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Louis Eugène Félix Néel (22 November 1904 - 17 November 2000) was a French physicist born in Lyon.
Néel studied at the
Lycée du Parc in Lyon and was accepted at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. He obtained the degree of Doctor of Science at the University of Strasbourg. He was corecipient (with the Swedish astrophysicist Hannes Alfvén) of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his pioneering studies of the magnetic properties of solids. His contributions to  solid state physics have found numerous useful applications, particularly in the development of improved computer memory units. About 1930 he suggested that a new form of magnetic behavior might exist; called antiferromagnetism, as opposed to ferromagnetism. Above a certain temperature (the Néel temperature) this behaviour stops. Néel pointed out (1948) that materials could also exist showing  ferrimagnetism. Néel has also given an explanation of the weak magnetism of certain rocks, making possible the study of the history of Earth's magnetic field.        
He is the instigator of the
Polygone Scientifique in Grenoble.
Louis Néel Medal, awarded annually by the European Geophysical Society, is named in Néel's honour.
Awards and honours
Néel received numerous awards and honours for his work including:
Owing to his involvement in national defense, particularly through research in the protection of warships by demagnetization against magnetic mines, he received numerous distinctions:
^ At the time, the ENS was part of the University of Paris according to the decree of 10 November 1903.
^ a b c
Friedel, J.; Averbuch, P. (1 December 2003). "Louis Eugène Félix Néel. 22 November 1904 - 17 November 2000". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 49: 367-384. doi: 10.1098/rsbm.2003.0021. S2CID 74311735.
"The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970". The Nobel Foundation . Retrieved 2012.
Néel, L. (3 December 1971). "Magnetism and Local Molecular Field". Science. 174 (4013): 985-992. Bibcode: 1971Sci...174..985N. doi: 10.1126/science.174.4013.985. PMID 17757022. S2CID 27784885.
Néel, Louis (1948). "Magnetic Properties of Ferrites: Ferrimagnetism and Antiferromagnetism". Ann. Phys. (Paris). 3: 137-198.
Néel, Louis (1 April 1955). "Some theoretical aspects of rock-magnetism" (PDF). Advances in Physics. 4 (14): 191-243. Bibcode: 1955AdPhy...4..191N. doi: 10.1080/00018735500101204.
Barbara, B.; Lacroix, Claudine (2000). "Retrospective in Science: Louis Neel (1904-2000)". Science. 291 (5506): 1000. doi: 10.1126/science.1059052. PMID 11232560. S2CID 161752562.
Coey, Michael (2001). "Obituary: Louis Néel (1904-2000)". Nature. 409 (6818): 302. Bibcode: 2001Natur.409..302C. doi: . 10.1038/35053274 S2CID 36961096.
Coey, J. M. D. (2003). "Louis Néel: Retrospective (invited)". Journal of Applied Physics. 93 (10): 8224-8229. Bibcode: 2003JAP....93.8224C. doi: 10.1063/1.1557815.
Dunlop, David J. (2003). "Partial thermoremanent magnetization: Louis Néel's legacy in rock magnetism (invited)". Journal of Applied Physics. 93 (10): 8236-8240. Bibcode: 2003JAP....93.8236D. doi: 10.1063/1.1558640.
"Louis Néel - Biography". Nobel Lectures, Physics 1963-1970. Elsevier Publishing Company.
Néel, Louis (1991). Un siècle de physique. Paris: Jacob. ISBN . 978-2-7381-0140-2
"Louis Néel, un siècle de science à Grenoble". 2004. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011 . Retrieved 2011.
Kurti, Nicholas, ed. (1988). Selected works of Louis Néel. New York: Gordon and Breach. ISBN . 978-2-88124-300-4
"Holweck medal recipients". Institute of Physics . Retrieved 2020.
"Louis Eugène Felix Néel (1904 - 2000)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 5 July 2020.
"About Us". World Cultural Council . Retrieved 2016.
Louis Néel on Nobelprize.org including the Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1970 Magnetism and the Local Molecular Field