List of Countries by GDP (PPP) Per Capita
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List of Countries by GDP PPP Per Capita

Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2020 according to the IMF
  >50,000
  35,000-50,000
  20,000-35,000
  10,000-20,000
  5,000-10,000
  2,000-5,000
  <2,000
  Data unavailable

This article is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is Int$18,381.[n 1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2021 estimates)[5] World Bank (2019)[6] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2019)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1  Luxembourg 122,740
2  Singapore 102,742
3  Ireland 99,239
4  Qatar 97,262
--  Macau 90,606
5   Switzerland 75,880
6  Norway 69,171
7  United States 68,309
8  Brunei 64,405
--  Hong Kong 62,839
9  San Marino 61,508
10  Denmark 61,478
11  Netherlands 60,461
12  United Arab Emirates 59,844
--  Taiwan 59,398
13  Iceland 58,151
14  Austria 57,891
15  Germany 56,956
16  Sweden 55,566
17  Australia 54,891
18  Belgium 53,973
19  Finland 51,867
20  Canada 51,713
21  Bahrain 50,284
22  France 49,492
23  Saudi Arabia 48,099
24  United Kingdom 47,089
25  South Korea 47,027
--  European Union 46,888
26  Malta 45,042
27  Japan 44,585
28  New Zealand 44,226
29  Italy 43,376
30  Czech Republic 42,956
31  Israel 42,570
32  Cyprus 41,595
33  Spain 41,546
34  Kuwait 41,507
35  Slovenia 40,820
36  Lithuania 40,784
37  Estonia 39,729
38  Portugal 36,079
39  Poland 35,957
--  Puerto Rico 35,943
40  Hungary 35,088
41  Slovakia 34,815
42  Bahamas 34,046
43  Latvia 33,394
44  Romania 32,950
45  Turkey 32,278
--  Aruba 30,972
46  Greece 30,495
47  Oman 30,404
48  Panama 30,388
49  Croatia 29,777
50  Russia 29,485
51  Malaysia 29,340
52  Kazakhstan 27,560
53  Seychelles 26,119
54  Trinidad and Tobago 25,883
55  Bulgaria 25,471
56  Chile 24,928
57  Uruguay 23,474
58  Maldives 23,343
59  Guyana 23,258
60  Argentina 22,141
61  Mauritius 22,030
62  Montenegro 21,355
63  Saint Kitts and Nevis 20,730
64  Costa Rica 20,667
65  Belarus 20,578
66  Serbia 20,545
67  Mexico 20,266
68  Dominican Republic 19,799
69  Thailand 19,004
70  China 18,931
71  Equatorial Guinea 18,236
72  Antigua and Barbuda 18,125
73  Botswana 18,113
74  North Macedonia 17,663
75  Turkmenistan 17,415
76  Gabon 16,244
77  Bosnia and Herzegovina 15,935
78  Georgia 15,709
79  Brazil 15,643
80  Grenada 15,385
81  Albania 15,225
82  Colombia 15,184
83  Azerbaijan 14,856
84  Suriname 14,703
85  Barbados 14,329
86  Ukraine 13,943
87  Saint Lucia 13,942
88  Sri Lanka 13,909
89  Moldova 13,879
90  Libya 13,723
91  Armenia 13,638
92  Iran 13,513
93  Paraguay 13,454
94  Egypt 13,083
95  Peru 12,985
96  Indonesia 12,882
97  Palau 12,862
98  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,811
99  South Africa 12,442
100  Mongolia 12,431
101  Fiji 12,298
--  Kosovo 11,949
102  Bhutan 11,928
103  Vietnam 11,677
104  Lebanon (2020) 11,564
105  Algeria 11,433
106  Ecuador 11,331
107  Dominica 11,231
108  Tunisia 10,594
109  Jordan 10,590
110  Jamaica 10,294
111  Iraq 10,038
112  Nauru 9,995
113  Namibia 9,542
114  Eswatini 9,152
115  Philippines 9,061
116  El Salvador 8,891
117  Bolivia 8,832
118  Guatemala 8,648
119  Laos 8,519
120  Morocco 8,027
121  Uzbekistan 7,830
122  India 7,333
123  Angola 6,878
124  Cape Verde 6,837
125  Syria (2010) 6,373
126  Tonga 6,156
127  Belize 6,133
128  Mauritania 5,993
129  Ghana 5,968
130  Bangladesh 5,812
131  Honduras 5,698
--  Palestine 5,664
132  Nicaragua 5,648
133  Ivory Coast 5,642
134  Kyrgyzstan 5,323
135  Djibouti 5,300
136  Nigeria 5,280
137  Kenya 5,274
138  Samoa 5,260
139  Pakistan 5,224
140  Venezuela (2020) 5,178
141  Cambodia 4,930
142  Myanmar 4,831
143  Tuvalu 4,674
144    Nepal 4,199
145  Republic of the Congo 4,169
146  Sudan 4,082
147  Papua New Guinea 3,956
148  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,926
149  Tajikistan 3,856
150  Marshall Islands 3,767
151  Cameroon 3,745
152  Senegal 3,625
153  Benin 3,573
154  Federated States of Micronesia 3,372
155  Zambia 3,322
156  Timor-Leste 3,119
157  Comoros 3,022
158  Ethiopia 2,973
159  Haiti 2,962
160  Tanzania 2,863
161  Lesotho 2,829
162  Guinea 2,731
163  Uganda 2,706
164  Zimbabwe 2,698
165  Vanuatu 2,646
166  Solomon Islands 2,483
167  Afghanistan 2,474
168  Mali 2,469
169  Rwanda 2,458
170  Guinea-Bissau 2,409
171  Gambia 2,384
172  Burkina Faso 2,334
173  Togo 2,261
174  Kiribati 2,242
175  Yemen 1,924
176  Eritrea 1,862
177  Sierra Leone 1,771
178  Madagascar 1,639
179  Chad 1,621
180  Liberia 1,602
181  Niger 1,320
182  Mozambique 1,293
183  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,132
184  Central African Republic 1,013
185  Malawi 1,005
186  Somalia 941
187  South Sudan 825
188  Burundi 772
Rank Country/Territory Int$
--  Macau 129,451
1  Luxembourg 124,591
2  Singapore 101,649
3  Qatar 94,029
4  Ireland 89,684
--  Bermuda 85,418
--  Cayman Islands (2018) 73,292
5   Switzerland 72,376
6  United Arab Emirates 70,089
7  Norway 70,006
8  United States 65,298
9  Brunei 64,848
--  Hong Kong 62,496
11  Denmark 62,090
13  Netherlands 61,285
12  San Marino (2018) 60,887
13  Austria 60,418
14  Iceland 60,133
15  Germany 57,530
16  Sweden 56,632
17  Belgium 56,349
--  Taiwan 55,078
18  Australia 53,381
19  Finland 53,172
20  Kuwait 52,060
21  Canada 51,669
22  France 50,993
23  United Kingdom 49,932
24  Saudi Arabia 49,040
--  European Union 47,828
25  Malta 47,578
26  Bahrain 47,003
27  Italy 45,723
28  New Zealand 45,382
29  Czech Republic 44,296
30  South Korea 44,011
31  Japan 43,594
32  Spain 43,496
33  Israel 42,898
34  Slovenia 42,431
35  Cyprus 41,254
36  Lithuania 40,016
37  Estonia 39,986
38  The Bahamas 38,743
--  Aruba (2017) 38,442
39  Portugal 37,918
--  Sint Maarten (2018) 36,203
--  Puerto Rico 36,045
40  Poland 35,165
41  Hungary 34,966
42  Slovakia 33,516
43  Romania 33,340
44  Latvia 33,021
45  Panama 32,851
46  Greece 32,506
47  Croatia 31,131
--  Turks and Caicos Islands 30,548
48  Seychelles 30,517
49  Malaysia 29,620
50  Russia 29,181
51  Oman 28,508
52  Turkey 28,133
53  Saint Kitts and Nevis 27,608
54  Kazakhstan 27,518
55  Trinidad and Tobago 27,334
56  Chile 27,002
--  Curaçao 25,563
57  Bulgaria 25,312
58  Montenegro 24,036
59  Mauritius 23,882
60  Argentina 23,040
61  Antigua and Barbuda 22,880
62  Uruguay 22,515
63  Costa Rica 21,738
64  Mexico 20,944
65  Maldives 20,396
66  Belarus 19,997
67  Serbia 19,495
68  Equatorial Guinea 19,379
69  Thailand 19,277
70  Dominican Republic 19,228
71  Botswana 18,553
72  Palau 18,357
73  North Macedonia 18,108
-- World 17,811
74  Grenada 17,793
75  Venezuela (2011) 17,527
76  Suriname 17,256
77  China 16,804
78  Barbados 16,331
79  Bosnia and Herzegovina 16,289
80  Saint Lucia 16,132
81  Colombia 16,012
82  Libya 15,846
83  Georgia 15,656
84  Gabon 15,612
85  Brazil 15,300
86  Turkmenistan 15,207
87  Lebanon 15,196
88  Azerbaijan 15,041
89  Albania 14,648
90  Fiji 14,290
91  Armenia 14,258
92  Guyana 13,661
93  Sri Lanka 13,657
94  Moldova 13,627
95  Peru 13,416
96  Ukraine 13,341
97  Paraguay 13,247
98  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13,038
99  South Africa 13,034
100  Iran 12,938
101  Mongolia 12,862
102  Dominica 12,444
103  Bhutan 12,356
104  Indonesia 12,335
105  Egypt 12,284
106  Nauru 12,095
107  Algeria 12,020
108  Ecuador 11,879
--  Kosovo 11,871
109  Iraq 11,363
110  Tunisia 11,232
111  Jordan 10,517
112  Jamaica 10,194
113  Namibia 10,064
114  Philippines 9,302
115  El Salvador 9,164
116  Bolivia 9,111
117  Guatemala 9,020
118  Eswatini 9,003
119  Vietnam 8,397
120  Laos 8,173
121  Morocco 7,826
122  Cape Verde 7,489
123  Belize 7,315
124  Uzbekistan 7,308
125  India 6,997
126  Angola 6,966
127  Samoa 6,796
128  Tonga 6,666
--  West Bank and Gaza (2018) 6,495
129  Honduras 5,982
130  Djibouti 5,780
131  Ghana 5,652
132  Nicaragua 5,646
133  Kyrgyzstan 5,486
134  Côte d'Ivoire 5,443
135  Mauritania 5,427
136  Myanmar 5,370
137  Nigeria 5,363
138  Bangladesh 4,964
139  Pakistan 4,898
140  Cambodia 4,583
141  Papua New Guinea 4,548
142  Kenya 4,522
143  Tuvalu 4,471
144  São Tomé and Príncipe 4,145
145  Sudan 4,123
146  Marshall Islands 3,983
147  Republic of the Congo 3,836
148  Cameroon 3,804
149  Timor-Leste 3,710
150  Yemen (2013) 3,689
151  Zambia 3,624
152    Nepal 3,568
153  Federated States of Micronesia 3,548
154  Senegal 3,545
155  Tajikistan 3,529
156  Benin 3,433
157  Vanuatu 3,293
158  Comoros 3,195
159  Haiti 3,034
160  Zimbabwe 2,961
161  Lesotho 2,824
162  Solomon Islands 2,781
163  Tanzania 2,771
164  Guinea 2,676
165  Mali 2,424
166  Kiribati 2,373
167  Rwanda 2,325
168  The Gambia 2,321
169  Ethiopia 2,320
170  Uganda 2,284
171  Burkina Faso 2,275
172  Afghanistan 2,156
173  Guinea-Bissau 2,077
174  Sierra Leone 1,794
175  Madagascar 1,720
176  Togo 1,667
177  Chad 1,650
178  Eritrea (2011) 1,626
179  Liberia 1,491
180  Mozambique 1,338
181  Niger 1,279
182  South Sudan (2015) 1,235
183  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,147
184  Malawi 1,107
185  Central African Republic 987
186  Burundi 785
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1  Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
--  Macau 123,965 2019 est.
2  Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
3  Luxembourg 114,482 2019 est.
4  Singapore 97,341 2019 est.
5  Qatar 90,044 2019 est.
6  Ireland 86,781 2019 est.
--  Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
--  Bermuda 81,798 2019 est.
--  Cayman Islands 71,549 2018 est.
--  Falkland Islands 70,800 2015 est.
7   Switzerland 68,628 2019 est.
8  United Arab Emirates 67,119 2019 est.
9  Norway 63,633 2019 est.
10  United States 62,530 2019 est.
11  Brunei 62,100 2019 est.
--  Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
--  Hong Kong 59,848 2019 est.
12  San Marino 59,439 2018 est.
13  Denmark 57,804 2019 est.
14  Netherlands 56,935 2019 est.
--  Jersey 56,600 2016 est.
15  Austria 56,188 2019 est.
16  Iceland 55,874 2019 est.
17  Germany 53,919 2019 est.
18  Sweden 53,240 2019 est.
--  Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
19  Belgium 51,934 2019 est.
20  Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
21  Australia 49,854 2019 est.
22  Kuwait 49,854 2019 est.
23  Canada 49,031 2019 est.
24  Finland 48,668 2019 est.
25  Saudi Arabia 46,962 2019 est.
26  United Kingdom 46,659 2019 est.
--  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 46,200 2006 est.
27  France 46,184 2019 est.
28  Bahrain 45,011 2019 est.
--  European Union 44,436 2019 est.
29  Malta 44,032 2019 est.
30  New Zealand 42,888 2019 est.
31  South Korea 42,765 2019 est.
32  Italy 42,492 2019 est.
--  Greenland 41,800 2015 est.
33  Japan 41,429 2019 est.
34  Spain 40,903 2019 est.
35  Czech Republic 40,862 2019 est.
36  Israel 40,145 2019 est.
--  Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
37  Cyprus 39,545 2019 est.
38  Slovenia 39,088 2019 est.
--  Aruba 37,500 2017 est.
39  Lithuania 37,231 2019 est.
40  The Bahamas 37,101 2019 est.
--  U.S. Virgin Islands 37,000 2016 est.
41  Estonia 36,927 2019 est.
--  Guam 35,600 2016 est.
--  Sint Maarten 35,342 2018 est.
42  Portugal 34,894 2019 est.
--  Puerto Rico 34,518 2019 est.
--  British Virgin Islands 34,200 2017 est.
--  Montserrat 34,000 2011 est.
43  Poland 33,221 2019 est.
44  Hungary 32,945 2019 est.
45  Slovakia 32,730 2019 est.
46  Panama 31,459 2019 est.
--  New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
47  Latvia 30,898 2019 est.
48  Romania 29,941 2019 est.
49  Greece 29,799 2019 est.
--  Turks and Caicos Islands 29,253 2019 est.
50  Seychelles 29,223 2019 est.
51  Croatia 28,602 2019 est.
52  Turkey 28,424 2019 est.
53  Malaysia 28,364 2019 est.
54  Oman 27,299 2019 est.
55  Russia 27,044 2019 est.
56  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,438 2019 est.
57  Kazakhstan 26,351 2019 est.
58  Trinidad and Tobago 26,176 2019 est.
--  Taiwan 24,502 2018 est.
--  Northern Mariana Islands 24,500 2016 est.
--  Curaçao 24,479 2019 est.
59  Chile 24,226 2019 est.
60  Bulgaria 23,174 2019 est.
61  Mauritius 22,870 2019 est.
62  Argentina 22,064 2019 est.
63  Antigua and Barbuda 21,910 2019 est.
64  Uruguay 21,561 2019 est.
65  Montenegro 21,470 2019 est.
66  Mexico 19,796 2019 est.
67  Costa Rica 19,642 2019 est.
68  Maldives 19,531 2019 est.
--  Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
69  Belarus 19,150 2019 est.
70  Equatorial Guinea 18,558 2019 est.
71  Thailand 18,460 2019 est.
72  Dominican Republic 18,413 2019 est.
73  Serbia 18,233 2019 est.
74  Botswana 17,767 2019 est.
75  Palau 17,579 2019 est.
76  Grenada 17,039 2019 est.
--  French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
--  Cook Islands 16,700 2016 est.
77  Suriname 16,525 2019 est.
78  China 16,117 2019 est.
79  Barbados 15,639 2019 est.
80  Saint Lucia 15,449 2019 est.
81  Libya 15,174 2019 est.
82  Georgia 14,992 2019 est.
83  Gabon 14,950 2019 est.
84  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14,912 2019 est.
85  Turkmenistan 14,845 2018 est.
86  Colombia 14,722 2019 est.
87  Brazil 14,652 2019 est.
88  Lebanon 14,552 2019 est.
89  Azerbaijan 14,404 2019 est.
90  Albania 13,965 2019 est.
91  Fiji 13,684 2019 est.
92  Armenia 13,654 2019 est.
93  Guyana 13,082 2019 est.
94  Sri Lanka 13,078 2019 est.
95  Moldova 13,050 2019 est.
96  Peru 12,848 2019 est.
97  Ukraine 12,810 2019 est.
98  Paraguay 12,685 2019 est.
99  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,485 2019 est.
100  South Africa 12,482 2019 est.
101  Iran 12,389 2019 est.
102  Mongolia 12,317 2019 est.
103  Cuba 12,300 2016 est.
--  Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
104  Dominica 11,917 2019 est.
105  Bhutan 11,832 2019 est.
106  Indonesia 11,812 2019 est.
107  Egypt 11,763 2019 est.
108  Nauru 11,583 2019 est.
109  Algeria 11,511 2019 est.
110  Ecuador 11,375 2019 est.
--  Kosovo 11,368 2019 est.
--  American Samoa 11,200 2016 est.
111  Iraq 10,881 2019 est.
112  Tunisia 10,756 2019 est.
113  Jordan 10,071 2019 est.
114  Jamaica 9,762 2019 est.
115  Namibia 9,637 2019 est.
116  Philippines 8,908 2019 est.
117  El Salvador 8,776 2019 est.
118  Bolivia 8,724 2019 est.
119  Guatemala 8,637 2019 est.
120  Eswatini 8,622 2019 est.
121  Vietnam 8,041 2019 est.
122  Laos 7,826 2019 est.
--  Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
123  Venezuela 7,704 2018 est.
124  Morocco 7,515 2019 est.
125  Cape Verde 7,172 2019 est.
126  Belize 7,005 2019 est.
127  Uzbekistan 6,999 2019 est.
128  India 6,700 2019 est.
129  Angola 6,670 2019 est.
130  Samoa 6,521 2019 est.
131  Tonga 6,383 2019 est.
85  North Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
130  Republic of the Congo 6,700 2017 est.
131  Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
132  Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
133  Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
--  Niue 5,800 2003 est.
137  Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
138  Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
139  Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
140  Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
141  Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
142  Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
--  West Bank 4,300 2014 est.
143  Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
144  Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
145  Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
146  Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
147  Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
148  Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
149  Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
--  Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
150  Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
151  Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
152  Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
153  Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
154  Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
155  Federated States of Micronesia 3,400 2017 est.
156  Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
157  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
158  Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
159  Syria 2,900 2015 est.
160  Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
161    Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
162  Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
--  Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
163  Chad 2,400 2017 est.
164  Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
165  Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
166  Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
167  Mali 2,200 2017 est.
168  Benin 2,200 2017 est.
169  Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
170  Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
171  Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
172  Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
173  Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
174  Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
175  Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
176  Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
177  Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
178  Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
179  North Korea 1,700 2015 est.
180  The Gambia 1,700 2017 est.
181  Togo 1,600 2017 est.
182  Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
183  Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
184  South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
185  Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
186  Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
187  Niger 1,200 2017 est.
188  Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
--  Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
189  Liberia 900 2017 est.
190  Democratic Republic of the Congo 800 2017 est.
191  Burundi 800 2017 est.
192  Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
193  Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion--almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally--is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies--the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore--host more than 85 percent of the world's investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

-- "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

-- Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

-- Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[6][13]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
--  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
--  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
--  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
--  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

References

  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"[dead link]
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook - GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ a b "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ Real GDP per capita, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 12 May 2021.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9-10): 1058-1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  13. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 2018.

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