Margrave of Tuscany
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Margrave of Tuscany
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Coat of Arms of the Grand duchy of Tuscany.svg
Naldini, Giovanni Battista - Official portrait of Cosimo I de' Medici as Grand Duke of Tuscany.jpg
StyleHis/her Imperial and Royal Highness
First monarchCosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Last monarchLeopold II (de jure)
Ferdinand IV (de facto/titular)
Formation27 August 1569
Abolition16 August 1859
Pretender(s)Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany

The rulers of Tuscany varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Margraves of Tuscany, 812-1197

House of Boniface

These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.

House of Boso

These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the dynasty of Boniface

House of Hucpold


House of Canossa

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.


In 1197 Philip was elected King of Germany and the majority of the Tuscan nobility, cities and bishops formed the Tuscan League with Papal backing.

After this, Tuscany was splintered between the competing republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca. Since the 14th century, Florence gained dominance over Pistoia (1306, officially annexed 1530), Arezzo (1384), Pisa (1406), and Siena (1559). Lucca was an independent republic until the Napoleonic period in the 19th century.

Rulers of Florence, 1434-1569

De facto rulers of the House of Medici, 1434-1494

Portrait Name From To Note
Cosimo de medici.png Cosimo de' Medici 1434 1464 First de facto Lord of Florence
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici.jpg Piero I the Gouty 1464 1469 Son of Cosimo
Lorenzo de Medici.jpg Lorenzo I the Magnificent 1469 1492 Son of Piero
Giuliano de' Medici by Sandro Botticelli.jpeg Giuliano I de' Medici 1469 1478 Brother of Lorenzo and also Co-Ruler, was assassinated.
501 Piero de Medici 02.JPG Piero II the Unfortunate 1492 1494 Son of Lorenzo, was deposed and exiled

Republic of Florence (1494-1512)

Portrait Name From To Note
Girolamo Savonarola.jpg Girolamo Savonarola 1494 1498 Inspired reform around Florence, was condemned a heretic and hanged and simultaneously burned at the stake in the middle of the piazza.
Piero Soderini (1450-1522), by Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio.jpg Piero Soderini 1502 1512 was declared Standard Bearer for life, fled Florence after the Medici conquest.

Rulers of the House of Medici (1512-1532)

Portrait Name From To Note
Raffael 040 (crop).jpg Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici 1512 1513 Son of Lorenzo, later became Pope Leo X
Raffaello, giuliano de' medici.jpg Giuliano II, Duke of Nemours 1513 1516 Son of Lorenzo
Portrait of Lorenzo di Medici.jpg Lorenzo II de Medici 1516 1519 Son of Piero the Unfortunate. Duke of Urbino during the same period.
Sebastiano del Piombo (Italian) - Pope Clement VII - Google Art Project.jpg Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 1519 1523 son of Giuliano de Medici, later became Pope Clement VII
Ippolito de' Medici.jpg Ippolito de' Medici 1523 1527 Son of Giuliano de Medici
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 1527 1530 son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, where he was assassinated.

After the Sack of Rome, Florence overthrew the Medicis once more and became a republic until Pope Clement VII signed a peace treaty with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who then invaded Florence and restored the Medicis.

Portrait Name From To Note
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 1531 1532 son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, where he was assassinated.

Medici dukes of Florence, 1532-1569

Portrait Name From To Note
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 1532 1537 son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, where he was assassinated.
Agnolo Bronzino - Cosimo I de' Medici in armour - Google Art Project.jpg Cosimo I de' Medici 1537 1569 son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, later became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Medici grand dukes of Tuscany, 1569-1737

Portrait Name From To Note
Cosimo-GDuke-BR.jpg Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1569 1574 son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, maternal great-grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
Anastagio fontebuoni, ritratto di francesco I de' medici, da s.m. nuova.JPG Francesco I de' Medici 1574 1587 son of Cosimo I
Ambito fiorentino, ritratto di ferdinando I de' Medici, da s.m. nuova.JPG Ferdinando I de' Medici 1587 1609 son of Cosimo I
Ritratto di Cosimo II de' Medici.png Cosimo II de' Medici 1609 1621 son of Ferdinando I
Portrait of the Grand Duke Ferdinand II.jpg Ferdinando II de' Medici 1621 1670 son of Cosimo II
Volterrano, Cosimo III de' Medici in grand ducal robes (Warsaw Royal Castle).jpg Cosimo III de' Medici 1670 1723 son of Ferdinando II
Gabbiani, Giovanni Gaetano (attr.) - Ritratto di Gian Gastone de' Medici in abiti granducali.jpg Gian Gastone de' Medici 1723 1737 son of Cosimo III, was the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1737-1801

Portrait Name From To Note
Workshop of Martin van Meytens Kaiser Franz Stephan 02.jpg Francesco II Stefano 1737 1765 a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I, later became Holy Roman Emperor.
Mengs, Anton Raphael - Pietro Leopoldo d'Asburgo Lorena, granduca di Toscana - 1770 - Prado.jpg Pietro Leopoldo I 1765 1790 second son of Francesco II Stefano, also became Holy Roman Emperor.
Joseph Dorffmeister 002.jpg Ferdinando III 1790 1801 second son of Pietro Leopoldo I

Bourbon-Parma kings of Etruria, 1801-1807

Portrait Name From To Note
Luis de Etruria.jpg
Ludovico I 1801 1803 Grandson of Francesco II Stefano
Carlo II di Parma.jpg
Ludovico II 1803 1807 son of Lodovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807-1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1814-1860

Portrait Name From To Note
Joseph Dorffmeister 002.jpg Ferdinando III 1814 1824 Restored
Leopold II of Tuscany.jpg Leopoldo II 1824 1859 son of Ferdinando III
FerdinandTuscany.jpg Ferdinando IV 1859 1860 son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860-present

See also

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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