Fidelitatem et Constantinam (in Latin)
Wierno?ci? i Sta?o?ci? (in Polish)
(Capital of Lublin County but not part of it)
|Established||before 12th century|
|o Mayor||Krzysztof ?uk|
|o City||147 km2 (57 sq mi)|
(31 December 2019)
|o City||339,784 (9th)|
|o Density||2,310/km2 (6,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
20-001 to 20-999
|Area code(s)||+48 81|
Lublin (, , Polish: ['lublin] ) is the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of historical Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship (Lublin Province) with a population of 339,784 (December 2019). Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is about 170 km (106 mi) to the southeast of Warsaw by road.
One of the events that greatly contributed to the city's development was the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385. Lublin thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków; the inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. A Calvinist congregation was founded and groups of radical Arians appeared in the city, making it an important global centre of Arianism.
Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century, Lublin was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles had the right to participate in the royal election. In 1578, Lublin was chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and for centuries, the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning.
The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment, and the analytical Financial Times Group has found Lublin to be one of the best cities for business in Poland. The Foreign Direct Investment ranking placed Lublin second among larger Polish cities in the cost-effectiveness category. Lublin is noted for its green spaces and a high standard of living; the city has been selected as the 2023 European Youth Capital. Its historical Old Town is one of Poland's national monuments (Pomnik historii) tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.
Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of Lublin and in its environs in the sixth to seventh centuries. Remains of settlements dating back to the sixth century were discovered in the centre of today's Lublin on Czwartek ("Thursday") Hill.
The period of the early Middle Ages was marked by an intensification of habitation, particularly in the areas along river valleys. The settlements were centred around the stronghold on Old Town Hill, which was likely one of the main centres of Lendians tribe. When the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the centre shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches are presumed to have existed in Lublin in the early medieval period. One of them was most probably erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule of Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century. The castle became the seat of a castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but was quite possibly present from the start of the 12th or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier.
The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century, Lublin was a target of attacks by Mongols, Ruthenians, and Lithuanians, which resulted in its destruction. It was also ruled by Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia between 1289 and 1302. Lublin was founded as a town by W?adys?aw I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and 1279 during the rule of the prince Boles?aw V the Chaste. Casimir III the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls. From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dating to 1335-1370 exists to this day.
In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from the king W?adys?aw II Jagieo. With the coming of peace between Poland and Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the countries. In 1474, the area around Lublin was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century, the noble parliaments (sejm) were held in Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Lublin was one of the most influential cities of the state enjoyed voting rights during the royal elections in Poland.
Some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578, the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland region, was established in Lublin.
Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was established in Lublin around this time. Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and education centre (kahal) and built the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish Gate) in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were relocated to the infamous Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.
The yeshiva became a centre of learning of Talmud and Kabbalah, leading the city to be called "the Jewish Oxford." In 1567, the rosh yeshiva (headmaster) received the title of rector from the king along with rights and privileges equal to those of the heads of Polish universities.
At the beginning of the 19th century, new squares, streets, and public buildings were built. In 1877, a railway connection to Warsaw and Kovel and Lublin Station were constructed, spurring industrial development. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897 (including 24,000 Jews).
Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland - the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the interwar years, the city continued to modernise and its population grew; important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i La?kiewicz works, later nationalised as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918.
In 1921, Roman Catholics constituted 58.9% of the city's population, Jews - 39.5%. In 1931, 63.7% of the inhabitants were Roman Catholic and 34.7% Jewish.
After the 1939 German and Soviet invasion of Poland, the city found itself in the General Government territory controlled by Nazi Germany. The population became a target of severe Nazi persecutions focusing on Polish Jews. An attempt to "Germanise" the city led to an influx of the ethnic Volksdeutsche, increasing the number of German minority from 10 to 15% in 1939 to 20-25%. Near Lublin, the so-called 'reservation' for the Jews was built based on the idea of racial segregation known as the "Nisko or Lublin Plan".
The Jewish population was forced into the newly established Lublin Ghetto near Podzamcze. The city served as headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate all Jews in occupied Poland. The majority of the ghetto inmates, about 26,000 people, were deported to the Beec extermination camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around the Majdanek concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Almost all of Lublin's Jews were murdered during the Holocaust in Poland.
After the war, some survivors emerged from hiding with the Christian rescuers or returned from the Soviet Union, and re-established a small Jewish community in the city, but their numbers were insignificant. Most left Poland for Israel and the West.
On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army and became the temporary headquarters of the Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established by Joseph Stalin, which was to serve as the basis for a puppet government. The capital of new Poland was moved to Warsaw in January 1945 after the Soviet westward offensive.
In the postwar years, Lublin continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding its area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. A large automotive factory, Fabryka Samochodów Ciarowych, was built in the city.
|Climate data for Lublin (1936-2011)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.0
|Average high °C (°F)||-0.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-3.1
|Average low °C (°F)||-5.9
|Record low °C (°F)||-32.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22.7
|Average precipitation days||23.3||19.5||18.4||13.1||13.0||11.8||12.3||9.3||11.2||13.3||18.1||20.8||184.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||88.7||85.9||79.8||68.9||71.9||73.7||75.1||74.4||79.8||84.0||89.4||90.2||80.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||53||73||115||174||226||237||238||248||165||124||48||37||1,738|
The diagram shows population growth over the past 400 years. In 1999, the population of Lublin was estimated to 359,154, the highest in the city's history.
The Lublin region is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than regions of Poland located closer to Western Europe. Despite the fact that Lublin is one of the closest neighbour cities for Warsaw, the investment inflow in services from the Polish capital has secured a steady growth due to relatively fast connection, while external investments are progressing, enabling nearby satellite municipality ?widnik for large-scale industrial investments, seamlessly testing the capacity of the agglomeration. The close cooperation with Warsaw is significant to the regional economy, bringing quality cultural events inshore, yet the proximity of Warsaw is an underestimated asset.
Lublin is a regional centre of IT companies. Asseco Business Solutions S.A., eLeader Sp z o.o., CompuGroup Medical Polska Sp. z o.o., Abak-Soft Sp. z o.o. and others have their headquarters here. Other companies (for example Comarch S.A., Britenet Sp. z o.o., Simple S.A., Asseco Poland S.A.) outsourced to Lublin, to take advantage of the educated specialists. There is a visible growth in professionals eager to work in Lublin, due to reasons, like quality of life, culture management, the environment, improving connection to Warsaw, levels of education, or financial, because of usually higher operating margins of global organisations present in the area.
The large car factory Fabryka Samochodów Ciarowych (FSC) seemed to have a brighter future when it was acquired by the South Korean Daewoo conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial troubles in 1998 related to the Asian financial crisis, the production at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy. Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company to keep its prime market. With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy has been reoriented toward service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University.
The price of land and investment costs are lower than in western Poland. However, the Lublin area has to be one of the main beneficiaries of the EU development funds. Jerzy Kwiecinski, the deputy secretary of state in the Ministry for Regional Development at the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (Poland in the European Union -- new possibilities for foreign investors) said:
In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be the largest beneficiaries of the EU -- every fifth Euro will be spent in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR, assigned exclusively for post-development activities. This sum will be an enormous boost for our country.
In September 2007, the prime minister signed a bill creating a special economic investment zone in Lublin that offers tax incentives. It is part of "Park Mielec" -- the European Economic Development area. At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest here, e.g., Carrefour, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol, Modern-Expo and Per?a Browary Lubelskie. At the same time, the energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which will build Poland's first nuclear power station, is to have its main offices in Lublin.
Modern shopping centers built in Lublin like Tarasy Zamkowe (Castle Terraces), Lublin Plaza, Galeria Olimp, Galeria Gala, the largest shopping mall in the city, covering 33,500 square meters of area. Similar investments are planned for the near future such as Park Felin (Felicity) and a new underground gallery ("Alchemy") between and beneath ?wi?toduska and Lubartowska Streets.
There is a public TV station in the city: TVP Lublin which owns a 104-meter-tall concrete television tower. The station put its first program on the air in 1985. In recent years it contributed programming to TVP3 channel and later TVP Info.
The radio stations airing from Lublin include 'Radio eR - 87.9 FM', Radio 'Eska Lublin' - 103.6 FM, Radio Lublin (regional station of the Polish Radio) - 102.2 FM, [ Radio Centrum (university radio station)] - 98.2 FM, Radio 'Free' (city station of the Polish Radio) - 89,9 FM, and Radio 'Z?ote Przeboje' (Golden Hits) Lublin - 95.6 FM.
Local newspapers include Kurier Lubelski daily, regional partner of the national newspaper Dziennik Wschodni daily, Gazeta Wyborcza [ Lublin Edition] daily (regional supplement to the national newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza), [ Metro] (daily, free) and Nasze Miasto Lublin weekly (free).
The Lublin Airport (Port Lotniczy Lublin) (IATA: LUZ) is located about 10 km (6.2 miles) SE of Lublin. With approximately 8 destinations and over 450 000 passengers served in 2018, it is the biggest airport in Eastern Poland. There is a direct train and bus link from the airport to downtown.
From Lublin G?ówny railway station, ten trains depart each day to Warsaw, and three to Kraków, as in other major cities in Poland. Lublin has also direct train connections with Rzeszów, Szczecin, Gdynia and other Polish cities and towns in the region as Naczów, Che?m or Zamo. The express train to Warsaw takes about two hours.
There are other smaller stations in Lublin for local trains:
Lublin is located at the intersection of expressways S12, S17 and S19. Expressway S17 between Lublin and Warsaw is currently finishing construction and should be ready by the second half of 2020. S19 between Lublin and Rzeszów is currently under construction and should be finished by 2023. The rest of the planned expressway network around the city that will be built in the coming years consists of S12 to the east in the direction Che?m, S19 north towards Bia?ystok and S17 southeast towards Zamo. The expressway bypass of Lublin allows transit traffic to avoid the city centre.
Long-distance buses depart from near the Castle in the Old Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network.
Lublin is one of only four towns in Poland to have trolleybuses (the others are Gdynia, Sopot and Tychy).
Lublin is the largest city in eastern Poland and serves as an important regional cultural capital. Since then, many important international events have taken place here, involving international artists, researchers and politicians. The frescos at the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin Castle are a mixture of Roman Catholic motifs with eastern Byzantine styles, reinforcing how the city connects the west with the east.
Lublin is a culturally-active city with a filmmaking past. Some of the most notable films shot in Lublin include Oscar-winning The Reader was partially filmed at the Nazi Majdanek concentration camp.
In 2008, Lublin collaborated with Ukrainian Lviv, to film and distribute promotional materials which painted both cities as attractive to the filmmaking industry. Films were handed out between filmmakers present at Cannes Festival. This was sponsored by the European Union. There are numerous movie theatres in Lublin including Cinema City (multiplex), Multikino, Cinema Bajka, Cinema Chatka ?aka, Cinema Perla, Cinema Grazyna and Cinema Medyk.
The Lublin Film Fund has been active since 2009, actively taking care of and cultivating cinematographic talent in Lublin and promoting the city by providing financial and organisational support. Numerous feature films have been partially financed by the fund, including Kamienie na Szaniec, Panie Dulskie and award-winning Carte Blanche.
There are many cultural organizations in Lublin, either municipal, governmental and/or non-governmental. Among the popular venues are municipal theatres and playhouses such as:
There are numerous art galleries in Lublin; some are run by private owners, and some are municipal, government, NGO, or associations' venues. The Labyrinth Gallery (formerly "BWA", is the Artistic Exhibitions Office - Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych).
Lublin's Old Town shares a number of Lesser Poland traditions, historic architecture and a unique ambience with Kraków. It is, however, a distinct experience in itself, benefitting from artistic renovation and less commercialization. Historic buildings, including ruined townhouses, create a unique atmosphere of the renaissance city. Lublin's Old Town has cobbled, narrow streets and traditional, unspoilt design. Many venues around Old Town enjoy an architecture applicable for restaurants, art galleries, and clubs. Apart from entertainment, the area houses small businesses and prestigious offices. Old Town's Church of St. Josaphat was built in 1786.
Catering to students, who account for 35% of the population, the city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene Lublin has many theatres and museums and a professional orchestra, the Lublin Philharmonic.
Lublin boasts a rich culinary scene. Just in the Old Town and the immediate environs, over 100 restaurants, cafes, pubs, clubs and other catering outlets are located. In the latter half of the 2010s, the international community surrounding Lublin's medical university impacted the growth of restaurants offering various cuisines.
Lublin aims to be known as the Polish Capital of Festivals. Most years, Lublin increases the number of festivals held in the city. The most significant of them include:
In 2007, Lublin joined the group of Polish cities as candidates for the title of European Capital of Culture. Lublin was shortlisted, but ultimately Wroc?aw was chosen. Lublin is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
There are five public schools of higher education:
Lublin is home to private higher education establishments.
It is home to one of the oldest still-functioning schools in Poland, The Staszic School, which was established in 1586. The school has many notable alumni, such as Boles?aw Prus, one of the most influential Polish writers and novelists, and Les?aw Paga, the co-founder of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
Lublin is governed by the municipal legislature known as the city council (Rada Miasta) and the city's mayor (Prezydent Miasta). The city council is made up of 31 councillors directly elected by the city's inhabitants. The remit of the council and president extends to all areas of municipal policy and development planning, up to and including the development of local infrastructure, transport, and planning permission. The city's current mayor is Krzysztof ?uk, who has served in this position since 2010.
Lublin has an official flag, a 5:8 rectangle divided into three horizontal stripes: white (top), green (narrow, middle), and red (bottom). In the central part, there is the coat of arms of Lublin. It is also allowed to hang the flag in the form of a vertical ribbon: then white should be on the left side or near the spar.
Lublin is divided into 27 administrative divisions (dzielnica): Abramowice, Bronowice, Czechów Po?udniowy, Czechów Pó?nocny, Czuby Po?udniowe, Czuby Pó?nocne, Dziesi?ta, Felin, G?usk, Hajdów-Zad?bie, Kalinowszczyzna, Konstantynów, Ko?minek, Ponikwoda, Rury, S?awin, S?awinek, Stare Miasto, Szerokie, ?ródmie?cie, Tatary, W?glin Po?udniowy, W?glin Pó?nocny, Wieniawa, Wrotków, Za Cukrowni?, Zemborzyce.
Lublin is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the EU Intercultural cities programme. In 2017, Lublin was awarded the Europe Prize by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. In 2023, Lublin was selected as the European Youth Capital by international jury of the European Youth Forum.