Margraviate of Moravia
The Margraviate in 1893
|Status||Crown land of the Bohemian Crown|
Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire (1198-1806)
Crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy (1526-1804), of the Austrian Empire (1804-67), and of the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918)
|Common languages||Moravian dialects of Czech, Polish and German|
|Religion||Roman Catholic (official)|
Hussite, later evolved into Bohemian Reformed (Utraquist, Brethren)
o 1182-1191 (first)
|Conrad II of Bohemia|
o 1916-1918 (last)
|Charles I of Austria|
|1918||22,222 km2 (8,580 sq mi)|
|Today part of|
The Margraviate of Moravia (Czech: Markrabství moravské; German: Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown within the Holy Roman Empire existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. It was variously a de facto independent state, and also subject to the Duchy, later the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic.
The Margraviate lay east of Bohemia proper, with an area about half that region's size. In the north, the Sudeten Mountains, which extend to the Moravian Gate, formed the border with the Polish Duchy of Silesia, incorporated as a Bohemian crown land upon the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin. In the east and southeast, the western Carpathian Mountains separated it from present-day Slovakia. In the south, the winding Thaya River marked the border with the Duchy of Austria.
Moravians, usually considered a Czech people that speak Moravian dialects, made up the main part of the population. According to a 1910 Cisleithanian census, 27.6% identified themselves as German Moravians. These ethnic Germans would later be expelled after the Second World War. Other ethnic minority groups included Poles, Roma and Slovaks.
After the early medieval Great Moravian realm had been finally defeated by the Árpád princes of Hungary in 907, what is now Slovakia was incorporated as "Upper Hungary" (Fels?-Magyarország), while adjacent Moravia passed under the authority of the Duchy of Bohemia. King Otto I of Germany officially granted it to Duke Boleslaus I in turn for his support against the Hungarian forces in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. Temporarily ruled by King Boles?aw I Chrobry of Poland from 999 until 1019, Moravia was re-conquered by Duke Old?ich of Bohemia and ultimately became a land of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas held by the P?emyslid dynasty.
In 1182, the Margraviate was created at the behest of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa by merger of the three P?emyslid appanage principalities of Brno, Olomouc and Znojmo, and given to Conrad II, the son of Prince Conrad of Znojmo. As heir apparent, the future King Ottokar II of Bohemia was appointed Moravian margave by his father Wenceslaus I in 1247. Along with Bohemia, Moravia was ruled by the House of Luxembourg from the extinction of the P?emyslid dynasty until 1437. Jobst, nephew of Emperor Charles IV inherited the Margraviate in 1375, ruled autonomously and was even elected King of the Romans in 1410. Shaken by the Hussite Wars, the Moravian nobles remained loyal supporters of the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund.
In 1469, Moravia was occupied by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, who had allied with the Catholic nobility against the rule of George of Pod?brady and had himself elected rival king of Bohemia at Olomouc. The rivalry with King Vladislaus II was settled in the 1479 Peace of Olomouc, whereby Matthias renounced the royal title but retained the rule over the Moravian lands.
With the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, the Margraviate was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy upon the death of King Louis II in the 1526 Battle of Mohács. Moravia was ruled as a crown land within the Austrian Empire from 1804 and within Cisleithanian Austria from 1867.
During the foundation of Czechoslovakia after World War I, the Margraviate was transformed into "Moravia Land", later "Moravia-Silesia Land" in 1918. This autonomy was eliminated in 1949 by the communist government and has not been re-established since.
The margrave held ultimate authority in Moravia, throughout the history of the margraviate. This meant that as its margraves became more foreign, so too did governance of the margraviate.
Moravia possessed a legislature, known as the Moravian Diet. The assembly has its origins in 1288, with the Colloquium generale, or curia generalis. This was a meeting of the upper nobility, knights, the Bishop of Olomouc, abbots and ambassadors from royal cities. These meetings gradually evolved into the diet.
The power of this diet waxed and waned throughout history. By the end of the margraviate, the diet was almost powerless. The diet consisted of three estates of the realm: the estate of upper nobility, the estate of the lower nobility, and the estate of prelates and burghers. With the February Patent of 1861, the diet was reformed into a more egalitarian body. It still retained the same structure, but the members changed. It consisted of assembly seats for landowners, city-dwellers, and rural farmers. This was retained until the diet was abolished after the fall of the Dual Monarchy.
The coat of arms of Moravia is charged with a crowned silver-red chequered eagle with golden claws and tongue. It first appeared in the seal of Margrave P?emysl (1209-1239), a younger son of King Ottokar I of Bohemia. After 1462, the Moravian eagle was gold-red chequered, but was never accepted by the Moravian assembly.
In the mid 14th century Emperor Charles IV, also King of Bohemia and Margrave of Moravia, established administrative divisions called kraje. These subdivisions were named for their capitals, some of which were:
The region experienced rapid population growth when it was part of Austria-Hungary. From 1890 to 1900 alone there was an increase of 7.1%. The population development from 1851 to 1900 was as follows:
In terms of ethnicity, the population was predominantly divided between Czechs and Germans. The German minority mostly lived on the borders with Lower Austria and Silesia, and in various language islands (around Brünn, Olmütz, Iglau and Zwittau), as well as in some larger cities. The ethnic distribution according to the census was as follows:
|Judicial district||Czech name||Political district (Politischer Bezirk)||Population||Germans||%||Czechs||%||Others||%||Foreigners||%|
|Brünn Umgebung||Brno okolí||Brünn (Landbezirk)||125828||14,702||11.7%||110,457||87.8%||80||0.1%||589||0.5%|
|Byst?itz||Byst?ice||Neustadtl in Mähren||21,762||39||0.2%||21,700||99.7%||0||0.0%||23||0.1%|
|Byst?itz am Hostein||Byst?ice pod Hostýnem||Holleschau||21,944||144||0.7%||21,687||98.8%||8||0.0%||105||0.5%|
|Iglau||Jihlava||Iglau (Landbezirk), Iglau (Stadt)||53,513||27,886||52.1%||25,380||47.4%||14||0.0%||233||0.4%|
|Kremsier||Kromí?||Kremsier (Land), Kremsier (Stadt)||42,496||893||2.1%||41,388||97.4%||49||0.1%||166||0.4%|
|Mährisch Altstadt||Staré M?sto||Mährisch Schönberg||15,511||15,429||99.5%||38||0.2%||0||0.0%||44||0.3%|
|Mährisch Budwitz||Moravské Bud?jovice||Mährisch Budwitz||25,839||169||0.7%||25,639||99.2%||0||0.0%||31||0.1%|
|Mährisch Kromau||Moravský Krumlov||Mährisch Kromau||26,911||11,595||43.1%||15,259||56.7%||1||0.0%||56||0.2%|
|Mährisch Ostrau||Moravská Ostrava||Mährisch Ostrau||111,186||43,246||38.9%||52,254||47.0%||12,906||11.6%||2,780||2.5%|
|Mährisch Schönberg||?umperk||Mährisch Schönberg||50,348||38,179||75.8%||11,814||23.5%||59||0.1%||296||0.6%|
|Mährisch Trübau||Moravská T?ebová||Mährisch Trübau||29,996||27,926||93.1%||1,943||6.5%||7||0.0%||120||0.4%|
|Mährisch Weißkirchen||Hranice||Mährisch Weißkirchen||35,465||8,701||24.5%||26,345||74.3%||141||0.4%||278||0.8%|
|Namiest an der Oslawa||Nám nad Oslavou||Trebitsch||15,711||67||0.4%||15,636||99.5%||0||0.0%||8||0.1%|
|Neustadtl in Mähren||Nové M?sto na Morav?||Neustadtl in Mähren||22,297||31||0.1%||22,246||99.8%||1||0.0%||19||0.1%|
|Olmütz||Olomouc||Olmütz (Land), Olmütz (Stadt)||103,280||30,987||30.0%||70,645||68.4%||934||0.9%||714||0.7%|
|Ro?nau am Radhorst||Ro?nov pod Radho?t?m||Wallachisch Meseritsch||20,178||29||0.1%||20,118||99.7%||0||0.0%||31||0.2%|
|Saar||ár||Neustadtl in Mähren||14,383||30||0.2%||14,330||99.6%||1||0.0%||22||0.2%|
|Stadt Liebau||M?sto Libavá||Bärn||17,347||17,285||99.6%||28||0.2%||0||0.0%||34||0.2%|
|Ungarisch Brod||Uherský Brod||Ungarisch Brod||36,954||706||1.9%||35,929||97.2%||11||0.0%||308||0.8%|
|Ungarisch Hradisch||Uherské Hradi?t?||Ungarisch Hradisch (Land), Ungarisch Hradisch (Stadt)||41,354||100||0.2%||41,129||99.5%||1||0.0%||124||0.3%|
|Ungarisch Ostra||Uherský Ostroh||Ungarisch Hradisch||46,528||469||1.0%||45,846||98.5%||7||0.0%||206||0.4%|
|Wallachisch Klobouk||Vala?ské Klobouky||Ungarisch Brod||26,419||101||0.4%||25,784||97.6%||41||0.2%||493||1.9%|
|Wallachisch Meseritsch||Vala?ské Mezi?í?í||Wallachisch Meseritsch||24,657||319||1.3%||24,224||98.2%||15||0.1%||99||0.4%|
|Znaim||Znojmo||Znaim (Land), Znaim||61,866||42,253||68.3%||18,339||29.6%||52||0.1%||1,222||2.0%|
|Bretislaus I||1002/5||1019/29-1033||10 January 1055||Moravia||Judith of Schweinfurt
|Son of Ulrich of Bohemia. First separation of Moravia from Bohemia. His father usurped his place for a year.|
|Ulrich I||975||1033-1034||9 November 1034||Moravia||Unknown
|After his death, his son was replaced in Moravia.|
|Bretislaus I||1002/5||1034-1055||10 January 1055||Moravia||Judith of Schweinfurt
|Recovered his throne. After his death his sons shared the inheritance.|
|Conrad I||c.1035||1055-1056||6 September 1092||Brno||Wirpirk of Tengling
|Received Brno after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihn?v ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.|
|Vratislaus I||c.1035||1055-1056||14 January 1092||Olomouc||Maria
Adelaide of Hungary I
?wi?tos?awa of Poland
|Received Olomouc after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihn?v ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.|
|Otto I the Fair||1045||1055-1056||9 June 1087||Znojmo||Euphemia of Hungary
|Received Znojmo after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihn?v ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.|
|Spytihn?v I||1031||1056-1061||28 January 1061||Moravia||Ida of Wettin
|United Bohemian and Moravian lands.|
|Conrad I||c.1035||1061-1092||6 September 1092||Brno and Znojmo||Wirpirk of Tengling
|Received Brno and Znojmo. In 1092 divided the land between his two sons.|
|Otto I the Fair||1045||1061-1087||9 June 1087||Olomouc||Euphemia of Hungary
|Received Olomouc after the partition of 1061.|
|Boleslaus||1062||1087-1091||11 August 1091||Olomouc||Unmarried||Received Olomouc after the partition of 1061.|
|Svatopluk I the Lion||1075||1091-1109||21 September 1109||Olomouc||Unknown
|Leopold I||?||1092-1112||15 March 1112||Znojmo||Ida of Austria
|Son of Conrad I. Received Znojmo after the partition of 1092. Left no descendants, and his lands was reunited with Brno|
|Ulrich II||c.1035||1092-1112||5 January 1113||Brno||Adelaide
|Son of Conrad I. Received Brno after the partition of 1092. In 1112 reunited Brno and Znojmo.|
|1112-1113||Brno and Znojmo||Sophia of Berg|
|Sobeslaus I||c.1075||1113-1123||14 February 1140||Brno and Znojmo||Adelaide of Hungary II
|Son of Vratislaus I.|
|Conrad II||c.1075||1123-1161||14 February 1140||Znojmo||Maria of Serbia
|Son of Vratislaus I.|
|Otto II the Black||1085||1109-1123||18 February 1126||Olomouc||Unknown
|Ruled in Olomouc, since 1091 with his brother Svatopluk. Acquired Brno in 1123.|
|1123-1126||Olomouc and Brno|
|Wenceslaus Henry||1107||1126-1130||1 March 1130||Olomouc||Unmarried|
|Vratislaus II||c.1111||1126-1146||1146||Brno||A Russian princess
|Leopold II||1102||1130-1137||1143||Olomouc||Unmarried||Son of Bo?ivoj II, Duke of Bohemia.|
|Vladislaus||?||1137-1140||1165||Olomouc||Unmarried||Son of Sobeslaus I.|
|Otto III||1122||1140-1160||12 May 1160||Olomouc||Durancia
|Son of Otto II.|
|Spytihn?v II||?||1146?-1182||1199||Brno||Umarried||In 1182 abdicated for Conrad III.|
|Frederick I||1142||1160-1173||25 March 1189||Olomouc||Elizabeth of Hungary
|Son of Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia.|
|Ulrich III||1134||1173-1177||18 October 1177||Olomouc||Cecilia of Thuringia
Sophia of Meissen
|Son of Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia.|
|Wenceslaus||1137||1177-1178||after 1192||Olomouc||Unmarried||Son of Sobeslaus I. Abdicated for Conrad III.|
|Conrad III Otto||c.1136||1161-1178||9 September 1191||Znojmo||Hellicha of Wittelsbach
|Son of Conrad II. United Znojmo and Olomouc. Brno joined in 1182, when he also became the first Margrave of Moravia.|
|1178-1182||Znojmo and Olomouc|
united with Bohemia 1189-1197
directly held by King Rudolph I of Germany 1278-1283
Under the united rule of the Bohemian kings from 1611 (see List of rulers of Bohemia).