Macedonian Phonology
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Macedonian Phonology

This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect. For discussion of other dialects, see Macedonian dialects. Macedonian possesses five vowels, one semivowel, three liquid consonants, three nasal stops, three pairs of fricatives, two pairs of affricates, a non-paired voiceless fricative, nine pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants and four pairs of stops.



The schwa is phonemic in many dialects (varying in closeness to or ) but its use in the standard language is marginal.[3] When writing a dialectal word and keeping the schwa for aesthetic effect, an apostrophe is used; for example, ⟨?'?⟩, ⟨?'⟩, etc. When spelling aloud, each consonant is followed by the schwa. The individual letters of acronyms are pronounced with the schwa in the same way: ⟨⟩ ([m?.p?.t?s?]). The lexicalized acronyms ⟨?⟩ ([?s.?s.?s.?r]) and ⟨⟩ ([?m.t?]) (a brand of cigarettes), are among the few exceptions.

Vowel length

Vowel length is not phonemic. Vowels in stressed open syllables in disyllabic words with stress on the penult can be realized as long, e.g. ⟨⟩ ['v?:l?s] 'Veles'. The sequence /aa/ is often realized phonetically as [a:]; e.g. ⟨?⟩ /saat/ [sa:t] 'colloq. hour'.


Map of the use of the intervocalic phoneme kj in the Macedonian language (1962)
Map of the use of the intervocalic phoneme gj in the Macedonian language (1962)

^1 The alveolar trill (/r/) is syllabic between two consonants; for example, ⟨?⟩ ['pr?st] 'finger'. The dental nasal (/n/) and dental lateral (/?/) are also syllabic in certain foreign words; e.g. ⟨?⟩ ['?utn?] 'newton', ⟨⟩ [p?p?ka't?p?t] 'Popocatépetl', etc.

The labiodental nasal [?] occurs as an allophone of /m/ before /f/ and /v/ (e.g. ⟨?⟩ ['tra?vaj] 'tram').[] The velar nasal [?] similarly occur as an allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /?/ (e.g. ⟨⟩ ['aliski] 'English'). The latter realization is avoided by some speakers who strive for a clear, formal pronunciation.

Phonological processes

At morpheme boundaries (represented in spelling) and at the end of a word (not represented in spelling), voicing opposition is neutralized.


The word stress in Macedonian is antepenultimate, meaning it falls on the third from last syllable in words with three or more syllables, and on the first or only syllable in other words. This is sometimes disregarded when the word has entered the language more recently or from a foreign source. The following rules apply:

  • Disyllabic words are stressed on the second-to-last syllable.

For example, ⟨?⟩ ['d?t?] 'child', ⟨⟩ ['majka] 'mother' and ⟨⟩ ['tatk?] 'father'.

For example, ⟨?⟩ ['p?anina] 'mountain', ⟨⟩ [p?a'ninata] 'the mountain' and ⟨⟩ [p?ani'narit?] 'the mountaineers'.

Exceptions include:

  • Verbal adverbs (i.e. words suffixed with ⟨-⟩): e.g. ⟨?⟩ [vi'kajci] 'shouting', ⟨⟩ [?'d?jci] 'walking'.
  • Foreign loanwords: e.g. ⟨⟩ [kli'] 'cliché', ⟨⟩ ['n?za] 'genesis', ⟨?⟩ [lit?ra'tura] 'literature', ⟨?⟩ [al?k'sandar], 'Alexander', etc.


  1. ^ Friedman (2001:10) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFriedman2001 (help)
  2. ^ Lunt (1952:10-11)
  3. ^ Friedman (2001:10) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFriedman2001 (help)
  4. ^ Friedman (2001:11) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFriedman2001 (help)
  5. ^ Lunt (1952:11-12)


  • Bojkovska, Stojka (2008), Grammar of the Macedonian language, Skopje: Prosvetno Delo
  • Friedman, Victor (2001), "Macedonian", in Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl (eds.), Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the Worlds Major Languages, Past and Present, New York: Holt, pp. 435-439
  • Friedman, Victor (2001), Macedonian, SEELRC
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje

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