Metropolitan City of Bologna
|o Metropolitan Mayor||Virginio Merola|
|o Total||3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi)|
(30 June 2017)
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
40121/40141 (Bologna), 40010-40069 (other comuni)
|Telephone prefix||051, 0534, 0542|
The Metropolitan City of Bologna (Italian: Città Metropolitana di Bologna) is a metropolitan city in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. Its capital is the city of Bologna. It was created by the reform of local authorities (Law 142/1990) and established by the Law 56/2014, replacing the Province of Bologna. It has been operative since January 1, 2015.
The Metropolitan City is headed by the Metropolitan Mayor (Sindaco metropolitano) and by the Metropolitan Council (Consiglio metropolitano).
Remains of the Iron Age Villanovan culture were discovered near Bologna by archaeologists in 1853. The city was settled by the Etruscans and named Velzna, later Felsina. In the 6th century BCE, Felsina was known for its markets and trade. It was invaded by the Gallic Boii tribe in this period, who developed the agricultural output of the region. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 220 BCE and were successful by the 180s BCE; upon their capture of Felsina, it was renamed Bononia. After Rome fell in 476 CE and the region suffered barbarian invasions, Bononia was made a fortress.
The city was owned by Charlemagne but was given to the Holy See in 774. Later, the Holy Roman Empire controlled the city and it became known as Bologna. Bologna became a commune by 1114, but it desired independence and in 1176 it joined the Lombard League, an alliance opposed to the Holy Roman Empire's influence. Emperor Frederick I recognised its desire for independence and granted it some autonomy. It joined the Second Lombard League to defeat Frederick II in 1249. Bologna became part of the Papal States in 1506 and joined the Kingdom of Italy upon Italian unification in the 19th century.
The University of Bologna was founded in 1088; its speciality was Roman and canon law, and it set standards in the way it was organised and the curriculum that was followed by universities in Italy.
The Metropolitan City of Bologna is part of the region of Emilia-Romagna in northwestern Italy. It is in the centre of the region and is bounded on the east by the Province of Ravenna, while the Province of Ferrara lies to the north and the Province of Modena lies to the west. To the south are the Metropolitan City of Florence, the Province of Prato and the Province of Pistoia, all in the region of Tuscany.
The metropolitan territory is largely flat, and stretches from the alluvial Po Plain into the Apennine Mountains; the highest point in the metropolitan city is the peak of Corno alle Scale in the commune of Lizzano in Belvedere, at 1,945 metres (6,381 ft) above sea level.