|68th Prime Minister of Romania|
4 November 2019 - 7 December 2020
|Nicolae Ciuc? (acting)|
|President of the Chamber of Deputies|
22 December 2020
|President of the National Liberal Party|
17 June 2017
|Raluca Turcan (acting)|
|Minister of Transport|
5 April 2007 - 22 December 2008
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
20 December 2020
15 December 2008 - 19 December 2016
|Deputy Mayor of Bucharest|
July 2004 - 5 April 2007
|Traian B?sescu |
|Member of the Local Council of Sector 3|
23 February 1992 - 16 June 1996
|Born||May 25, 1963|
|Political party||National Liberal Party (PNL)|
|Education||Transilvania University of Bra?ov (UNITBV)|
National University of Political Studies and Public Administration (SNSPA)
Ludovic Orban (Romanian pronunciation: ['ludovik 'orban]; born 25 May 1963) is a Romanian engineer and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Romania from November 2019 to December 2020. The current leader of the National Liberal Party (PNL), he was previously Minister of Transport from April 2007 to December 2008 in the second C?lin Popescu-T?riceanu cabinet. In addition, he was a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies for Bucharest from 2008 to 2016. He resumed his parliamentary seat within the Chamber of Deputies after the 2020 legislative elections, being shortly thereafter also elected its president.
Born in the Transylvanian city of Bra?ov to an ethnic Hungarian father and an ethnic Romanian mother, Orban completed secondary studies at the city's Andrei ?aguna High School in 1982. He then studied industrial machinery design technology at the University of Bra?ov, graduating in 1988. In 1993, he completed post-graduate studies in Political Science at the National School of Administration and Political Science of Bucharest. From 1988 to 1990 he trained as an engineer at a factory in Târgu Secuiesc, and worked as one at a Bra?ov factory from 1990 to 1991. From 1991 to 1992, he wrote for the daily Viitorul Românesc, and from 1992 to 1997 he was an advisor for the Liberal Party 1993 (PL '93) and its predecessor PNL-AT, two splinter groups of the main National Liberal Party (PNL) which sided with the Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR) during the 1990s. Between 1997 and 2001, he held a series of government and agency positions as follows: at the Energy Policy Agency, the Disabled Persons Directorate, the Public Information Department, the National Public Employee Agency and the National Centre for Communications and Public Relations Specialisation. He has also been active in a foundation called Children, the light of the world and done consulting work.
Orban served as a Sector 3 local councillor from 1992 to 1996. He was elected a Sector 1 local councillor that year, but resigned. From 1993 to 1997, he belonged to the executive committee of the Liberal Party 1993 (PL '93), and in 1998 joined the PNL's national council, after the former party merged into it. From 2001 to 2002 he sat on the PNL's permanent central bureau, and in 2002 joined the party's public administration committee. He has headed the Bucharest chapter of the PNL since November 2002, and from July 2004 to April 2007 was Deputy Mayor of Bucharest. He left this office following a cabinet reshuffle, becoming Transport Minister and serving until his party's loss at the 2008 election, where he himself won a seat in a Bucharest constituency. While minister, he also ran for Mayor of Bucharest as part of the 2008 local elections, losing in the first round by finishing in fourth place with 11.4% of the vote. In March 2009, concurrent with his ally Crin Antonescu's ascent to the PNL presidency and the sidelining of the T?riceanu faction, Orban became the party's vice president. He ran for the party presidency in December 2014, and was defeated by Alina Gorghiu on a 47-28 vote. Orban was a candidate in the June 2016 race for mayor of Bucharest, but two months before the election, withdrew from the race as well as from his PNL and Chamber posts after being placed under investigation by the National Anticorruption Directorate. He was not a candidate in the 2016 election. In January 2017, the High Court of Cassation and Justice acquitted Orban on a charge of influence peddling. The following month, he announced his candidacy for the PNL leadership; he went on to defeat Cristian Bu?oi by a 78-21 margin.
In October 2019, after the fall of Viorica D?ncil?'s government, President Klaus Iohannis designated Orban as Prime Minister. His cabinet received parliamentary approval the following month, with 240 lawmakers voting in favor, seven more than required. His government was ousted via a no-confidence motion in February 2020, with 261 lawmakers voting in favor. The following month, a new Orban-led cabinet received parliamentary approval on a 286-23 vote. Most PNL representatives, including Orban himself, were absent due to suspected exposure to the coronavirus pandemic. The Social Democrats (PSD) voted in favor of the cabinet, given the emergency circumstances, while pledging concerted opposition. PRO Romania (PRO) voted against. Orban resigned in December, following the PNL's poor performance at the parliamentary election. At the same time, Orban himself won a new term in the Chamber. Once the new parliament convened, he was elected its president, defeating his PSD rival, 179-110.
Orban is a somewhat controversial figure, known for his provocative declarations. A fierce critic of former President Traian B?sescu, he called him an "imbecile" for referring to the "imbecile" attitude of a minister during summer 2008 floods, and once shouted, "The President is the last Sauron to rule in this realm of darkness!", in a clear reference to The Lord of the Rings of J.R.R. Tolkien.
He also criticised the Emil Boc government, which during 2009 was composed of the B?sescu-associated PDL and the Social Democrats (PSD), referring to the latter party's then-leader Mircea Geoan? as B?sescu's "steward"; and attacking cabinet policies on education, tourism promotion (which he sees as an unnecessary luxury), and the financial crisis (where he foresaw the government being unable to pay pensions and salaries). Speaking to a group of female PNL members in Alba County in March 2006, he drew accusations of sexism for stating, "You need not go through any boss's bed to reach important public positions", declaring that Mioara Mantale, Elena Udrea and party colleague Raluca Turcan had done so, but not Mona Musc? or Norica Nicolai. Driving in Cotroceni in December 2007, his car hit a 16-year-old girl, forcing her hospitalisation; despite a call by prime minister C?lin Popescu-T?riceanu for his resignation, Orban refused to do so and prosecutors ultimately decided not to pursue criminal charges, although his license was suspended and he was fined.
|Election||Affiliation||First round||Second round|