to retain their fortifications.
|Marcus Antonius Primus||legatus legionis||c. 69||Tacitus, Histories II.86|
|Marcus Ulpius Trajanus||legatus legionis||c. 89||Hispania Tarraconensis|
|Lucius Attius Macro||legatus legionis||between 120 and 128||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL II, 5083 = ILS 2289|
|Titus Vitrasius Pollio||legatus legionis||c. 128||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL XII, 3168|
|Gnaeus Lucius Terentius Homullus Junior||legatus legionis||c. 142||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL II, 5084|
|Quintus Cornellius Senecio Annianus||legatus legionis||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL II, 1929|
|Quintus Tullius Maximus||legatus legionis||c. 165||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL II, 2660|
|Tiberius Julius Frugi||legatus legionis||c. 166-c. 170||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL VI, 31717|
|Publius Cornelius Anullinus||legatus legionis||171-172||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL II, 2073|
|Sollius||legatus legionis||before 197||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL IX, 5155|
|Gaius Junius Flavianus||tribunus angusticlavius||c. 125||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL VI, 1620 = ILS 1342|
|Avitius Q.f. Rufus||tribunus angusticlavius||2nd century||AE 1955, 228|
|Gaius Julius Scapula||tribunus laticlavius||c. 125||Hispania Tarraconensis||IGRR III.176-178|
|Lucius Neratius Proculus||tribunus laticlavius||c. 125||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL IX, 2457 = ILS 1076|
|Gaius Aemilius Berenicianus Maximus||tribunus laticlavius||first quarter 3rd century||CIL XII, 3163|
|Quintus Hedius Rufus Lollianus Gentianus||tribunus laticlavius||c. 175||Hispania Tarraconensis||CIL II, 4121 = ILS 1145; CIL II, 4122|
|Titus Flavius Rufus||centurio (veteranus)||?||Italia, Moesia, Dacia||CIL XI, 20 = ILS 2082; CIL III, 971|