List of Political Parties in Germany
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List of Political Parties in Germany

This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Federal Republic of Germany has a plural multi-party system. The largest by members and parliament seats are the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

Germany also has a number of other parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and from 2013 to 2021, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.[1] Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislatures are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.[2][3]

Current parties

Parties represented in the Bundestag and/or the European Parliament

Name Abbr. Leader(s) Ideology MdBs MEPs Political position EP group
SPD logo.svg Social Democratic Party of Germany,
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Lars Klingbeil,
Saskia Esken
Social democracy[4]
Centre-left S&D
Logo of the CDU CSU.svg Christian Democratic Union of Germany,
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Friedrich Merz Christian democracy,[4]
Liberal conservatism[4]
Centre-right[5] EPP
Christian Social Union in Bavaria,
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Markus Söder Christian democracy,[4]
Conservatism[4]
EPP
Bündnis 90 - Die Grünen Logo (transparent).svg Alliance 90/The Greens,
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Ricarda Lang,
Omid Nouripour
Green politics[4]
Centre-left Greens/EFA
Logo der Freien Demokraten.svg Free Democratic Party,
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism,[4]
Classical liberalism[9][10]
Centre to centre-right RE
AfD-Logo-2017.svg Alternative for Germany,
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Tino Chrupalla,Alice Weidel German nationalism[11][12]
Right-wing populism[13]
Hard Euroscepticism[14]
Far-right ID
Die Linke logo.svg The Left,
Die Linke
LINKE Martin Schirdewan,Janine Wissler
Left-wing populism
Left-wing[15] GUE/NGL
FreieWählerBayernLogo2020.svg Free Voters,
Freie Wähler
FW Hubert Aiwanger Liberal conservatism,[16]
Regionalism
Centre-right RE
Zentrumspartei Logo.png German Centre-Party,
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
ZENTRUM Christian Otte Political Catholicism,
Christian democracy,
Social conservatism
Centre-right none
Ssw-logo.svg South Schleswig Voters' Association[B],
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Christian Dirschauer Regionalism,
Ethnic minority politics,
Social liberalism[17]
Centre Greens/EFA
Die PARTEI Logo.svg Die PARTEI,
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz,
Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Satire
Apolitical None
OEDP Logo CMYK.svg Ecological Democratic Party,
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Christian Rechholz Green conservatism[18]
Centre-right Greens/EFA
LKR Logo 2020.svg Liberal Conservative Reformers,
Liberal-konservative Reformer
LKR Jürgen Joost Liberal conservatism,
Economic liberalism,
Soft Euroscepticism
ECR
Logo Volt Europa.svg Volt Germany,
Volt Deutschland
Volt Connor GeigerRebekka Müller European federalism
Centre to centre-left Greens/EFA
Piratenpartei Deutschland Logo 01.svg Pirate Party Germany,
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Anne Herpertz Pirate politics,
Social liberalism[19]
Syncretic Greens/EFA
FamilienPartei Logo2007.svg Family Party of Germany,
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
Familie Helmut Geuking Social conservatism,
Christian democracy
ECR
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.
B Some parties such as the Greens have co-leaders with equal power (usually one male and one female).
C Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. As a party representing ethnic minorities, it is not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold.

Other parties represented in state parliaments

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in state (Seats) Position Notes
Bürger in Wut Logo.svg Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1) Right-wing
Logo-BVB-FREIE-WAEHLER.svg Brandenburg United Civic Movements/Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB / FW Péter Vida Regionalism Brandenburg (3)
Bürger für Thüringen Logo.png Citizens for Thuringia

Bürger für Thüringen

BfTh Ute Bergner Liberal conservatism Thuringia (4) Right-wing

Minor parties

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political position EP-group
Alliance C - Christians for Germany
Bündnis C - Christen für Deutschland
Bündnis C Karin Heepen & Ole Steffes Conservatism
Christian fundamentalism
Right-wing ECPM
Alliance for Innovation and Justice
Bündnis für Innovation und Gerechtigkeit
BIG Haluk Yildiz Political Islam
Alliance for Human Rights, Animal and Nature Protection
Allianz für Menschenrechte, Tier- und Naturschutz
Tierschutzallianz Josef Fassl Animal rights
Alliance of German Democrats
Allianz Deutscher Demokraten
AD-Demokraten Ramazan Akba? Conservatism
Political Islam
APPD-Logo.svg Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany
Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands
APPD Peter Vehreschild Satire Apoliticism none
Arminus - Association of the German People[20]
Arminus - Bund des deutschen Volkes
Arminus - Bund Johann Thießen Russlanddeutsche interests
German nationalism
Far-right[20]
BGE Logo neu.png Basic Income Alliance
Bündnis Grundeinkommen
BGE Martin Sonnabend Single-issue none
Bayernpartei Logo.svg Bavaria Party
Bayernpartei
BP Florian Weber Autonomism
Bavarian nationalism
Regionalism
Conservatism
Centre-right EFA
Cropped-logo-seite.png Bergpartei, die "ÜberPartei"
Bergpartei, die Überpartei
B* Rico Tscharntke Post-left anarchy
Dadaism
Far-left none
Civil Rights Movement Solidarity
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität
BüSo Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement
Conspiracism
Syncretic none
Logo Klimaliste square 2020.svg
Climate List Germany
Klimaliste Deutschland
KL Fabian Aisenbrey, Doris Vollmer Climate change mitigation none
Kpd-flagge-icon.png Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Torsten Schöwitz Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Stalinism
Anti-revisionism
Far-left none
DiB Logo.jpg Democracy in Motion
Demokratie in Bewegung
DiB Julia Beerhold, Alexander Plitsch Democratic socialism Left-wing none
Feministische Partei Die Frauen Logo.svg Feminist Party of Germany
Feministische Partei Die Frauen
DIE FRAUEN Renate Schmidtsdorff-Aicher Feminism none
Freiparlamentarische Allianz Schriftlogo.svg Free Parliamentary Alliance

Freiparlamentarische Allianz

FPA Luca Piwodda Participatory democracy none
From Now on... Democracy Through a Referendum
Ab jetzt ... Demokratie durch Volksabstimmung
Volksabstimmung Helmut Fleck Direct Democracy Right-wing none
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei Logo.svg German Communist Party
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei
DKP Patrik Köbele Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Far-left none
Logo Deutsche Soziale Union.png German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU Roberto Rink National conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
Logo of the Grassroots Democratic Party of Germany.svg Grassroots Democratic Party of Germany
Basisdemokratische Partei Deutschland
dieBasis Reiner Fuellmich, Viviane Fischer Grassroots democracy
Anti-lockdown
Anti-vaccination
Far-right[21] none
Logo Liberale Demokraten - Die Sozialliberalen.svg Liberal Democrats - The Social Liberals
Liberale Demokraten - Die Sozialliberalen
LD Bernd Grothkopp Social liberalism none
Logo Lausitzer Allianz.png Lusatian Alliance
Lausitzer Allianz / ?u?iska Alianca / ?u?yska Alianca
Hannes Wilhelm-Kell Regionalism
Progressivism
Ethnic minority interests
none
MLPD Logo 2011 (2).svg Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany
Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands
MLPD Gabi Fechtner Marxism-Leninism
Communism
Far-left none
Mindful Democrats
Achtsame Demokraten
Die Achtsamen
Mut Logo.png mut
mut
mut Claudia Stamm Social liberalism Centre-left none
NPD-Logo-2013.svg National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Frank Franz Neo-Nazism
Ultranationalism
Pan-Germanism
Anti-immigration
Revanchism
Far-right[18] APF
Partei für Franken Logo.svg Party for Franconia
Partei für Franken
DIE FRANKEN Robert Gattenlöhner Social democracy
Regionalism
none
Logo parteifuergesundheitsforschung.png Party for Health Research
Partei für Gesundheitsforschung
Gesundheitsforschung Felix Werth Single-issue politics none
PDH Logo Redesign.svg Party of Humanists
Partei der Humanisten
Die Humanisten Alexander Mucha Humanism
Secularism
Civil libertarianism
Social liberalism
none
Partei der Vernunft Logo.png Party of Reason
Partei der Vernunft
PDV Friedrich Dominicus Libertarianism EPIL
Tierschutzpartei-Logo.svg Human Environment Animal Protection
Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz
Tierschutzpartei Aida Spiegeler Castaneda
Marcel Krohn
Robert Gabel
Animal rights
Environmentalism
Centre-left APEU
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei Logo.png Socialist Equality Party
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei
SGP Ulrich Rippert Trotskyism Far-left none
TeamTodenhoefer Logo.png Team Todenhöfer - The Justice Party
Team Todenhöfer - Die Gerechtigkeitspartei
Team Todenhöfer Jürgen Todenhöfer Anti-militarism
Populism
none
LDF2010.png The Frisians
Die Friesen
FRIESEN Ralf Bieneck Ethnic minority interests EFA
An oak wreath on logo of the German party "The Third Path" - Parteilogo "Der III. Weg.jpg The III. Path
Der III. Weg
Klaus Armstroff Neo-Nazism
German nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Hard Euroscepticism
Far-right none
REP Logo Claim.svg The Republicans
Die Republikaner
REP Tilo Schöne German nationalism
National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
The Right
Die Rechte
Christian Worch Neo-Nazism
Ultranationalism
Pan-Germanism
Anti-immigration
Revisionism
Far-right none
Die Urbane Logo.png The Urbans. A HipHop Party
Die Urbane. Eine HipHop Partei
du Niki Drakos, Raphael Hillebrand Left-wing[] none
Die Violetten Logo 20190515.jpg The Violets
Die Violetten
Die Violetten Irene Garcia Garcia Social liberalism
Spiritualism
none
Schriftzug-v-partei.png V-Partei³ - Party for Change, Vegetarians and Vegans
V-Partei³ - Partei für Veränderung, Vegetarier und Veganer
Roland Wegner Animal rights
Environmentalism
none
WiR2020
WiR2020
W2020 Wolfgang Romberg, Sonja Früh Anti-vaccinationism
Anti-lockdown
none

Historical parties

Parties existing up to World War I

Parties in Weimar Republic

Parties in Saar Protectorate

Defunct parties in (former) West Germany

Parties banned by the Constitutional Court

Parties in (former) East Germany

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949-1989)

During transition (1989-90)

Parties founded from 1989

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-08. Retrieved .{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2009-08-18. Retrieved .
  3. ^ The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 2009-08-24, retrieved , This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Parties and Elections in Europe". www.parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Armin Laschet elected new leader of Germany's CDU party". Euronews. 16 January 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the center-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics - and the Center-Right - matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21.
  7. ^ Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.
  8. ^ Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
  9. ^ George C. Lodge; Ezra F. Vogel (1987). Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries. Harvard Business Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-87584-147-2.
  10. ^ Russell A. Berman (2010). Freedom Or Terror: Europe Faces Jihad. Hoover Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8179-1114-0.
  11. ^ "After migrants, German nationalist party takes aim at Islam". Yahoo News. 23 May 2016.
  12. ^ "Germany's Nationalist Party Set for Gains as Three States Vote". Voice of America. 11 March 2016.
  13. ^ Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher (ed.). The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34-39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.
  14. ^ "The growing strains between Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron". The Economist. 26 May 2018. Retrieved 2022.
  15. ^ Raphaël Fèvre, ed. (2021). A Political Economy of Power: Ordoliberalism in Context, 1932-1950. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780197607800. This reference to ordoliberalism has also resonated across the wide spectrum of German politics-- albeit in a spirit of opposition to the CDU-- from left- wing party leaders of Die Linke to the far- right of Alternative für Deutschland
  16. ^ Assessing the 2019 European Parliament Elections. Taylor & Francis. 2020. p. 263. ISBN 9781000057263. As in 2014, seven minor parties with vote shares below 5 per cent gained seats in the European Parliament, ranging from single-issue parties like the Animal Protection Party (one seat) or the Family Party (one seat) to the satirical 'Die Partei' (two seats) or the liberal-Conservative 'Free Voters'.
  17. ^ José Magone (2011). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 392.
  18. ^ a b William T Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2.
  19. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166-167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
  20. ^ a b Wagschal, Prof Dr Uwe. "Arminus - Bund des deutschen Volkes (Arminus - Bund) | bpb". bpb.de (in German). Retrieved .
  21. ^ Sternberg, Jan; Huesmann, Felix (19 March 2021). "Die neue Parteienliebe der Querdenker-Szene". RND. Retrieved 2021.

External links


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