List of European Council Meetings
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List of European Council Meetings

This is a list of meetings of the European Council (informally referred to as EU summits); the meetings of the European Council, an institution of the European Union (EU) comprising heads of state or government of EU member states. They started in 1975 as tri-annual meetings. The number of meetings grew to minimum four per year between 1996 and 2007, and minimum six per year since 2008. From 2008 to 2015, an average of seven council meetings per year took place (see list below).

Since 2008, an annual average of two special Euro summits were also organized in addition - and often in parallel - to the EU summits. As the agenda of Euro summits is restricted solely to discuss issues for the eurozone and only invite political leaders of the eurozone member states, such meetings are not counted as European Councils.

The current practice is that meetings are always called and organized to the extent found needed by the European Council president. The upcoming ordinary meetings are scheduled by the end of each semester for the third following semester (minimum one year in advance),[1] and can take form either as "scheduled ordinary meetings" (resulting in a published document entitled "conclusions") or "informal ordinary meetings" (resulting in a published document entitled "statement"). A called scheduled/informal ordinary upcoming meeting might occasionally be moved or cancelled within a short notice, with such change then being notified by the Council president through the issue of a revised calendar plan for the ordinary meetings within the semester in concern. If extra meetings are called outside the procedure of notification minimum a half-year in advance, they are referred to as being "extraordinary meetings".

List

The first seven summit meetings were held between 1961 and 1974, but this was before the formal establishment of the European Council. Some sources however consider them to be the informal seven first meetings of the European Council.[2]

1970s

# Year Date Type EU Council presidency President-in-Office Commission President Host city Notes
1 1975 10-11 March -  Ireland Liam Cosgrave François-Xavier Ortoli Dublin [2] Inaugural formal Council
2 16-17 July -  Italy Aldo Moro Brussels [3]
3 1-2 December - Rome [4] Established TREVI
4 1976 1-2 April -  Luxembourg Gaston Thorn Luxembourg

[5]

5 12-13 July -  Netherlands Joop den Uyl Brussels [6]
6 29-30 November - The Hague [7]
7 1977 25-27 March -  UK James Callaghan Roy Jenkins Rome [8]
8 29-30 June - London [9]
9 5-6 December -  Belgium Leo Tindemans Brussels [10]
10 1978 7-8 April -  Denmark Anker Jørgensen Copenhagen [11]
11 6-7 July -  West Germany Helmut Schmidt Bremen [12]
12 4-5 December - Brussels [13]
13 1979 12-13 March -  France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Paris [14]
14 21-22 June - Strasbourg [15]
15 29-30 November -  Ireland Jack Lynch Dublin [16]

1980s

# Year Date Type EU Council presidency President-in-Office Commission President Host city Notes
16 1980 17-18 April -  Italy Francesco Cossiga Roy Jenkins Luxembourg [17]
17 12-13 June - Venice [18]
18 1-2 December -  Luxembourg Pierre Werner Luxembourg [19]
19 1981 23-24 March -  Netherlands Dries van Agt Gaston Thorn Maastricht [20]
20 29-30 June - Luxembourg [21]
21 26-27 November -  UK Margaret Thatcher London [22]
22 1982 29-30 March -  Belgium Wilfried Martens Brussels [23]
23 28-29 June - Brussels [24]
24 3-4 December -  Denmark Poul Schlüter Copenhagen [25]
25 1983 21-22 March -  West Germany Helmut Kohl Brussels [26]
26 17-19 June - Stuttgart [27]
27 4-6 December -  Greece Andreas Papandreou Athens [28]
28 1984 19-20 March -  France François Mitterrand Brussels [29][30]
29 25-26 June - Fontainebleau [31] British rebate agreed
30 3-4 December -  Ireland Garret FitzGerald Dublin [32]
31 1985 29-30 March -  Italy Bettino Craxi Jacques Delors Brussels [33] Initiated the IGC leading to the Single European Act
32 28-29 June - Milan [34]
33 2-3 December -  Luxembourg Jacques Santer Luxembourg [35]
34 1986 26-27 June -  Netherlands Ruud Lubbers The Hague [36]
35 5-6 December -  UK Margaret Thatcher London [37]
36 1987 29-30 June -  Belgium Wilfried Martens Brussels [38]
37 4-5 December -  Denmark Poul Schlüter Copenhagen [39]
38 1988 11-13 February -  West Germany Helmut Kohl Brussels [40]
39 27-28 June - Hanover [41]
40 2-3 December -  Greece Andreas Papandreou Rhodes [42]
41 1989 26-27 June -  Spain Felipe González Madrid [43]
42 18 November Informal  France François Mitterrand Paris [44]
43 8-9 December - Strasbourg [45][46] European Council endorses German reunification
despite some Anglo-French opposition.

1990s

# Year Date Type EU Council presidency President-in-Office Commission President Host city Notes
44 1990 28 April Extraordinary  Ireland Charles Haughey Jacques Delors Dublin [47]
45 25-26 June - Dublin [48]
46 27-28 October -  Italy Giulio Andreotti Rome [49]
47 14-15 December - Rome [50]
48 1991 8 April Informal  Luxembourg Jacques Santer Luxembourg [51]
49 28-29 June - Luxembourg [52]
50 9-10 December -  Netherlands Ruud Lubbers Maastricht [53] Signing of the Treaty of Maastricht
51 1992 27 June -  Portugal Aníbal Cavaco Silva Lisbon [54]
52 16 October -  UK John Major Birmingham [55]
53 11-12 December - Edinburgh [56]
54 1993 21-22 June -  Denmark Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Copenhagen [57] Copenhagen criteria agreed
55 29 October -  Belgium Jean-Luc Dehaene Brussels [58]
56 10-11 December - Brussels [59]
57 1994 24-25 June -  Greece Andreas Papandreou Corfu [60] Signing of the Accession Treaty of Austria, Finland,
Sweden and Norway (Norway did not ratify)
58 15 July -  Germany Helmut Kohl Brussels
59 9-10 December - Essen [61]
60 1995 26-27 June -  France Jacques Chirac Jacques Santer Cannes [62]
61 22-23 October Extraordinary  Spain Felipe González Majorca
62 15-16 December - Madrid [63]
63 1996 29-30 March -  Italy Lamberto Dini Turin
64 21-22 June - Romano Prodi Florence
65 5 October Extraordinary  Ireland John Bruton Dublin
66 13-14 December - Dublin
67 1997 23 May Informal  Netherlands Wim Kok Noordwijk
68 16-17 June - Amsterdam Signed Treaty of Amsterdam
69 20-21 November Extraordinary  Luxembourg Jean-Claude Juncker Luxembourg Special council on Employment
70 12-13 December - Luxembourg
71 1998 3 May -  UK Tony Blair Brussels Special Council on the Euro decides the 11 states
which would enter the third stage of EMU
72 15-16 June - Cardiff
73 24-25 October Informal  Austria Viktor Klima Pörtschach
74 11-12 December - Vienna
75 1999 26 February Informal  Germany Gerhard Schröder Königswinter
76 25-26 March - Manuel Marin (Interim) Berlin
77 14 April Informal Brussels
78 3-4 June - Cologne Details below table
79 15-16 October -  Finland Paavo Lipponen Romano Prodi Tampere Special meeting on justice and home affairs
80 10-11 December - Helsinki

2000s

# Year Date Type EU Council presidency President-in-Office Commission President Host city Notes
81 2000 23-24 March -  Portugal António Guterres Romano Prodi Lisbon Agreed Lisbon Strategy
82 19-20 June - Santa Maria da Feira Agreement to allow entry of Greece to the Eurozone
83 13-14 October Informal  France Jacques Chirac Biarritz
84 7-9 December - Nice Signed Treaty of Nice
85 2001 23-24 March -  Sweden Göran Persson Stockholm
86 15-16 June - Gothenburg Enlargement, sustainable development, economic growth
and structural reform, in addition to an EU-US summit
87 21 September Informal  Belgium Guy Verhofstadt Brussels Emergency council - Terrorism
88 19 October Informal Ghent
89 14-15 December - Laeken Details below table
90 2002 15-16 March -  Spain José María Aznar López Barcelona
91 21-22 June - Seville Decided to reorganise the Council formations
to achieve greater focus and efficiency
92 24-25 October -  Denmark Anders Fogh Rasmussen Brussels
93 12-13 December - Copenhagen
94 2003 17 February Extraordinary  Greece Costas Simitis Brussels Iraq crisis - Presidency conclusions
95 20-21 March - Brussels Presidency conclusions
96 16-17 April Informal Athens Signing of the Treaty of Accession 2003,[3]
Declaration on Iraq European Convention
97 20 June - Thessaloniki Presidency conclusions of the June 2003 meeting
98 4 October Extraordinary  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Rome Beginning of IGC on EU Constitution
99 16-17 October - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the October 2003 meeting
100 12-13 December - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the December 2003 meeting
101 2004 25-26 March -  Ireland Bertie Ahern Brussels Declaration on combating terrorism
Presidency conclusions of the March 2004 meeting
102 17-18 June - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the June 2004 meeting
103 4-5 November -  Netherlands Jan Peter Balkenende Brussels Presidency conclusions of the November 2004 meeting
104 16-17 December - José Manuel Barroso Brussels Presidency conclusions of the December 2004 meeting
105 2005 22-23 March -  Luxembourg Jean-Claude Juncker Brussels Presidency conclusions of the March 2005 meeting
106 16-17 June - Brussels Declaration on the ratification of
the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe

Presidency conclusions of the June 2005 meeting
107 27 October Informal  UK Tony Blair Hampton Court Globalisation
108 15-16 December - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the December 2005 meeting
109 2006 23-24 March -  Austria Wolfgang Schüssel Brussels Presidency conclusions of the March 2006 meeting
110 15-16 June - Brussels Agreement to allow entry of Slovenia to the Eurozone
Presidency conclusions of the June 2006 meeting
111 20 October Informal  Finland Matti Vanhanen Lahti Meeting with Vladimir Putin held in Sibelius Hall
112 14-15 December - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the December 2006 meeting
113 2007 8-9 March -  Germany Angela Merkel Brussels Presidency conclusions of the March 2007 meeting
114 21-22 June - Brussels Agreement on basis for the Treaty of Lisbon
Agreement to allow entry of Malta and Cyprus to the Eurozone
Presidency conclusions of the June 2007 meeting
115 18-19 October Informal  Portugal José Sócrates Lisbon Agreement reached on the Reform Treaty
Discussed climate change and the US economic crisis.[4]
116 14 December - Brussels Signature of Reform Treaty in Lisbon on 13/12
European Council in Brussels the next day
Presidency conclusions of the December 2007 meeting
117 2008 13-14 March -  Slovenia Janez Jan?a Brussels Agreed timeframe and principles of energy/climate change policy
Presidency conclusions of the March 2008 meeting
118 19-20 June - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the June 2008 meeting
119 13-14 July Extraordinary  France Nicolas Sarkozy Paris Barcelona process for the Mediterranean
120 1 September Extraordinary Brussels Extraordinary summit on EU-Russia relations (Georgia crisis)[5]
Presidency conclusions of the September 2008 meeting
- 12 October Euro summit Paris Eurozone summit conclusions of October 2008 meeting
121 15-16 October - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the October 2008 meeting
122 7 November Informal Brussels Informal summit on the financial crisis of 2007-2008
Conclusions from meeting on the Global Financial Crisis
123 11-12 December - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the December 2008 meeting
124 2009 1 March Informal  Czech Republic Mirek Topolánek Brussels Informal summit on the financial crisis of 2007-2008
Conclusions of the Global Financial Crisis meeting on 1 March 2009
125 19-20 March - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the March 2009 meeting
126 5 April Informal
(EU-USA summit)
Jan Fischer Prague US President Barack Obama in Prague
Conclusions of the EU-USA relations meeting in April 2009
127 18-19 June - Brussels Icelandic application accepted
Presidency conclusions of the June 2009 meeting
Press conference video: 1 and 2
128 17 September Informal  Sweden Fredrik Reinfeldt Brussels Preparation for the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit
[6] Presidency conclusions of the September 2009 meeting
Press conference video
129 29-30 October - Brussels Presidency conclusions of the October 2009 meeting
Press conference video
130 19 November Informal Brussels Chose the first President of the European Council (Herman Van Rompuy) and the first
High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (Catherine Ashton)
Presidency conclusions of the November 2009 meeting
Press conference video
131 10-11 December -- Brussels Presidency conclusions of the December 2009 meeting, Minutes
Press conference video: 1 and 2

2010s

Since 2010, all formal (scheduled or extraordinary) European Council meetings have taken place in Brussels and been chaired by a permanent President, as introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon. In February 2010 the exact location was the Solvay Library, subsequent meetings took place at the Justus Lipsius building and since March 2017 at the Europa Building.

# Year Date Type EU Council presidency Council President Commission President Agenda, Conclusions and Minutes Press conference
132 2010 11 February Informal  Spain Herman Van Rompuy
(1st term)[7]
José Manuel Barroso
(2nd term)
Statement. Video
- 25 March Euro summit Statement.
133 25-26 March Scheduled Conclusions, Minutes Video: 1 and 2
- 7 May Euro summit Statement. Video
134 17 June Scheduled Conclusions, Minutes Video
135 16 September Extraordinary (special)  Belgium Conclusions, Minutes, (note: the Ministers of Foreign Affairs were also present in this special European Council)[8] Video
136 28-29 October Scheduled Conclusions, Minutes Video: 1 and 2
137 16-17 December Scheduled Conclusions, Minutes Video
138 2011 4 February Scheduled  Hungary Conclusions, Minutes Video
- 11 March Euro summit Statement. Video
139 11 March Extraordinary Declaration on EU policy for actions in Libya and the Southern Neighbourhood region, Minutes Video
140 24-25 March Scheduled[9] Conclusions, Minutes Video: 1 and 2
141 23-24 June Scheduled[9] Website, Conclusions, Minutes and corrigendum Video: 1 and 2
- 21 July Euro summit  Poland Statement. Video
142 23 October Scheduled Conclusions, Minutes Video
- 23-26 October Euro summit Statement. Video: 1 and 2
143 26 October Informal Website, Statement.
144 8-9 December Scheduled[10] Website, Conclusions, Minutes Video: 1 and 2
- 9 December Euro summit Statement
- 2012 30 January Euro summit  Denmark Agreed lines of communication.
145 30 January Informal Website, Statement on growth and jobs, Growth and competitiveness, Foreign policy issues, Fiscal discipline and convergence, Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. Video
146 1-2 March Scheduled[11] Website, Conclusions, Implementation of the European Semester, Fiscal Compact signed, Van Rompuy re-elected president, Minutes and corrigendum Video: 1 and 2
- 2 March Euro summit Statement.
147 23 May Informal[11] Website 1 and 2, Greece: euro area press lines, Tackling youth unemployment. Video
148 28-29 June Scheduled[11] Herman Van Rompuy
(2nd term)[7]
Website, Conclusions, Towards a genuine EMU (Council edition), European Council programme July 2012 to Dec.2014, Minutes Video: 1 and 2
- 28-29 June Euro summit Statement Video
149 18-19 October Scheduled[12]  Cyprus Website, Conclusions, Conclusions on completing EMU, Towards a genuine EMU (interim report), Statement on Greece, Minutes Video: 1 and 2
150 22-23 November Extraordinary Website, Statement on EU's Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-20, Minutes Video
151 13-14 December Scheduled[12] Website, Conclusions, Conclusions on completing EMU, Towards a genuine EMU (final report), Agreed position on bank supervision (SSM), Minutes Video 1 and 2
152 2013 7-8 February Scheduled[13]  Ireland Website, Conclusions, Multiannual Financial Framework. Video
- 14 March Euro summit Adopted rules of procedure for Euro summits, Remarks by President.
153 14-15 March Scheduled[13] Website, Conclusions. Video: 1 and 2
154 22 May Scheduled[13] Website, Conclusions (Taxation and Energy), EC member numbers. Video
155 27-28 June Scheduled[13] Website, Conclusions, EP in 2014-19, Genuine EMU. Video: 1 and 2
156 24-25 October Scheduled[14]  Lithuania Website, Conclusions. Video: 1 and 2
157 19-20 December Scheduled[14] Website, Conclusions, Security & Defense conclusions. Video: 1 and 2
158 2014 6 March Extraordinary  Greece Website, Statement on Ukraine, EU stands by Ukraine. Video: Ukrainian PM and Council
159 20-21 March Scheduled[15] Website, Conclusions, Conclusions on Ukraine, EU sanctions against Russia, Signing of EU-Ukraine Association Agreement. Video: 1 and 2
160 27 May Informal[15] Website, Statement on Ukraine. Video
161 26-27 June Scheduled[15] Website, Conclusions, Conclusions on Ukraine, Strategic agenda for the Union, World War I commemoration, Signing of Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine[permanent dead link]. Video[permanent dead link]
162 16 July Extraordinary  Italy Website, Conclusions, Conclusions on Ukraine and Gaza. Video[permanent dead link]
163 30 August Extraordinary Website, Conclusions, Nomination of next European Council president and Foreign Affairs High Representative, Sanctions against Russia over Ukraine crisis. Video: 1[permanent dead link] and 2[permanent dead link], Ukrainian President 1a and 1b
164 23-24 October Scheduled[16] Website, Conclusions, New Commission appointed, 2030 climate and energy policy framework, EU response on Ebola. Video: 1[permanent dead link] and 2[permanent dead link]
- 24 October[17] Euro summit Statement
165 18 December Scheduled[16] Donald Tusk
(1st term)[18]
Jean-Claude Juncker Website, Conclusions, Crimea and Sevastopol: further EU sanctions. Video[permanent dead link]
166 2015 12 February Informal[19]  Latvia Website, Results of the informal meeting, Statement on the fight against terrorism, Next Steps on Better Economic Governance in the Euro Area (analytical note), Remarks about Ukrainian ceasefire. Video[permanent dead link], Ukrainian ceasefire agreement[permanent dead link]
167 19-20 March Scheduled[19] Website, Conclusions, Energy Union, Relations with Russia, European Semester 2015, Statement on Tunisia, Statement on Greece. Video: 1[permanent dead link] and 2[permanent dead link]
168 23 April Extraordinary Website, Statement, 10 point action plan to combat Mediterranean migratory pressures, Minutes Video[permanent dead link]
-- 22 June[20] Euro summit Website, Presidential remarks 1 and 2 Video[permanent dead link]
169 25-26 June Scheduled[19] Website, Conclusions, European Fund for Strategic Investments, Completing Europe's Economic and Monetary Union. Video: 1 and 2
-- 7 July[21] Euro summit  Luxembourg Website, Preparing Eurogroup meeting, Presidential Remarks Video[permanent dead link]
-- 12 July Euro summit Website, Preparing Eurogroup meeting, Presidential Remarks, Statement Video[permanent dead link]
170 23 September Informal Website, Presidential Remarks, Statement Video
171 15 October Scheduled Website, Conclusions
172 12 November Informal Website, Presidential Remarks
173 17-18 December Scheduled Website, Conclusions
174 2016 18-19 February Scheduled  Netherlands Website, Conclusions
175 17-18 March Scheduled Website, Conclusions, Minutes and corrigendum
176 28 June Scheduled (postponed due to Brexit Referendum) Website, Conclusions, Minutes
29 June Informalwithout UK Website, Statement
177 16 September Informalwithout UK  Slovakia Website, Declaration and Roadmap
178 20-21 October Scheduled Website, Conclusions
179 15 December Scheduled Website, Conclusions
180 2017 3 February, a.m. Informal  Malta Website, Statement and remarks
3 February, p.m. Informalwithout UK Website: "Main results: Preparations for the 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties"
181 9 March Scheduled Website, Conclusions by the President, Minutes
10 March Informalwithout UK Website: "Informal meeting"
182 29 April Extraordinarywithout UK Website, European Council (Art. 50) guidelines for Brexit negotiations, Minutes
183 22-23 June Scheduled Donald Tusk
(2nd term)[18]
Website, Annotated agenda, Conclusions
22 June, evening Extraordinarywithout UK Website, Annotated agenda, Decision by Heads of State and Government: Procedure leading up to a decision on the relocation of the EMA and the EBA in the context of the UK's withdrawal from the Union
184 19-20 October Scheduled  Estonia Website, Conclusions
20 October Extraordinarywithout UK Website
185 14-15 December Scheduled Website, Conclusions
15 December Euro Summit Website
15 December Extraordinarywithout UK Outcome: guidelines for Brexit negotiations
186 2018 22-23 March Scheduled  Bulgaria Website, Conclusions
23 March Extraordinarywithout UK Website
23 March Euro Summit Website
187 28-29 June Scheduled Website, Conclusions
29 June Extraordinarywithout UK Conclusions
29 June Euro Summit Statement
188 19-20 September Informal  Austria Website
20 September Informalwithout UK Website
189 17 October Extraordinarywithout UK Website
18 October, a.m. Scheduled Website
18 October, p.m. Euro Summit Website
190 13-14 December Scheduled Website
13 December Extraordinarywithout UK Website
14 December Euro Summit Website
191 2019 21 March Extraordinarywithout UK  Romania Website, European Council Decision (EU) 2019/476 taken in agreement with the United Kingdom of 22 March 2019 extending the period under Article 50(3) TEU
22 March Scheduled Website
192 10 April Extraordinarywithout UK Website, European Council Decision (EU) 2019/584 taken in agreement with the United Kingdom of 11 April 2019 extending the period under Article 50(3) TEU
193 9 May Informal Website
194 28 May Informal Website
195 20 June Scheduled Website
21 June Euro Summit Website
21 June Extraordinarywithout UK Website (see heading "Brexit")
196 30 June-2 July Extraordinary  Romania &
 Finland
Website, conclusions (nominations for President of the European Council, President of the Commission, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and President of the European Central Bank)
197 17 October Extraordinarywithout UK  Finland Website
17-18 October Scheduled Website
198 12-13 December Scheduled Charles Michel[22] Ursula von der Leyen[23] Website
13 December Euro Summit Website
13 December Extraordinarywithout UK Website

2020s

# Year Date Type EU Council presidency Council President Commission President Agenda, Conclusions and Minutes
199 2020 10 March Video conference
(informal - unscheduled)
 Croatia Charles Michel Ursula von der Leyen Website
200 17 March Video conference
(informal - unscheduled)
Website
201 26 March Video conference
(informal - replacing scheduled meeting)
Website
202 23 April Video conference
(informal - unscheduled)
Website
203 19 June Video conference
(informal - replacing scheduled meeting)
Website
204 17-21 July Extraordinary  Germany Website
205 1-2 October Extraordinary Website
206 15-16 October Scheduled Website
207 29 October Video conference
(informal - unscheduled)
Website
208 10-11 December Scheduled Website
209 2021 21 January Video conference
(informal - unscheduled)
 Portugal Website
210 25-26 March Video conference
(scheduled)
Website
211 8 May Informal Website
212 24-25 June Scheduled Website
  Upcoming meetings

Notable details

Cologne 1999

The European Council met in Cologne, Germany, on 3-4 June 1999 to consider issues after the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force. Romano Prodi presented his plan for the future Commission's work and reform program. The Council called for an EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.

The Council designated Javier Solana for the post of Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union (with Pierre de Boissieu as his deputy) and High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). It decided on a common policy on Russia (first use of the CFSP). Adopted the declaration on Kosovo. In relation to the European Security and Defence Policy, a major element of the CFSP, the council declared that the EU "must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO".

Gothenburg 2001

The 2001 meeting of the European Council was held in the Swedish city of Gothenburg, from 14 to 16 June.

The EU Summit focused upon EU enlargement, sustainable development, economic growth and structural reform issues. The EU-US summit included a visit by U.S. president George W. Bush on 14 June. It was the first U.S. presidential visit to Sweden, and was intended as an opportunity to discuss differences on climate negotiations, WTO and Middle East issues with the EU leaders. It was marred by extensive demonstrations.

The main protests were organised by three broad coalitions, a local coalition Bush Go home that opposed U.S. foreign policy, a Sweden-based coalition Network Gothenburg 2001 which opposed Swedish membership in the EU and EMU and an international coalition Gothenburg Action 2001, a proponent of "another Europe", opponent of EU militarisation, the Schengen Agreement, and defending the public sector and the environment from becoming trade commodities and EMU. There was also a broad Iranian and a smaller anti-capitalist coalition as well as non-violent networks and Reclaim the Streets organising demonstrations and a street party.

According to the police, more than 50,000 demonstrators gathered in Gothenburg during the three days of the summit,[24] among them a smaller number with foreign nationality. The demonstrating organisations arranged many conferences, the biggest conference (besides, of course, the EU summit itself) being Fritt forum (Free Forum) which hosted 50 lectures and seminars and was funded by the city of Gothenburg, the Swedish justice department and Sweden's foreign ministry department among others.[24] The summit was guarded by approximately 2500 police officers.[25]

Besides a number of encounters and skirmishes there were a number of riots. The first one occurred on 14 June after the police had surrounded and enclosed the Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet where demonstrators had been invited by the city to stay during the summit. The second occurred in the morning of 15 June in conjunction with a demonstration of 2000 participants organised by the anti-capitalist organisation, and it resulted in violent clashes with the police and damage of Gothenburg's main street Kungsportsavenyn. Later in the evening during the Reclaim the City demonstration, a police unit came under attack by demonstrators throwing projectiles. The police subsequently fired shots at the demonstrators. Three persons were injured by gunshots, one of whom was seriously injured.[26] This was the first use of firearms against Swedish demonstrators since the Ådalen shootings in 1931.

The riots were followed by prison sentences for 64 persons convicted of criminal behaviour. In total demonstrators were sent to prison for almost 50 years. As of 2006, no police officer has been convicted of wrongdoing during the summit. One officer was tried and convicted for committing perjury during a trial against a Gothenburg demonstrator.[]

The riots left large areas of central Gothenburg demolished due to the violent protests of the demonstrators, as well as leaving many stores looted.[26][27]

Göran Persson (in the middle) with George W. Bush and Romano Prodi in Gothenburg, 14 June 2001.

The summit meeting of the European Union was notable because heads of states from the EU gathered in Gothenburg, and also because the American President George W. Bush visited Sweden for the first time on the day before the summit meeting. As a reaction to this, protesters from all over the world planned to gather in Gothenburg to demonstrate under different banners. The City of Gothenburg assisted the out-of-town protesters by providing living quarters in different schools around Gothenburg and a convergence center, first at Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet and later moved to Schillerska Gymnasiet.

The political background to the protests was a conjuncture of three forces. EU-criticism and opposition to membership in the EU was stronger in Sweden than anywhere else in the union. Secondly a wave of globalisation protests against neoliberalism had gained momentum after the protests during the EU Summit in Amsterdam 1997 and the WTO meeting in Seattle 1999. Anti-war and environmental concerns against the U.S. was a third factor.

The police planned and gathered their forces in anticipation of the meeting. Never before had this many heads of state met in Sweden, and thousands of police were to stand guard in Gothenburg to keep order during these three days of June 2001. The police had long prepared for disturbances and also had many different intelligence services directed at the groups participating in the planning of demonstrations. There were differing opinions amongst the police forces involved. The security police did not want the Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet to be used as they felt it was too close to the EU Summit while the Gothenburg police insisted on having the demonstrators there. American police tactics against protesters were in use such as a psycho-tactic unit that was supposed to have a dialogue with demonstrating organisations.

The police, the local authority and the different demonstration coalitions had arranged a dialogue group where they planned and discussed the demonstrations to ensure they would be as peaceful as possible.

The officers in command of the action stated that they were very pleased with how the police had served during the summit (an opinion which at the time was shared by the government). It was claimed that the police successfully had used advance information about demonstrators and undercover police officers among the demonstrators to among other things find out about the "secret" information central.

According to the police, they acted completely in accordance with the Police Law.

The Swedish Police Union strongly criticised the way the police actions had been led and managed.[28] In its report "Chaos" - regarding the Command in Gothenburg in June 2001 it is stated that a majority of the police who were on duty during the time felt they did not have enough resources to carry out their duties in a proper manner and that orders were confusing.[28]

Statistics:

  • Crimes reported: 3,143 (as of February 2002)[24]
  • Detained (gripna) for criminal actions: 554[25]
  • Detained (omhändertagna) by the police (including following two listings): 575[25]
    • Detained (omhändertagna) by the police in the power of §13 of the police law (aka PL13): 387[25]
    • Detained (omhändertagna) by the police in the power of §11 of the police law (aka PL11): 188[25]
  • Arrested (anhållna): 107[25]
  • Detained while pending trial (häktade): 59[25][29]
  • Number of verdicts: 38[25]
  • Number of "EU-related" (i.e. related to events during the EU-summit) persons injured (treated by hospitals in the region of Västra Götaland): 143[24]

The total sum of the sentences following the riots during the EU summit was roughly 50 years in prison, which according to the journalist Erik Wijk is 12 times more than earlier riots.[30] No police were convicted despite a large number of complaints.[]

One of the most noticed cases is the so-called information central, which was stormed by Nationella insatsstyrkan during the first day of the summit. A total of eight persons (five men, three women) were sentenced to long prison sentences after having sent out text messages urging people to go to Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet in connection with the police shutdown of the school.[]

The police officer in charge for the EU summit, Håkan Jaldung [sv], was accused in a trial of preventing about 100 people at the Schillerska from leaving the place for several hours, but was found innocent.[31]

Göteborgsaktionen ("The Gothenburg Action") involved 87 organisations out of whom 33 were Swedish, 22 Danish, 9 Finnish, 5 Norwegian, 4 European and some other mainly from different Eastern European countries. Nätverket Göteborg ("The Gothenburg Network") involved over 20 organisations.

Laeken 2001

The Laeken European Council was held at the royal palace at Laeken, Belgium, on 14-15 December 2001.

The Laeken European Council dealt with:

  • New measures in the area of Justice and Home Affairs: the European arrest warrant, a common definition of "terrorism", and EUROJUST
  • The seats of ten new EU agencies (after hours of disagreement, the European Council failed to reach an agreement and decided to leave the decision until next year)
  • Impending introduction of Euro cash (the European Council met with the Finance ministers to consider this)
  • Progress of EU enlargement
  • The adoption of the Laeken Declaration on the Future of Europe

The Laeken Declaration on the Future of Europe established the European Convention, presided over with former President of France, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, as President of the convention, and former Italian Prime Minister Giuliano Amato and former Belgian Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene as Vice-Presidents. The convention was tasked with drafting the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, and would have about 60 members, drawn from national governments, national parliamentarians, the European Parliament, and the European Commission, and include representatives from the candidate countries. The declaration reviews the progress of European integration over the last fifty years, tracing it back to its origins in the horrors of World War II, and poses a number of questions to be answered by the convention.[32][33]

See also

References

  1. ^ Scheduling: "I/2011". Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 2015., "II/2011". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015., "I/2012". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015. ("revised".), "II/2012". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015., "I/2013". ("1st revision"., "2nd revision". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2015.), "II/2013". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015., "I/2014". ("1st revision"., "2nd revision"., "3rd revision". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015.), "II/2014". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015., "I/2015". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2015., "II/2015"., "I/2016". ("revised". Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 2015.), "II/2016". Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 2015., "I/2017"., "II/2017"., "I/2018"., "II/2018"., "I/2019"., "II/2019"., "I/2020"., "II/2020"., "I/2021".
  2. ^ "The European Council: 50 years of summit meetings" (PDF). General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/75509.pdf
  4. ^ Smith, John (27 October 2016). "Forside - Danmark - European Commission" (PDF). Danmark - European Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  5. ^ "Russian threats loom over historic EU summit". euobserver.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2008.
  6. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/110166.pdf
  7. ^ a b "Herman Van Rompuy re-elected president" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 1 March 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  8. ^ "The European Council in 2010". General Secretariat of the Council. 11 January 2011.
  9. ^ a b "European Council meetings in the first semester of 2011". European Council. 8 December 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ "European Council meetings in the second semester of 2011". European Council. 24 June 2010. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ a b c "European Council meetings in the first semester of 2012". European Council. 17 December 2010. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  12. ^ a b "European Council meetings in the second semester of 2012". European Council. 27 June 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ a b c d "European Council meetings in the first semester of 2013 (EUCO 150/2/11 REV 2)". European Council. 14 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  14. ^ a b "European Council meetings in the second semester of 2013". European Council. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  15. ^ a b c "European Council meetings in the first semester of 2014 (EUCO 231/3/12 REV 3)". European Council. 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ a b "European Council meetings in the second semester of 2014". European Council. 3 July 2013. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ "Euro Summit (24 October 2014) - Annotated Draft Agenda" (PDF). General Secretariat of the Council. 26 September 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  18. ^ a b "European Council, 09-10/03/2017 - Main results". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ a b c "European Council meetings in the first semester of 2015". European Council. 20 December 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ "President Donald Tusk convenes a Euro Summit on Greece Monday 22 June at 19h00" (PDF). General Secretariat of the Council. 18 June 2015.
  21. ^ "Invitation letter by President Donald Tusk to the Euro Summit" (PDF). General Secretariat of the Council. 6 July 2015.
  22. ^ European Council Decision (EU) 2019/1135 of 2 July 2019 electing the President of the European Council
  23. ^ European Council Decision (EU) 2019/1136 of 2 July 2019 proposing to the European Parliament a candidate for President of the European Commission; European Council Decision (EU) 2019/1989 of 28 November 2019 appointing the European Commission
  24. ^ a b c d e f "Händelserna i samband med Europeiska rådets möte i Göteborg den 14-16 juni 2001" [Gothenburg 2001 - Report from the Gothenburg Committee (SOU_2002:122)] (PDF) (in Swedish). Government of Sweden. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h National Police Board's evaluation of the EU command in Gothenburg in 2001 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (Swedish) Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  26. ^ a b "SOU_2002:122" (PDF) (in Swedish). Government of Sweden. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2006.
  27. ^ "Många oskyldiga drabbades". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). 10 June 2011.
  28. ^ a b "Chaos" - Regarding the Command in Gothenburg in June 2001 ("Kaos" - om kommenderingen i Göteborg juni 2001)[1] (Retrieved 20 November 2006) is an investigation conducted by The Swedish Police Union (Polisförbundet) which is compiled from a questionnaire sent to 1800 police officers who were on duty during the events of the 2001 EU summit in Gothenburg. Its summary reads: "The picture of the command during the EU summit can be summarized in one word: Chaos. Lack of education, lack of materiel and communication, as well as confusing orders and an inner chaos within the police."
  29. ^ Please note some problems translating Swedish judicial terms such as gripa, omhänderta and anhålla into English. While the terms gripna, omhändertagna and anhållna all translate to arrested or detained, in Swedish judicial language they have different value, anhållna being the gravest form of arrest, in fact the only form where the detainee is under the suspicion of committing (a) criminal act(s). Also note the difference between only being detained (gripen, as under §11 and §13 of the Swedish police law) and being detained while pending trial.
  30. ^ Wijk, Erik (2003). Orätt: rättsrötan efter Göteborgshändelserna (in Swedish). Stockholm: Ordfront. ISBN 91-7037-003-6. Page needed.
  31. ^ "Jaldung friad i hovrätten" (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 23 November 2004.
  32. ^ EU2001.be
  33. ^ "Press Releases, Council of the European Union" Archived 7 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine

External links


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