List of Human Spaceflights
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List of Human Spaceflights
Apollo 7 heads into orbit with its crew of three, 1968

This is a list of all human spaceflights throughout history. Beginning in 1961 with the flight of Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, human spaceflight occurs when a human crew flies a spacecraft into outer space. Human spaceflight is distinguished from spaceflight generally, which entails both crewed and uncrewed spacecraft.

There are two definitions of spaceflight. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), an international record-keeping body, defines the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space at 100 kilometres (62 mi) above sea level. This boundary is known as the Kármán line. Additionally, the United States awards astronaut wings to qualified personnel who pilot a spaceflight above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km).

As of the launch of Blue Origin NS-16 on 20 July 2021, there have been 349 human spaceflight launch attempts. Two missions did not cross either the Kármán line or the U.S. definition of space and therefore do not qualify as spaceflights. These were the fatal Challenger disaster, and the non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission T-10a. Two aborted missions did cross either the Kármán line or the U.S. definition of space. These were the non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission MS-10 which did not reach the Kármán line but did pass the 80 km (50 mi) line. The other was the non-fatal Soyuz mission, 18a which crossed the Kármán line. Four missions successfully achieved human spaceflight, yet ended as fatal failures as their crews died during the return. These were Soyuz 1, X-15 flight 191, Soyuz 11, and the Columbia disaster. Uniquely, Soyuz 34 was launched uncrewed to the Salyut 6 space station, to provide a successful return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32. Fourteen of these flights reached an apogee beyond 50 miles (80 km), but failed to go beyond 62 miles (100 km), so therefore do not qualify as spaceflights under the FAI definition.

Summary

Since 1961, three countries (China, Russia, and the United States) and one former country (Soviet Union) have conducted human spaceflight using thirteen different spacecraft series, or: "programs", "projects".


Entity  Soviet Union  United States  Russia  China Subtotals
by decade
Agency Soviet space program NASA logo.svg NASA Scaled Composites Virgin Galactic SpaceX-Logo-Xonly.svg SpaceX Blue Origin Roscosmos logo ru.svg Roscosmos CNSA
Decades Program Dates[a] No.[b] Program[c] Dates No.[d] Program Dates No. Program Dates No.[e] Program Dates No. Program Dates No. Program Dates No.[f] Program Dates No.
1961-1970 Vostok 1961-1963 6 Mercury 1961-1963 6 52
Voskhod 1964-1965 2 X-15 1962-1968 13
Soyuz 1967-1991 64 Gemini 1965-1966 10
Apollo 1968-1972 11
1971-1980 39
Skylab 1973-1974 3
Apollo-Soyuz 1975 1
1981-1990 Space
Shuttle
1981-2011 135 63
1991-2000 Soyuz 1992-present 80 83
2001-2010 SpaceShipOne 2004 3 Shenzhou 2003-present 7 61
2011-2020 SpaceShipTwo 2018-present 4 Crew Dragon 2020-present 3 45
2021-2030 New Shepard 2021-present 1 6
Subtotals
by entity
72 179 3 4 3 1 80 7 Total 349

Human spaceflights

The Salyut series, Skylab, Mir, ISS, and Tiangong series space stations, with which many of these flights docked in orbit, are not listed separately here. See the detailed lists (links below) for information.

  • Missions which were intended to reach space but which failed to do so are listed in italics.
  • Fatal missions are marked with asterisks.
  • Missions between 80 km (50 mi) and 100 km (62 mi) are marked in cursive.

1961-1970

Vostok 1 -- Mercury-Redstone 3 -- Mercury-Redstone 4 -- Vostok 2
Mercury-Atlas 6 -- Mercury-Atlas 7 -- X-15 Flight 62 -- Vostok 3 -- Vostok 4 -- Mercury-Atlas 8
X-15 Flight 77 -- Mercury-Atlas 9 -- Vostok 5 -- Vostok 6 -- X-15 Flight 87 -- X-15 Flight 90 -- X-15 Flight 91
Voskhod 1
Voskhod 2 -- Gemini 3 -- Gemini 4 -- X-15 Flight 138 -- X-15 Flight 143 -- Gemini 5 -- X-15 Flight 150 -- X-15 Flight 153 -- Gemini 7 -- Gemini 6A
Gemini 8 -- Gemini 9A -- Gemini 10 -- Gemini 11 -- X-15 Flight 174 -- Gemini 12
Soyuz 1* -- X-15 Flight 190 -- X-15 Flight 191*
X-15 Flight 197 -- Apollo 7 -- Soyuz 3 -- Apollo 8
Soyuz 4 -- Soyuz 5 -- Apollo 9 -- Apollo 10 -- Apollo 11 -- Soyuz 6 -- Soyuz 7 -- Soyuz 8 -- Apollo 12
Apollo 13 -- Soyuz 9

1971-1980

Apollo 14 -- Soyuz 10 -- Soyuz 11* -- Apollo 15
Apollo 16 -- Apollo 17
Skylab 2 -- Skylab 3 -- Soyuz 12 -- Skylab 4 -- Soyuz 13
Soyuz 14 -- Soyuz 15 -- Soyuz 16
Soyuz 17 -- Soyuz 18a -- Soyuz 18 -- Soyuz 19 -- Apollo-Soyuz
Soyuz 21 -- Soyuz 22 -- Soyuz 23
Soyuz 24 -- Soyuz 25 -- Soyuz 26
Soyuz 27 -- Soyuz 28 -- Soyuz 29 -- Soyuz 30 -- Soyuz 31
Soyuz 32 -- Soyuz 33 -- Soyuz 34
Soyuz 35 -- Soyuz 36 -- Soyuz T-2 -- Soyuz 37 -- Soyuz 38 -- Soyuz T-3

1981-1990

Soyuz T-4 -- Soyuz 39 -- STS-1 -- Soyuz 40 -- STS-2
STS-3 -- Soyuz T-5 -- Soyuz T-6 -- STS-4 -- Soyuz T-7 -- STS-5
STS-6 -- Soyuz T-8 -- STS-7 -- Soyuz T-9 -- STS-8 -- Soyuz T-10a -- STS-9
STS-41-B -- Soyuz T-10 -- Soyuz T-11 -- STS-41-C -- Soyuz T-12 -- STS-41-D -- STS-41-G -- STS-51-A
STS-51-C -- STS-51-D -- STS-51-B -- Soyuz T-13 -- STS-51-G -- STS-51-F -- STS-51-I -- Soyuz T-14 -- STS-51-J -- STS-61-A -- STS-61-B
STS-61-C -- STS-51-L* -- Soyuz T-15
Soyuz TM-2 -- Soyuz TM-3 -- Soyuz TM-4
Soyuz TM-5 -- Soyuz TM-6 -- STS-26 -- Soyuz TM-7 -- STS-27
STS-29 -- STS-30 -- STS-28 -- Soyuz TM-8 -- STS-34 -- STS-33
STS-32 -- Soyuz TM-9 -- STS-36 -- STS-31 -- Soyuz TM-10 -- STS-41 -- STS-38 -- STS-35 -- Soyuz TM-11

1991-2000

STS-37 -- STS-39 -- Soyuz TM-12 -- STS-40 -- STS-43 -- STS-48 -- Soyuz TM-13 -- STS-44
STS-42 -- Soyuz TM-14 -- STS-45 -- STS-49 -- STS-50 -- Soyuz TM-15 -- STS-46 -- STS-47 -- STS-52 -- STS-53
STS-54 -- Soyuz TM-16 -- STS-56 -- STS-55 -- STS-57 -- Soyuz TM-17 -- STS-51 -- STS-58 -- STS-61
Soyuz TM-18 -- STS-60 -- STS-62 -- STS-59 -- Soyuz TM-19 -- STS-65 -- STS-64 -- STS-68 -- Soyuz TM-20 -- STS-66
STS-63 -- STS-67 -- Soyuz TM-21 -- STS-71 -- STS-70 -- Soyuz TM-22 -- STS-69 -- STS-73 -- STS-74
STS-72 -- Soyuz TM-23 -- STS-75 -- STS-76 -- STS-77 -- STS-78 -- Soyuz TM-24 -- STS-79 -- STS-80
STS-81 -- Soyuz TM-25 -- STS-82 -- STS-83 -- STS-84 -- STS-94 -- Soyuz TM-26 -- STS-85 -- STS-86 -- STS-87
STS-89 -- Soyuz TM-27 -- STS-90 -- STS-91 -- Soyuz TM-28 -- STS-95 -- STS-88
Soyuz TM-29 -- STS-96 -- STS-93 -- STS-103
STS-99 -- Soyuz TM-30 -- STS-101 -- STS-106 -- STS-92 -- Soyuz TM-31 -- STS-97

2001-2010

STS-98 -- STS-102 -- STS-100 -- Soyuz TM-32 -- STS-104 -- STS-105 -- Soyuz TM-33 -- STS-108
STS-109 -- STS-110 -- Soyuz TM-34 -- STS-111 -- STS-112 -- Soyuz TMA-1 -- STS-113
STS-107* -- Soyuz TMA-2 -- Shenzhou 5 -- Soyuz TMA-3
Soyuz TMA-4 -- SpaceShipOne Flight 15P -- SpaceShipOne Flight 16P -- SpaceShipOne Flight 17P -- Soyuz TMA-5
Soyuz TMA-6 -- STS-114 -- Soyuz TMA-7 -- Shenzhou 6
Soyuz TMA-8 -- STS-121 -- STS-115 -- Soyuz TMA-9 -- STS-116
Soyuz TMA-10 -- STS-117 -- STS-118 -- Soyuz TMA-11 -- STS-120
STS-122 -- STS-123 -- Soyuz TMA-12 -- STS-124 -- Shenzhou 7 -- Soyuz TMA-13 -- STS-126
STS-119 -- Soyuz TMA-14 -- STS-125 -- Soyuz TMA-15 -- STS-127 -- STS-128 -- Soyuz TMA-16 -- STS-129 -- Soyuz TMA-17
STS-130 -- Soyuz TMA-18 -- STS-131 -- STS-132 -- Soyuz TMA-19 -- Soyuz TMA-01M -- Soyuz TMA-20

2011-2020

STS-133 -- Soyuz TMA-21 -- STS-134 -- Soyuz TMA-02M -- STS-135 -- Soyuz TMA-22 -- Soyuz TMA-03M
Soyuz TMA-04M -- Shenzhou 9 -- Soyuz TMA-05M -- Soyuz TMA-06M -- Soyuz TMA-07M
Soyuz TMA-08M -- Soyuz TMA-09M -- Shenzhou 10 -- Soyuz TMA-10M -- Soyuz TMA-11M
Soyuz TMA-12M -- Soyuz TMA-13M -- Soyuz TMA-14M -- Soyuz TMA-15M
Soyuz TMA-16M -- Soyuz TMA-17M -- Soyuz TMA-18M -- Soyuz TMA-19M
Soyuz TMA-20M -- Soyuz MS-01 -- Shenzhou 11 -- Soyuz MS-02 -- Soyuz MS-03
Soyuz MS-04 -- Soyuz MS-05 -- Soyuz MS-06 -- Soyuz MS-07
Soyuz MS-08 -- Soyuz MS-09 -- Soyuz MS-10 -- Soyuz MS-11 -- VSS Unity VP-03
Soyuz MS-12 -- Soyuz MS-13 -- Soyuz MS-15 -- VSS Unity VF-01
Soyuz MS-16 -- Crew Dragon Demo-2 -- Soyuz MS-17 -- SpaceX Crew-1

2021-present

Soyuz MS-18 -- SpaceX Crew-2 -- Virgin Galactic Unity-21 -- Shenzhou-12 -- Virgin Galactic Unity-22 -- Blue Origin NS-16

Timeline

Tiangong space stationTiangong-2Tiangong-1ISSSkylabMirSalyut 7Salyut 6Salyut 5Salyut 4Salyut 3Salyut 1Shenzhou programShenzhou 12Shenzhou 11Shenzhou 10Shenzhou 9Shenzhou 7Shenzhou 6Shenzhou 5New ShepardBlue Origin NS-16SpaceShipOneSpaceShipOne flight 17PSpaceShipOne flight 16PSpaceShipOne flight 15PSpace Shuttle EndeavourSTS-134STS-130STS-127STS-126STS-123STS-118STS-113STS-111STS-108STS-100STS-97STS-99STS-88STS-89STS-77STS-72STS-69STS-67STS-68STS-59STS-61STS-57STS-54STS-47STS-49Space Shuttle AtlantisSTS-135STS-132STS-129STS-125STS-122STS-117STS-115STS-112STS-110STS-104STS-98STS-106STS-101STS-86STS-84STS-81STS-79STS-76STS-74STS-71STS-66STS-46STS-45STS-44STS-43STS-37STS-38STS-36STS-34STS-30STS-27STS-61-BSTS-51-JX-15X-15 Flight 91X-15 Flight 90Space Shuttle DiscoverySTS-133STS-131STS-128STS-119STS-124STS-120STS-116STS-121STS-114STS-105STS-102STS-92STS-103STS-96STS-95STS-91STS-85STS-82STS-70STS-63STS-64STS-60STS-51STS-56STS-53STS-42STS-48STS-39STS-41STS-31STS-33STS-29STS-26STS-51-ISTS-51-GSTS-51-DSTS-51-CSTS-51-ASTS-41-DApollo ProgramApollo-Soyuz Test ProjectApollo 17Apollo 16Apollo 15Apollo 14Apollo 13Apollo 12Apollo 11Apollo 10Apollo 9Apollo 8Apollo 7Crew Dragon ResilienceSpaceX Crew-1Space Shuttle ChallengerSTS-51-LSTS-61-ASTS-51-FSTS-51-BSTS-41-GSTS-41-CSTS-41-BSTS-8STS-7STS-6Project GeminiGemini XIIGemini XIGemini XGemini IX-AGemini VIIIGemini VI-AGemini VIIGemini VGemini IVGemini IIIGemini 2Gemini 1Crew Dragon EndeavourSpaceX Crew-2Crew Dragon Demo-2Space Shuttle ColumbiaSTS-107STS-109STS-93STS-90STS-87STS-94STS-83STS-80STS-78STS-75STS-73STS-65STS-62STS-58STS-55STS-52STS-50STS-40STS-35STS-32STS-28STS-61-CSTS-9STS-5STS-4STS-3STS-2STS-1SkylabSkylab 4Skylab 3Skylab 2Project MercuryMercury-Atlas 9Mercury-Atlas 8Mercury-Atlas 7Mercury-Atlas 6Mercury-Redstone 4Mercury-Redstone 3Soyuz programmeSoyuz MS-18Soyuz MS-17Soyuz MS-16Soyuz MS-15Soyuz MS-13Soyuz MS-12Soyuz MS-11Soyuz MS-09Soyuz MS-08Soyuz MS-07Soyuz MS-06Soyuz MS-05Soyuz MS-04Soyuz MS-03Soyuz MS-02Soyuz MS-01Soyuz TMA-20MSoyuz TMA-19MSoyuz TMA-18MSoyuz TMA-17MSoyuz TMA-16MSoyuz TMA-15MSoyuz TMA-14MSoyuz TMA-13MSoyuz TMA-12MSoyuz TMA-11MSoyuz TMA-10MSoyuz TMA-09MSoyuz TMA-08MSoyuz TMA-07MSoyuz TMA-06MSoyuz TMA-05MSoyuz TMA-04MSoyuz TMA-03MSoyuz TMA-22Soyuz TMA-02MSoyuz TMA-21Soyuz TMA-20Soyuz TMA-01MSoyuz TMA-19Soyuz TMA-18Soyuz TMA-17Soyuz TMA-16Soyuz TMA-15Soyuz TMA-14Soyuz TMA-13Soyuz TMA-12Soyuz TMA-11Soyuz TMA-10Soyuz TMA-9Soyuz TMA-8Soyuz TMA-7Soyuz TMA-6Soyuz TMA-5Soyuz TMA-4Soyuz TMA-3Soyuz TMA-2Soyuz TMA-1Soyuz TM-34Soyuz TM-33Soyuz TM-32Soyuz TM-31Soyuz TM-30Soyuz TM-29Soyuz TM-28Soyuz TM-27Soyuz TM-26Soyuz TM-25Soyuz TM-24Soyuz TM-23Soyuz TM-22Soyuz TM-21Soyuz TM-20Soyuz TM-19Soyuz TM-18Soyuz TM-17Soyuz TM-16Soyuz TM-15Soyuz TM-14Soyuz TM-13Soyuz TM-12Soyuz TM-11Soyuz TM-10Soyuz TM-9Soyuz TM-8Soyuz TM-7Soyuz TM-6Soyuz TM-5Soyuz TM-4Soyuz TM-3Soyuz TM-2Soyuz T-15Soyuz T-14Soyuz T-13Soyuz T-12Soyuz T-11Soyuz T-10Soyuz T-10-1Soyuz T-9Soyuz T-8Soyuz T-7Soyuz T-6Soyuz T-5Soyuz 40Soyuz 39Soyuz T-4Soyuz T-3Soyuz 38Soyuz 37Soyuz T-2Soyuz 36Soyuz 35Soyuz 34Soyuz 33Soyuz 32Soyuz 31Soyuz 30Soyuz 29Soyuz 28Soyuz 27Soyuz 26Soyuz 25Soyuz 24Soyuz 23Soyuz 22Soyuz 21Soyuz 19Soyuz 18Soyuz 18aSoyuz 17Soyuz 16Soyuz 15Soyuz 14Soyuz 13Soyuz 12Soyuz 11Soyuz 10Soyuz 9Soyuz 8Soyuz 7Soyuz 6Soyuz 5Soyuz 4Soyuz 3Soyuz 1Voskhod programmeVostok programme
Space Population.png

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Dates in this table refer only to actual flights, and not the broader duration of their associated programs. For example, while Project Gemini was begun in 1961 and concluded in 1966, its crewed spaceflights occurred only from 1965-1966.
  2. ^ Soyuz missions include the following: two fatal missions, Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11, both of which reached space; Soyuz 18a, a non-fatal aborted mission which reached space as a sub-orbital flight; Soyuz 19, the Soviet participant in the Apollo-Soyuz; Soyuz 34, which was launched uncrewed to provide a return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32, who were aboard the Salyut 6 space station; and Soyuz T-10a, a non-fatal accident in which the crewed launch was aborted due to a fire, failing to reach space.
  3. ^ Following the Apollo program, the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz flights also used Apollo hardware.
  4. ^ includes two fatal missions, STS-51-L, and STS-107. The former did not reach space, while the latter did. Includes X-15 flights over 80 km (50 miles).
  5. ^ Includes VP-03 and VF-01
  6. ^ Soyuz missions include Soyuz MS-10.

External links

  • Spacefacts Compare with the present article. The Spacefacts list includes most flights listed here, but omits twelve: The three failed launches of STS-51-L, Soyuz T-10a and Soyuz MS-10, none of which achieved human spaceflight, the uncrewed launch of Soyuz 34 (which nevertheless returned a crew to Earth), and the eight sub-orbital human spaceflights: Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4, X-15 flights 90 and 91, SpaceShipOne flights 15P, 16P and 17P, and Soyuz 18a.
  • Astronautix Similarly, see the list for "Manned Spaceflight" given at Astronautix, which includes other related categories.

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

List_of_human_spaceflights
 



 



 
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